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PHILADELPHIA 

IN  THE  WORLD  WAR 


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1914.-1919 


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THE 

NEW  YORK  PUBLIC  LIBRARY 


PRESENTED  BY 


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Company 


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PHILADELPHIA 

IN  THE  WORLD  WAR 
1914-1919 


©  Rau  Art  Stxidios,  Inc. 


T^hiladelphia 

in  the 

World  War 


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'Puhlishedjor 
~The  Philadelphia)\5iir History  Committee  , 

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WynkoopHallenbeckCrawfordCo. 

"Trinimg  T/ead<juarters  " 

Troducers  of  WarTfistorus 

80  Lafayette  Street 

C\ewyork^ 


I  PUBLIC   LlBIvARY] 

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Publishers  Note:  We  cannot  let  this  opportunity  pass 
without  taking  occasion  to  express  our  thanks  and  the  very 
great  appreciation  that  we  have  for  the  fine  spirit  of  co- 
operation which  Mr.  John  Frederick  Lewis,  Chairman  of 
the  Philadelphia  War  History  Committee,  has  shown  in 
the  preparation  and  publication  of  this  volume,  which  is  one 
of  such  historical  interest  and  value  as  to  be  handed  down 
through  posterity.  In  this  expression  of  our  appreciation  we 
wish  to  include  also  Mr.  J.  Jarden  Guenther,  Secretary,  and 
the  other  members  of  the  Committee,  whose  whole-hearted 
cooperation  and  sustained  effort  have  made  the  book  possible, 

Wynkoop  Hallenbeck  Crawford  Co. 


Copyright  1922,  by 
Wynkoop  Hallenbeck  Crawford  Co, 


FOREWORD 

Pliiladelphia's  patriotism  and  unswerving  loyalty  to  the 
Nation  were  never  more  plainly  manifested  than  during 
the  World  War.  Her  people  gave  without  stint,  of  their 
time  and  their  means;  many  were  wounded,  and  some, 
alas,  made  the  supreme  sacrifice  at  their  Country's  call. 
It  is  appropriate  that  a  record  of  their  work  shall  be  pre- 
served in  permanent  form  for  widespread  circulation. 
Interest  and  sentiment  ahke  suggest  that  all  information 
concerning  the  activities  of  Philadelphians,  whether  in 
military,  naval,  civil,  industrial  or  linancial  circles  during 
the  war,  shall  be  preserved  for  historical  reasons,  and  as 
an  inspiration  to  future  generations. 

The  Philadelphia  \\  ar  History  Committee,  which  was 
appointed  September  22,  1919,  by  the  Honorable  Thomas 
B.  Smith,  then  Mayor  of  Philadelphia,  and  continued  in 
office  during  my  administration,  has  been  steadily  at  work 
since  its  appointment,  gathering  material  for  a  compre- 
hensive history,  and  while  it  has  not  been  possible  to  bring 
within  the  compass  of  a  single  volume  all  the  details  of  the 
work  of  oiu"  people,  it  is  hoped  that  this  vohune  will  be 
welcomed  by  every  Philadelphian  as  a  worthy  memorial  of 
the  services  of  our  fellow  citizens  during  one  of  the  most 
vital  chapters  in  the  history  of  the  United  States. 

J.  HAMPTON  MOORE, 

Mayor 


CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Philadelphia's  War  Chronology 15 

Mayor  Smith's  Wai-  Committees ...  46 

Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Reserve 55 

Philadelphia  School  Mobilization  Committee 60 

Joint  Councilmanic  Committee 65 

Student  Military  Training  Camps 78 

Philadelphia  Military  Training  Corps 81 

Military  Training  in  Local  Schools  and  Colleges 83 

U.    of    P.;    Drexel;    Hahnemann;    Jefferson;    St.    Joseph's;    Temple 

Pennsylvania  Women's  Di\isi(>n  for  National  Preparedness 90 

Local  Belgian  Relief  Committee 93 

History  of  the  28th  Division 94 

Work  of  the  Draft  Boards  ...                  126 

History   of  the   T'Hli    Division 134 

History  of  Other  Philadelphia  Lnils 154 

American  Field  Service;  414th  Telegraph  Battalion;  19th  Engineers; 
Airmen  of  Philadelphia;  American  Foreign  Legion;  16th  Infantry; 
Women  in  the  Service;  Tank  Corps;  406th  Telegraph  Battalion;  State 
Fencibles;  Pioneer  Infantry  Regiments;  First  Troop,  P.  C.  C;  V.  S. 
A.  A.  S. ;  Military  Intelligence;  Colored  Units;  Baldwin's  Siberian 
Contingent. 

Base  Hospital  Units 201 

No.  10;  No.  20;  No.  34;  No.  38;  Hospital  Unit  A;  Red  Cross  General 
Hospital  No.  1. 

Frankford  and  Schuylkill  Arsenals 231 

Army  Casualty  List 249 

Fourth  Naval  District  Report  and 258 

Philadelphians  in  the  Navy;  Recruiting  for  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.;  Naval 
Intelligence;  Naval  Militia  of  Pennsylvania;  Camouflage  Painting; 
Naval  Base  No.  5;  U.  S.  Naval  Commissary  Schools. 


CONTENTS— Continued 

PAGE 

Naval  Casualty  List 331 

History  of  Philadelphia  Marines 333 

Marine  Casualty  List 342 

Pennsylvania  and  Philadelphia  Councils  of  National  Defense     ....  343 

The  Port  of  Philadelphia 357 

Work  of  U.  S.  Shipping  Board  and  Local  Ship  Yards 361 

Cramps;    Merchant   Shipbuilding   Corp.;   N.    Y.    Shipbuilding   Corp.; 

Sun  Shipbuilding  Co.;  Traylor. 

Manning  the  Merchant  Marine 399 

Philadelphia  Ordnance  District 403 

Some  Wartime  Industries  of  Philadelphia 410 

Alexander  Brothers;  Alteneder;  American  Metal  Works;  American 
Pulley  Co.;  Baldwin;  Bethlehem  Steel  Co.;  Blaisdell  Pencil  Co.; 
J.  G.  Brill  Co.;  E.  G.  Budd;  Ford  Motor  Co.;  Abram  Cox;  Day  and 
Zimmermann,  Inc.;  Heller  and  Brightly;  Janney,  Steinnietz  &  Co.; 
Lupton;  John  Lucas  &  Co.;  Fayette  R.  Plumb,  Inc.;  Jatob  Reed's 
Sons;  Shoemaker  and  Busch;  Smith,  Kline  and  French  Co.;  Summerill 
Tubing  Co.;  J.  S.  Thf)rn  Co.;  John  Wood  Mfg.  Co.;  Tacony  Steel  Co.; 
A.  H.  Fox;  Taylor- Wharton;  Hale  and  Kilburn;  du  Pouts;  Hercules 
Powder  Co.;  Midvale  Steel  Co.;  Niles-Bement-Pond. 

Bell  Telephone  Co.  of  Penna 457 

Board  of  Trade 462 

Chamber  of  Commerce 465 

Commercial  Museums 466 

War  Industries  Board 469 

Some  Federal  Agencies ■      •     474 

Federal  Reserve  Bank;  War  Savings  Division;  Liberty  Loans;  Foreign 
Language  Division;  Four-Minute  Men;  Fuel,  Food  and  Railroad 
(including  B.  &  0.  R.  R.;  P.  R.  R.;  P.  &  R.  Ry.)  Administrations; 
Employment  Service;  American  Railway  Express. 

The  Newspapers'  Pail   in  the  War 515 

The  Pennsylvania  Academy  of  the  Fine  Arts  and  Local  Artists      .      .      .     517 
American  Red  Cross 523 


CONTENTS— Co«/(>n/erf 

PAGE 

Emergency  Aid  of  Pennsylvania 554 

Relief  Activities 588 

American  Friends  Service  Committee;  National  League  for  Woman's 
Service;  Navy  League;  P.  R.  R.  Women's  Division  for  War  Relief; 
Pennsylvania  Society,  Colonial  Dames  of  America;  Women's  Land 
Army;  Women's  Permanent  Emergency  Association  of  Germantown. 

Religious  Activities 620 

Protestant  Churches  and  Organizations. 

Roman  Catholic  Archdiocese. 

Jewish  Congregations  and  Organizations. 

War  Time  Recreational  Work 640 

A.  L.  A.;  Free  Library;  Community  Singing;  Historical  Hikes;  J.  W.  B.; 
K.  of  C;  Benedict  Service  Club;  Salvation  Army;  United  Service 
Club;  W.  C.  C.  S.;  War  Emergency  Unit;  Historical  Society  of  Penn- 
sylvania; Y.  M.  C.  A.;  Y.  W.  C.  A.;  War  Welfare  Council. 

Women's  Clubs 689 

Civic;  New  Century;  Philomusian. 
Men's  Clubs 694 

Aero;  Art:    Engineers;    Markham;   Mercantile;  Penn;   Philadelphia; 

Philadelphia  Country;  Racquet;  Rotary;  University;  Union  League; 

Franklin  Institute. 

University  of  Pennsylvania 711 

Bureau  of  Municipal  Research 713 

North  American  Civic  League  for  Immigrants 714 

Boy  and  Girl  Scouts 716 

British  and  Canadian  Recruiting  Mission 719 

The  Return  of  Troops 725 

Vocational  Training 745 

War  Department's  Work  for  Demobilized  Troops 749 

The  American  Legion 756 

Military  Order  of  Foreign  Wars 758 

Military  Order  of  the  World  War 759 

National  American  War  Mothers 760 

Philadelphia's  Service  Flag 762 


INTRODUCTION 

PHILADELPHIA  is  probably  the  most  native  American  of  all  the  large 
cities  in  the  Lnited  States,  and  is  certainly  second  to  none  in  patriotism. 
Her  loyalty  has  been  shown  upon  every  battlefield  which  has  marked  the 
Nation's  history — in  Mexico,  in  the  Philippines,  in  Cuba,  and  alas,  in  France — 
and  none  the  less  by  those  who,  kept  at  home,  spared  neither  time  nor  treasure 
for  those  who  went  away.  It  is  well  to  record  such  loyalty  and  to  publish  the  same, 
so  that  the  present,  as  well  as  the  future,  may  know  what  was  done  and  may 
again  be  done  by  a  united  people. 

This  book  is  such  a  record.  It  aims  to  be  a  comprehensive  history  of  the  part 
Philadelphia  played  in  the  World  War.  To  publish  everything  her  people  did  is 
manifestly  impossible.  Neither  Municipal,  State  nor  Federal  archives  have 
yet  been  completed,  but  it  is  hoped  that  in  the  following  pages  no  important 
work  has  gone  without  mention,  and  that  at  least  some  credit  has  been  given  to 
all  the  different  activities  in  which  her  people  were  engaged.  Nearly  100,000  of 
her  young  men  and  women  were  in  the  Army  or  Navy,  or  in  some  branch  of  the 
Federal  service  directly  connected  therewith,  and  few  indeed  of  her  400,000  homes 
but  witnessed  some  effort  towards  winning  the  war. 

Philadelphia  was  the  most  congested  war  material  producing  district  in  the 
United  States,  and  the  total  amount  of  her  output  and  its  varied  character  are 
extraordinary.  Her  ships,  her  locomotives  and  her  trucks,  her  guns,  rifles  and 
shells,  her  medicines  and  chemicals,  and  her  military  and  naval  supplies  of  all 
kinds,  were  produced  in  enormous  quantities,  with  amazing  speed,  and  promptly 
sent  wherever  needed. 

From  the  day  Archduke  Ferdinand  of  Austria  was  assassinated,  June  28, 
1014,  the  work  of  the  mum'cipality  and  her  citizens  began,  preparedness  merely, 
but  none  the  less  earnest  work  against  possible  eventualities.  The  War  Chronology 
prepared  by  Mr.  Clark  and  published  herewith  will  give  at  a  glance  the  gradual 
sequence  with  which  the  road  to  war  was  marked. 

On  March  20,  1917,  the  Mayor  appointed  a  Home  Defense  Committee, 
and  from  that  time  until  February  4,  1921,  when  the  last  of  122  ships  were  deliv- 
ered by  the  American  International  Shipbuilding  Corporation  from  the  plant  at 
Hog  Island,  the  city's  activities  never  ceased.  When  President  Wilson,  on  April 
6,  1917,  declared  a  state  of  war  with  Germany  to  exist,  instant  support  was  offered 
the  Government.  While  the  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee  was  still 
in  session,  the  Mayor  wired  the  President  pledging  the  ungrudging  support  of 
all  the  men  and  women  of  Philadelphia  and  all  the  City's  resources  to  maintain 
the  honor  and  dignity  of  the  Nation  and  to  protect  the  lives  and  property  of 
Americans  on  land  and  sea,  and  this  pledge  was  carried  out  to  the  letter. 

The  work  of  the  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee  was  afterwards 
largely  taken  over  by  the  Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Public  Safety  when  a  Phila- 
delphia Branch  was  appointed  for  the  Council  of  National  Defense,  and  after 
the  termination  of  hostilities,  when  the  work  of  the  Philadelphia  Council  was 
completed,  its  Chairman,  Judge  Martin,  suggested  that  the  historical  research 


which  it  had  conducted  should  be  continued  by  the  appointment  of  a  Philadelphia 
War  History  Committee.  The  Council  had  collected  a  large  number  of  photo- 
graphs showing  the  war-time  activities  in  Philadelphia,  and  had  commenced 
the  work  of  securing  the  war  records  of  Philadelphia  men  and  women  in  service. 
A  house  to  house  canvass  had  been  made  by  the  Police  Department,  and  some 
55,000  records  obtained,  but  much  remained  to  be  done.  The  suggestion  of  Judge 
Martin  was  accepted  and  a  Committee  appointed  which  organized  as  follows: 
John  Frederick  Lewis,  Chairman;  J.  Jarden  Guenther,  Secretary;  Mrs.  J.  Willis 
Martin,  Mrs.  Barclay  H.  Warburton,  Franz  Ehrlich,  Jr.,  James  E.  Lennon,  Dr. 
Edward  B.  Gleason,  John  A'.  Loughney  and  Howard  Wayne  Smith.  This  Com- 
mittee received  a  small  balance  of  an  appropriation  which  had  been  made  by 
City  Councils  to  the  Philadelphia  Council  of  National  Defense,  subsequently 
followed  by  a  small  appropriation  for  clerical  and  stenographic  service,  and  with 
these  funds  and  the  assistance  of  the  Women's  Committee  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Council  of  National  Defense,  all  the  material  in  this  book  has  been  gotten  together 
for  publication. 

To  J.  Jarden  Guenther,  the  Secretary  of  the  Committee,  acknowledgment 
is  made  for  faithful  and  skilful  service,  but  the  printing  and  publication  of  the 
book  are  due  entirely  to  the  public  spirit  and  enterprise  of  the  Wynkoop  Hallenbeck 
Crawford  Company  of  New  York,  which  has  made  an  enviable  record  issuing  war 
histories. 

John  Frederick  Lewis. 


PHILADELPHIA'S  WAR  CHROXOLOGY 


By  William  Bell  Clark 


^^Z|HILADELPHIA'S  varied  part  in  the  World  War  from 
June.  1911,  to  the  beginning  of  1921,  is  here  arranged  in 
chronological  order.  The  dates  of  the  great  national  or 
international  events  of  the  same  period  are  shown  in  italics 
and  form  a  basis  of  correlation  with  the  local  happenings. 
In  no  sense  is  this  a  complete  chronology  of  the  city 
in  the  war.  To  attempt  to  tell  everything  that  happened, 
even  through  the  medium  of  a  sentence  apiece,  would  re- 
quire more  space  than  this  entire  volume.  Hence,  only 
the  more  important  events  are  set  forth.  For  illustration : 
the  histories  of  the  national  guard  units  or  the  drafted  men  are  not  attempted 
after  the  departure  from  the  city.  Those  desirous  of  following  them  can  do  so 
elsewhere  in  this  volume. 

In  arranging  the  chronology,  the  files  of  the  local  newspapers  were  used  and 
the  compiler  sought  to  refrain  from  interpolating  anything  which,  censured  during 
the  war  period,  has  been  made  public  since.  For  this  reason  there  will  be  found 
little  regarding  what  happened  at  the  Navy  Yard  after  April,  1916.  The  work  of 
the  Yard  remained  a  closed  book  to  the  public  until  the  war  ended. 

Questions  of  space  made  it  imperative  not  to  attempt  to  recount  every  draft 
call  from  the  city;  every  launching  at  the  numerous  shipyards;  every  meeting  or 
rally  of  the  loan  and  other  campaigns,  etc.  The  principal  dates  are  given  through- 
out in  the  cases  of  the  loans — opening,  closing,  subscriptions— and  one  or  two 
important  incidents. 

The  war  period,  particularly  the  year  1918,  was  filled  with  propaganda.  At 
times  it  required  a  nice  distinction  to  ascertain  just  what  was  news  and  what 
represented  press  agenting  of  war  activities.  This  was  particularly  true  in  the 
recruiting  campaigns  and  the  many  activities  under  the  Food  and  Fuel  Adminis- 
trations and  various  branches  of  the  Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Public  Safety 
and  Council  of  National  Defense. 

Undoubtedly  there  will  be  many  who  may  feel  that  their  own  activities 
have  been  slighted  or  overlooked.  To  them  it  can  only  be  said  that  space 
was  at  a  premium  and  all  that  could  be  crowded  into  that  space  appears  in 
the  chronology. 

15 


1914 
June       28 — Archduke   Francis   Ferdinaml.   of  Austria-Hungary,   and   his    wife,   assassinated   in 

Serajevo. 
July         6 — Pennsylvania  Naval  INIilitia  (Philadelphia  Battalion),  sails  for  two  weeks'  practise 

cruise  on  U.  S.  S.  Rhode  Island. 
July         9 — First  annual  German  Day,  held  at  Lemon  Hill,  by  Gemian-American  societies  of 

the  city. 
July       20 — U.  S.  Destroyer  O'Brien  launched  at  Cramps. 
July       23 — Austria-Hungarian  ultimatum  delivered  to  Serbia. 

German   S.   S.   Prinz  Adalbert  sails  with   Philadelphia   passenger,   Dr.   Maximilian 
Roedmann;  ship  subsequently  put  into  Falmouth,  England,  and  is  seized  as  prize. 
July       25 — Austro-Hungary  receives  and  rejects  Serl>ia's  reply  to  the  ultimatum, 
July       26 — .Austria-Hungary  and  Russia  begin  mobilization. 
July        28 — Austria-Hungary  declares  war  against  Serbia, 

Paris  Bourse  closed. 
July        29 — Russia  completes  mobilization  in  districts  of  Odessa,  Kiev,  Moscow  and  Kazan. 

Austro-Hungarian   Consulate   at   8th   and   Spruce   streets   besieged    by    reservists 
awaiting  call  to  arms. 
July       30 — Russia  orders  complete  mobilizalion  in  all  districts. 

Philadelphia  Stock  Market  feels  first  elfects  of  war  alarms. 
July       31 — Germany  sends  Russia  ullimatuni  to  stop  every  war  measure  within  twelve  hours. 
London  .Stock  Exchange  closed. 
Philadelphia  Stock  Exchange  closed. 

Cancelation  of  sailing  orders  for  German  hner  Imperalor  temporarily  maroons  a 
number  of  Philadelphians  in  Hamburg,  including  Morris  L.  Clothier,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  George  W.  Kendrick,  3d,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  J.  Tily. 
.\ug.         1 — France  orders  mobilizalion. 

Germany  declares  war  against  Russia. 

Austro-Hungarian  Consulate  receives  Imperial  order  calling  home  every  Austrian 

and  Hungarian,  between  21  and  33. 
American  liner  Merion  sails  from  Philadelphia  with  150  passengers. 
Thirty  million  in  gold  transferred  from  local  U.  S.  Mint  to  Sub-Treasury,  New  York. 
Aug.         2 — Germany  demands  free  passage  for  her  troops  across  Belgium. 
Aug.         3 — Germany  declares  war  against  France. 

Germany  serves  ultimatum  on  Belgium  and  violates  hitler's  border. 

France  declares  war  on  Germany. 

Philadelphia  Clearing  House  decides  to  issue  certificates  to  protect  gold  supply 

from  depletion  by  European  demands. 
Newspapers  begin  to  list  hundreds  of  local  tourists  caught  in  the  war  zone. 
Aug.         -1 — Great  Britain  serves  ultimatum  on  Germany  regarding  violation  of  Belgian  neutrality- 
German  armies  begin  attack  on  Liege  forts. 
Germany  declares  war  on  Belgium. 
President  Wilson  issues  Neutrality  Proclamation. 

North   German   Lloyd  liner  Kronprincessin   Cecilie,   after  vainly   trying  to  make 
German  port  with  $10,600,000  in  gold,  runs  into  Bar  Harbor,  Me.,  the  local  pas- 
sengers on  board  including  Morris  L.  Cooke,  Dr.  Francis  X.  Dercum,  Robert 
Glendiiming,  Mr.  £md  Mrs.  Joseph  B.  McCall,  Joseph  B.  McCall,  Jr.,  and  Miss 
Leonore  McCall. 
British  Consulate  instructed  to  inform  British  ships  not  to  enter  German  ports. 
Fifty  French  reservists  leave  loccd  consulate  for  New  York. 
Aug.         5 — Great  Britain  declares  war  against  Germany. 

North  German  Lloyd  liner  Bradenburg  reaches  port  after    pursuit   off   Delaware; 

left  Bremen,  July  23d  with  387  passengers. 
Hamburg-American  liner  Prinz  Oskar  arrives  in  Delaware. 
Aug.         6 — Austria-Hungary  declares  war  against  Russia, 
Serbia  declares  war  against  Germany, 
Philadelphia  Sub-Treasury  accepts  deposits  for  Americans  marooned  abroad. 

16 


Aug.         6 — Maureiania  reaches  Halifax  with  the  Philadelphians  who  had  been  delayed  in  Ham- 
burg when  Imperator  failed  to  sail. 
Aug.         7 — Italian  liner  Ancona  arrives  at  Philadelphia. 

First  Brigade,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  leaves  for  two  weeks'  training  at 

Mt.  Gretna. 
Aug.         8 — Montenegro  declares  war  ayainsl  Aaslria-Hunoary. 
Aug.         9 — Auslria-Hungary  declares  war  against  Montenegro. 

Montenegro  declares  ivar  against  Germany. 
Aug.       10 — German  warships  "Goehen"  and  "Breslaa"  enter  the  Dardanelles. 

American  liner  Haverford  arrives  from  Liverpool  with  555  passengers  wlio  hiiil  l)(>en 

kept  in  ignorance  of  war  declarations. 
Italian  liner  Ancona  sails  with  800  passengers,  mostly  reservists. 
Aug.       13 — France  and  Great  Britain  declare  war  against  .Austria-Hungary. 
Aug.       14 — First  Britisli  Expeditionary  Force  begins  to  arrive  in  France. 
Aug.       15 — Haverford  sails  for  Liverpool  with  seventy-three  passengers. 
Aug.       17 — Last  Liege  forts  fall. 
Aug.       18 — Charles  J.  Hexamer,  president  of  National  German  AUiance,  issues  appeal  lo  keep 

Japan  out  of  the  war  and  save  the  Pacific  from  Japanese  domination. 
Aug.       19 — U.  S.  Destroyer  Nicholson  launched  at  Cramps. 
Aug.       22 — North   German   Lloyd  liner   Bradenburg  sails  with  heavy  cargo  of  coal.      (Note: 

The  Bradenburg  eluded  the  Allied  blockade,  coaled  a  German  raider,  and  reached 

Norway  in  safety.) 
Aug.       23 — Japan  declares  war  against  Germany. 
Belgian  forts  at  Namar  fall. 

Serbia  defeats  .Austro-Hungarian  invaders  at  .ladar. 
Aug.       21 — British  forced  back  at  Mons. 
Aug.       26 — British  defeated  at  La  Cateau. 
Aug.       27 — .Austria-Hungary  declares  war  against  .Japan. 

Paul  Hageraans,  Belgian  Consul-General,  denounces  Iionibing  of  defenseless  cities 

by  Zeppelins. 
Aug.       28 — Austria-Hungary  declares  war  against  Belgium. 

British  light  cruisers  defeat  Germans  at  Helgoland  Bight. 
Aug.       30 — Russian  army  annihilated  at  Tannenburg. 

Sept.        1 — American  liner  Merion  reaches  Philadelphia  with  408  passengers. 
Sept.        3 — Twelve   Philadelphia  nurses,   headed  by   Miss   Margaret   Lehman,   leave  for   Red 

Cross  work  in  Europe. 
Sept.        5 — The  Battle  of  the  Marne  opens. 

Merion  sails  for  Liverpool  with  forty-eight  passengers. 
Sept.        9 — German  armies  retreat  toward  the  Aisne. 
Sept.      11 — German  and  Austro-Hungarian  Consuls  devise  plan  to  give  Central   iMupirc  war 

news  jointly. 
Sept.      13 — Battle  of  the  .Aisne  opens. 
Sept.      11 — Italian  finer  .Ancona  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  111  passengers. 

Haverford,  American  Line,  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  158  passengers. 
Sept.      19 — Knights  Templar  of  First  (Pennsylvania)  Division,  at  fourteenth  Annual  Field  Day 

on  Belmont  Plateau,  pray  for  restoration  of  peace  in  Europe. 
Sept.      20 — First  Belgian  Mission  to  the  United  States,  headed  by  M.  II.  Carton  de  W  iart. 

Minister  of  Justice,  visits  Philadelphia. 
Sept.      21 — Secretary  of  the  Navy  Daniels  present  at  Philadelphia  Navy   Yard,  for  opening 

of  work  on  new  .?200,000  shipway. 
Sept.      22 — British  cruisers  ".Aboukir,"  "Hague"  and  "Cressy"  torpedoed  and  sunk  by  U-9. 
Sept.      30 — Battle  of  the  Aisne  ends  in  a  draw. 
Oct.  5 — American  finer  Merion  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  418  passengers. 

Citizens'    Permanent    Refief    Conmiittee,    Mayor    Blankenburg,   Chairman,   issues 

appeal  for  money  for  war  sufferers  to  be  expended  by  Red  Cross. 
Oct.  9 — Antwerp  falls  lo  the  Germans. 

17 


Oct.        12 — Mrs.  Edward  S.  Sayres  organizes  Local  Belgian  Relief  Committee. 

Oct.        14 — Belgian   Consul   General   Hagemans   makes   appeal   in    connection   with    the    visit 

of  Mme.  Emile  Van  der  Velde,  wife  of  the  Belgian  Minister  of  State. 
Oct.        19 — American  liner  Ilaverford  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  128  passengers. 
Oct.        20 — Committee  of  Mercy,  forerunner  of  Emergency  Aid  of  Pennsylvania,   formed  at 

meeting  at  home  of  Mrs.  Eli  Kirk  Price,  1709  Walnut  Street. 
Oct.        22 — Child  Federation  opens  booth  in   City   Hall    courtyard    for    Christmas    gifts     for 

orphaned  little  ones  of  Europe. 
Oct.        28 — Germans  open  attack  on  Ypres  front  in  race  for  Cliannel  ports. 
Oct.        30 — Emergency  Aid  Committee  of  Pennsylvania  formed,  and  headquarters   opened   at 

1428  Walnut  Street. 
Nov.         1 — Cradock'i  Britisti  fleet  dispersed  and  partly  destroyed  by  Von  Spec's  German  Squadron 

off  Coronet,  Ctiili. 
Nov.        3 — Russia  declares  war  against  Turkey. 

Great  Britain  declares  the  North  Sea  a  "military  area"  and  restricts  neutral  shipping 
Martin  G.  Brumbaugh  elected  Governor  of  Pennsylvania. 
Nov.        4 — Emergency  Aid  Committee  sends  first  consignment  of  16  cases  for  European  relief. 
Nov.        .5 — Great  Britain  and  France  declare  war  against  Turkey. 
Nov.        7 — Japan  captures  German  Chinese  concession  at  Tsinlau. 

John  Wanamaker  charters  Norwegian  S.  S.  Thelma,  as  Belgian  food  ship,  and  Com- 
mittee of  Publishers  is  formed  to  raise  money  to  stock  same. 
Nov.        9 — Crcrman   commerce   destroyer    "Emden"    sunk    by    Australian    cruiser    "Sydney"    off 

South  Keeling  Island. 
Nov.       12 — German  attack  on  Ypres  frord  ends. 

Belgian  relief  ship  Thelma  sails  with  1,700  tons  of  food. 
Nov.      23 — Turkey  declares  war  against  the  Entente. 

Nov.      25 — Second  foodship,  the  Orn,  sails  for  Beligum  with  2,000  tons  of  food. 
Nov.      27 — British  super-dreadnaught  "Audacious"  sunk  by  mine  off  north  coast  of  Ireland. 
Foodship  Thelma  reaches  Falmouth,  England. 


Mayor  Hlnnkenhurg  and  (Committee  speeding  the  Relief  Shij)  "Orn" 

18 


., 


Nov.      28 — Emergency  Aid  Committee  takes  over  basement  of  Lincoln  Building  for  five  depart- 
ments. 
Nov.      29 — Food  ship   Thelma  leaves  Falmouth. 
Dec.         2 — Serbia  declares  war  against  Turkey. 

$198,891.06   and   $60,000  worth  of  food   raised   in   Philadelphia   and   surrounding 

towns  for  Thelma  and  Orn,  according  to  report  of  Publishers'  Committee. 
Dec.         5 — Foodship  Thelma  reaches  Rotterdam. 

British  S.  S.  Batiscan,  with  6,700  tons  of  wheat  and  grain,  sails  from  Philadelphia 

under  auspices  of  American  Commission  for  ReUef  in  Belgium. 
Dec.         8 — Von.  Spec's  German  Squadron  destroyed  by  Sturdee's  British  fleet  off  Falkland  Islands. 
Dec.       10 — Councils   appropriate   $50,000  for  relief  of  the  city's  destitute;  fund  administered 

jointly  with  Emergency  Aid. 
Dec.       14 — Emergency  Aid's  three  day  "Made  in  America  Bazaar,"  opens  in  Horticultural  Hall, 

Broad  Street,  below  Locust  Street. 
Dec.  19 — Food  ship  Orn  arrives  at  Rotterdam. 
Dec.       25 — British  S.  S.  Ferrona,  with  256,005  bushel"  of  wheat,  sails  from  Philadelphia  under 

auspices  of  American  Commission  for  Relief  of  Belgium. 
Dec.       26 — American   Government  protests   against   Great   Britain's   "military   area"    order    and 

irregularities  of  such  a  blockade. 
Dec.       30 — British  S.  S.  Industry,  with  5,000  tons  of  foodstulTs,  including  $57,000  worth  pur- 
chased by  Philadelphia  Belgian  Rehef  Committee,  sails  from  Philadelphia  under 

auspices  of  American  Commission  for  Relief  of  Relgium. 
1915 
Jan.  7 — Great  Britain's  reply  to  American  protest  declares  that  increased  American  trade  ivith 

neutrals  implies  additional  contraband  goods  destined  for  Germany. 
Hebrews  at  meeting  in  Mercantile  Hall  inaugurate  $100,000   campaign   for   relief 

of  starving  Jews  in  war  zone. 
Jan.  8 — Battle  of  Soissons  opens. 

Jan.        11 — "Made  in  America  Razaar"  profits  announced  as  $50,301.10. 
Jan.        15 — Battle  of  Soissons  ends. 
Jan.        19 — Governor  Rrumbaugh  inaugurated. 

Jan.        24 — German  cruiser  "Btucher"  sunk  in  sea-fight  on  Dogger  Bank. 
Feb.         4 — Germany  proclaims  a  "war  zone"  around  the  British  Isles. 
Feb.         9 — American  Uner  Haverford  arrives  with  seventy  passengers. 
Feb.       10 — Great  Britain  amplifies  reply  of  January  7th. 

American  note  protests  German  "war  zone"  order. 
Feb.       12 — "Self-Sacrifice  Day,"  for  poor  of  city,  held  under  auspices  of  Emergency  Aid    to 

raise  $100,000.     (Fund  completed  in  ten  days.) 
Feb.       18 — German  "war  zone"  order  becomes  effective. 
Feb.       20 — .American  note,  identical  to  Great  Britain  and  Germany,  suggests  compromise  to  make 

situation  of  neutrals  more  tolerable. 
March     5 — Philadelphia    Committee    on    American    Ambulance    Hospital,    at    Paris,    reports 

$23,222.73  raised  for  establishment  of  Philadelphia  ward. 
March   10 — German  commerce  raider  "Prmz  Eitel  Friedrich"  enters  Newport  News.     (Subsequently 

interned.) 
Battle  of  Neuve  Cliapelle  opens. 
March   12 — British  abandon  attack  at  Neuve  Chapelle. 
March  22 — Austrian  fortress  at  Przemysl  {Galicia)  falls  to  Russians. 
March   28 — British  S.   S.   "Falaba"  sunk  by  submarine   in  St.  George's  Channel:  one  American 

life  lost. 
AprU      11 — German  commerce  raider  "Kronprinz  Wilhelm"  enters  Newport  News.     (Subsequently 

interned.) 
April      22 — Germans  first  use  gas  in  second  Battle  of  Ypres. 
April      24 — British  Expeditionary  Force  lands  at  Gallipoli  (Dardanelles). 
April      27 — Itahan  liner  Ancona  arrives  with  444  passengers. 
April      28 — German  aeroplane  drops  three  bombs  on  American  S.  S.  "Gushing." 

19 


April      29 — -Home  of  Dr.  Pasquale  Gorgas,  physician  to  Italian  Consulate,  bombed  because  be 

refused  to  give  sick  certificates  to  reservists  to  avoid  war  service. 
May         1 — Germany    begins   offensive    on    entire   Russian  front.     American   tanker   "Gulftt/jhl" 

torpedoed,  eleven  killed. 
May         7 — Canard  liner  "Lusitania"  torpedoed  and  sunk  off  Old  Head  of  Kinsale.  south  of  Ireland; 
1J5,1  lost,  including  188  Americans. 
Philadelphians  lost  on  Lusitania:  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Crompton  with  six  children 

and  governess.  Miss  Dorothy  Allen,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  J.  Kesser,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 

William  S.  Hodges  and  two  sons,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  H.  Robinson,  Mr.  and 

Mrs.  E.  Booth  Jones  and  two  children,  David  Todd  and  George  Nicoll. 
Philadelphians  saved  on  Lusitania:  Samuel  M.  Knox,  Herman  A.  Meyers,  Thomas 

J.  Williams. 
May         9 — Battle  of  Artois  begins. 
May       10 — President  Wilson  makes  "Too  Proud  to  Fight"  speech  at  Convention  Hall  to  4,000 

newly  naturalized  citizens. 
May       13 — America  sends  first  "Lusitania"  note. 
May       18 — Street  sale  of  Pohsh  flags  marks  Polish  Flag  Day  observance,  under  auspices  of 

Polish  Committee  of  Emergency  Aid. 
"Peace  Day"  observed  in  city  schools. 

Charles  P.  WeLkel  is  first  Pbiladelphian  to  enroll  in  newly  created  Naval  Reserve. 
May       19 — Portugal  declares  war  against  Germany. 

Battle  of  Artois  ends. 
May       21 — Italy  and  San  Marino  declare  war  against  .iustria-Hungary. 

May       31 — German  reply  on  "Lusitania"  justifies  attack  on  contention  that  vessel  was  semi-military. 
June         2 — American  liner  Dominion  arrives  with  114  passengers  from  Liverpool  and  Queens- 
town;  one  dies  of  fright  during  submarine  scare. 
June         8 — Secretary  of  Stale  Bryan  resigns  on  eve  of  second  American  note  on  "Lusitania." 
June       12 — Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  announce  receipt  of  order  in  amount  of  $6,000,000 

for  250  locomotives  for  Russia. 
June       14 — Italian  liner  .Ancona  leaves  for  Italy  with  400  reservists. 
July         9 — First  Brigade,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  leaves  for  Mt.   Gretna,  for  two 

weeks'  encampment. 
July       10 — German  reply  to  second  "Lusitania"  note  makes  no  disavowal. 
July        14 — French  War  Relief  Committee  of  Emergency  Aid  observes  fiastile  Day,  and  makes 

plea  for  relief  contributions. 
French  residents  observe  Bastile  Day  at  Central  Park. 
July       19 — Eddystone  Munitions  Corporation,  incorporated  by  Baldwin  Locomotive  Company 

to  handle  munitions  orders  amounting  to  $81,200,000. 
July       21 — Third  American  note  on  "Lusitania"  declares  German  reply  "very  unsatisfactory." 
July       22 — Itahan  liner  .Ancona  sails  for  Italy  with  300  reservists. 

Philadelphia   Branch  of  National   Security   League  holds  conference  on  national 

defense  at  Racquet  Club,  John  Wanamaker  advocating  nation  pledge  its  resources 

in  the  sum  of  $100,000,000,  to  redeem  Belgium  and  restore  peace  in  Europe. 
July       28 — Itahan  Consulate  issues  final  call  to  arms,  more  than  3,000  reservists  having  already 

responded,  but  2.5,000  estimated  in  district  embracing  all  of  Pennsylvania  and 

West  Virginia. 
July       29 — Members  of  Atlantic  Deeper  Waterways  Association,  after  inspecting  defenses  of 

Delaware,  declare  them  inadequate. 
Aug.         5 — Warsaw  (Poland)  captured  by  Germans. 

City  Solicitor  Michael  J.  Ryan,  in  requested  opinion,  holds  that  reservists  who  leave 

city  and  desert  dependents,  should  be  arrested. 
Aug.         9 — Many  Philadelphians  leave  city  to  attend  four  weeks'  military  training  camp  at 

Plattsburg,  N.  Y. 
Aug.       17 — American  liner  Dominion  arrives  and  crew  describe  how  American  liner  Merion, 

camouflaged  as  a  super-dreadnaught,  was  sunk  by  German  submarines  under 

that  impression  at  the  Dardanelles. 

20 


\ug.       18 — Emergency  Aid  forms  Italian  Relief  Committee. 

British  liner  "Arabic"  sank  off  Ireland,  forty-four  passengers,  including  two  Americans, 

lost. 
Aug.       21 — Italy  declares  war  against  Turkey. 
Aug.       28 — Provisional  battalion  of   I?,")   men  of  Second   Infantry   leave  for   Panama-Pacific 

Exposition. 
Sept.         t — State  Fencibles  open  three-day  training  camp  at  Broomall.  Delaware  County. 
Sept.        6— Constatter    Volksvest    Verein,   at  Central   Park,   opens  for  three-day  celebration, 

funds  to  go  to  German  war  sufferers. 
Sept.        8— Many  Philadelphians  attend  second  Plattsburg  training  camp. 
Sept.      10 — President  Wilson  requests  Austria-Hungary  to  recall  Ambassador  Conslantin  Theodor 

Dumba. 
Sept,      17— Baldwin's  receive  contract  for   British  high  explosive  shells,   said   to    amount   to 

$40,000,000. 
Sept.      18— Colonel  Fred  Taylor  Camp,   Sons  of  Veterans,   observe  "Preparedness  Day,"   in 

Kensington. 
Sept.      20 — Italians  forego  usual  parade,  celebrating  King  Victor  Emmanuel's  triumphal  entry 

into  Rome  forty-five  years  previous,  and  donate  funds  insteatl   to  Italian  war 

relief  work. 
Sept.      2.5 — British  and  French  offensives  at  Loos  and  in  Champagne  open. 
Oct.  6 — Ij}OS  and  Champagne  fighting  ends. 

German  and  Auslro-llungarian  invasion  of  Serbia  begins. 
Oct.        12 — Emergency  Aid  opens  free  employment  bureau  at  1519  Arch  Street. 
Oct.        11 — Bulgaria  declares  war  against  Serbia. 
Oct.        15 — Great  Britain  and  Serbia  declare  imr  against  Bulgaria. 
Oct.        16 — France  declares  ivar  against  Bulgaria. 
Oct.        19 — Italy  and  Bussia  declare  war  against  Bulgaria. 

Oct.        22 — Drexel  Biddle  Bible  Class  opens  six  weeks'  miUtary  instruction  camp  at  Landsdowne. 
Oct.        25 — Emergency  Aid's  report  of  first  year's  work  shows  14,119  home  relief  cases  worked 

upon;  temporary  positions  secured  for  5,408  women  and  2,016  men,  and  permanent 

positions  secured  for  2,088  women  and  2,755  men. 
Nov.         1— Government  seeks  sixty-three  Philadelphians  who  failed  to  return  passage  money 

loaned  them  when  caught  in  Europe,  at  outbreak  of  the  war. 
Nov.        2 — Thomas  B.  Smith  elected  mayor  of  Philadelphia. 
Nov.        5 — American  note  to  Great  Britain  protests  irregularities  of  Allied  blockade. 

France  declares  war  against  Turkey. 
Nov.        7 — Italian  liner  "Ancona"  sunk  by  submarine  in  Mediterranean;  nine  American  passengers 

lost. 
Nov.       10 — News  of  the  sinking  of  the  .Ancona  results  in  furious  denunciations  in  Italian  colony. 
Nov.       11— Madame  Paderewski,  wife  of  the  pianist  and  Polish  patriot,  sells  "Polish  Refugee 

Dolls"  at  the  Bellevue-Stratford. 
Nov.      23— Philadelphia   Conmiittee  on   American  Ambulance   Hospital,   Paris,   sends   second 

$15,000  for  Philadelphia  ward. 
Nov.      29 — Emergency  Aid  opens   week's  "Rummage  Sale"   at  war  relief  shop,   in   Widener 

Building. 
Dec.         i— Henry  Ford's  "Out  of  the  Trenches  by  Christmas"  Peace  Parly  sails  for  Europe. 
Dec.         6 — .American   note  to  .Austria- Hungary  denounces  sinking  of  ".Ancona."   and  demands 

punishment  of  U-boat  captain  and  reparation. 
Dec.       13 — Owen   Wister,   novelist,   appointed   to   publicity   committee  of  American   Defense 

Society. 
Steps  taken  to  form  Pennsylvania  branch  of  Navy  League. 
Dec.       14 — Women  meet  at  home  of  Mrs.  George  W.  Childs  Drexel  and  form  Pennsylvania 

Women's  Division  for  National  Preparedness. 
Dec.       19 — American  second  note  to  Austria-Hungary  renews  "Ancona"  demands. 
Dec.       21 — Security  League  holds  mass  meeting  in  Academy  of  Music,  with  James  M.  Beck 

and  E.  Alexander  Powell  as  chief  speakers,  and  inaugurates  campaign  for  100,000 

members  in  fifteen  days. 

21 


Dec.       24 — Remnant  of  Serbian  Army  escapes  invaders  and  reaches  Adriatic  shore. 
Dec.       29 — Austria-Hungary  yields  to  American  demands  on  "Ancona." 

1916 
Jan.  2 — British  S.  S.  "Persic"  sunk  in  Mediterranean;  American  Consul  lost. 

Jem.  8 — British  complete  withdratval  from  Gallipoli  (Dardanelles). 

Jan.        13 — Major-General  Leonard  Wood  addresses  Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for  National 

Preparedness,  in  Garrick  Theater. 
Jan.        17 — Polish  Relief  Committee  of  Emergency  Aid,  holds  mass  meeting  at  Moose  Hall, 

Miss  Henrietta  Ely,  of  Rockefeller  Relief  Commission  to  Poland,  being  the  speaker. 
Jan.        18 — American  note  to  Allies,  in  urging  disarmament  of  merchantmen,  contends  that  such 

armament  constitutes  an  auxiliary  cruiser. 
Jan.        19 — National  Americanization  Cormnittee  begins  two-day   conference  with  meeting  at 

Stotesbury  home. 
Jan.        20 — Theodore  Roosevelt,   in  address  before   National  Americanization   Committee,   in 

Metropolitan  Opera  House,  condemns  hyphenated  citizens  and  urges  small,  efficient 

standing  army,  susceptible  to  trained  reinforcements. 
Jan.        22 — Emergency  Aid  report  shows  that  $543,177  has  been  expended  in  war  reUef  work 

since  inception. 
Jan.        24 — Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for  National  Preparedness  opens  week's  campaign 

to  enroll  women  in  well-defined  program  for  war  or  calamity  work;  recruiting 

station  estabhshed  in  W'idener  Building. 
Jan.        25 — Twenty-five   young   women    canvassers   begin   drive   for   membership   in   Security 

League. 
Jan.       27 — Philadelphia  General  Relief  Committee  (Hebrew),  begins  campaign  to  raise  $50,000 

for  Jewish  war  victims  by  a  "tag  day." 
Jan.       31 — Jewish  citizens,  at  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  pledge  $200,000  in  three  hours  for 

Jewish  war  victims. 
Pennsylvania  Division  of  Navy  League  appoints  committees  and  prepares  for  mem- 
bership campaign  with  Alexander  Van  Rensselaer  as  Chairman. 
Feb.         1 — British  South  African  liner  "Appam"  arrives  at  Newport  News  under  German  prize 

crew,  tiaving  been  taken  at  sea  January  i5th  by  German  commerce  raider  "Moewe." 
Feb.         8 — Drexel  Riddle  Rible  Class  plans  reserve  regiments  in  every  ward  in  city  to  be  known 

as  Drexel  Riddle  Mihtary  Corps. 
Feb.       10 — Secretary  of  War  Garrison  resigns  as  protest  against  American  military  program. 

German   and  Austria-Hungarian  Ambassadors   announce   that  after,   February  29th, 

all  armed  merchant  vessels  will  be  treated  as  auxiliary  cruisers. 
Feb.       15 — American  note  to  belligerents  says  this  country  urges  no  changes  in  existing  rules  of 

warfare. 
Feb.       21 — Germans  begin  attack  on  Verdun. 

Pohsh  law  and  medical  students  hold  ball  in  Lithuanian  Hall  for  PoUsh  weu-  sufferers. 
Feb.       28 — First  American  presentation  of  Pohsh  Opera  "Verbum  NobUe,"  given  at  Metro- 

pohtan  Opera  House,  under  auspices  of  PoUsh  Rehef  Committee  of  Emergency 

Aid. 
March     9 — Portugal  commandeers  forty  German  and  Austrian  vessels  in  its  ports  and  Germany 

declares  war  as  a  result. 
Pancho  Villa  and  band  of  Mexican  outlaws  raid  Columbus,  N.  M. 
March   11 — Major-General  Leonard  Wood  addresses  Princeton  Club  of  Philadelphia,  on  pre- 
paredness. 
A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle,  by  telegram,  offers  Drexel  Biddle  Military  Corps  to  nation  in 

case  of  war  with  Mexico. 
March    15 — Austria-Hungary  declares  war  on  Portugal. 
March   18 — Secretary  Tumulty,  for  President  Wilson,  and  Adjutant-General  G.  W.  Read,  for 

War  Department,  acknowledge  Drexel  Riddle  Military  Corps  offer. 
March  23 — Third  payment  of  $15,000,  made  by  Philadelphia  Committee  of  American  Ambulance 

Hospital,  Paris. 
March   24 — British  S.  S.  "Sussex"  sank  in  English  Channel;  iwenly-five  American  passengers  on 

board  saved. 

22 


March  31 — Navy  League  begins  enrolling  civilians  for  volunteer  naval  service;  headquarters 
at  Racquet  Club. 

April        1 — Navy  League  secures  1,000  civilian  volunteers  in  first  day. 

April      11 — Chairmen  of  stale  branches  of  Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for  National  Pre- 
paredness, meet  here  to  plan  extension  of  work. 

April      17 — Company  A,  Philadelphia  Reserves,  Navy  League,  drills  at  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard. 

April      18 — American  note  on  sinking  liner  "Sussex"  without  warning,  sent  to  Germany. 

April      24 — Southeastern  Chapter,  American  Red  Cross,  formed  a  campaign  for  50,000  members, 
launched  with  exhibit  in  Widener  Building. 
German  Bazaar  opens  for  week  at  Convention  Hall,  Broad  Street  and  Alleghany 
Avenue,  under  German  Red  Cross  and  German  Relief  Society. 

April      26 — Campaign  opens  to  raise  $500,000  in  ten  days  to  equip  citizens'  array  of  48,000  men 
as  part  of  Drexel  Biddle  Mihtary  Corps;  banquet  at  Hotel  Adelphia,  with  General 
Leonard  Wood  as  chief  speaker. 
General   Townsend  and  British  force  surrender  at  Kut-el-Amara   {Mesopotamia),   to 
Turks. 

May         2 — Twenty-three  Philadelphians  leave  on  Navy  League  practise  cruise  on  U.  S.  Battle- 
ships Missouri,   Wisconsin  and  Ohio. 

May         3 — First  City  Troop  opens  classes  for  rookies  to  be  held  each  Wednesday  and  Thursday 
evenings  in  May  and  June. 

May         4 — German  note  renews  "Arabic"  pledges  and  assurances:  admits  "Sussex"  may  have  been 
sunk  by    U-boat,  but  gives  conditions  of  reparation  based  on  restriction  to  Allied 
blockade. 
Citizens  Army  of  Drexel  Biddle  Military  Corps  parades  and  attends  mass  meeting 
at  Metropohtan  Opera  House,  where  Governor,  Mayor  and  others  speak. 

May         8 — .American  note  refuses  to  consider  other  questions   in   dispute   in   settling  sinking  of 
"Sussex." 
German  note  admits  sinking  "Sussex"  and  offers  reparation. 

May       18 — Austria-Hungarian  offensive  in  Italy  opens. 

May      31— First  day  of  the  Naval  Battle  of  Jutland. 

Plattsburg  rookies,  awaiting  camp  opening,  driU  at  Second  Regiment  Armory. 

June         1 — Battle  of  Jutland  ends  with  the   British  suffering  great  losses,   but  retaining  cotdrul 
of  the  sea. 

June         3 — Brusiloff  begins  Russian  offensive  against  Austria-Hungary. 

June         5 — Many  Philadelphians  attend  third  Plattsburg  training  camp. 

June         6 — Lord  Kitchener   lost  when   British  cruiser   "Hampshire"   strikes  mine  and  sinks   in 
North  Sea. 

June       10 — First  Brigade,   National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  fights  sham  battle  on  Belmont 
Plateau,  and  camps  in  Fairmount  Park,  as  part  of  campaign  for  1,800  new  members, 

June       17 — U.  S.  Naval  Transport  Henderson  launched  at  Fourth  Annual  "Navy  Day"  cele- 
bration, at  League  Island. 

June       18 — Austrian  offensive  against  Italy  ends. 

President  Wilson  orders  National  Guard  of  country  to  Mexican  border. 

June       19 — Pennsylvania   National  Guard  receives  orders  to  mobilize  at  Mt.  Gretna,  not  later 
than  following  Wednesday. 
Mayor  Smith  issues  proclamation  to  display  flags  during  National   Guard   mobili- 
zation. 

June       20 — Brigadier-General  WiUiam  G.  Price,  Jr.,  orders  First  Brigade  (Philadelphia),  National- 
Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  to  be  under  arras  in  armories,  on  morning  of  June  22d. 
Large  coramercial  and  mercantile  houses  assure  employes  in  Guard   that   they  will 
be  paid  in  full,  or  in  part,  while  on  duty. 

June       21 — First  Brigade,  National  Guard  of    Pennsylvania,  ordered  to  Mt.  Gretna  on  June 
24th. 
Colonel  Charles  C.  Allen,  of  First  Infantry,  discharges  entire  band,  which  requested 
two  weeks'  delay  in  mobilization  to  fulfill  concert  orders. 

June       22 — Officers  of  First  Brigade  sworn  into  Federal  service  at  headquarters  in   Lincoln 
Building;  men  assemble  in  armories. 

23 


June      22— Citizens  Soldiers'  Aid  Committee,  formed  at  meeting  in  Mayor's  reception  room, 
with  300  in  attendance;  an  executive  committee  of  twenty-five,  to  be  appointed 
by  the  Mayor,  authorized. 
June      23 — First  Brigade  passes  in  farewell  parade  down  Broad  Street. 

June      24 — First  Brigade,  in  special  trains  of  two  sections  for  each  regiment,  departs  for  Mt. 
Gretna. 
Emergency  Aid  Committee  proffers  aid  to  Citizens  Soldiers'  Aid  Committee  in  case 
of  war  with  Mexico. 
June      25— Four  Philadelphia  cavalry  troops,  company  of  engineers  and  hospital  and  ambulance 

company  entrain  for  Mt.  Gretna. 
June      27— Citizens  Soldiers'  Aid  Committee  completed,  with  Mayor  Smith,  as  Chairman,  launch 

work  for  rehef  of  militiamen's  dependents. 
June      28— Mayor's  office  and  Frankhn  National  Bank  Building  used  as  recruiting  offices  for 

volunteers  for  National  Guard. 
June      30 — Second  Regiment  leaves  for  Mt.  Gretna  for  border. 
July         1 — Verdun  fighlinij  ends. 

Bailie  of  Ihe  Somme  opens. 

Second   Regiment,   National    Guard  of     Pennsylvania,   passes    through  B.    &   O. 
Station,  at  1  a.m.;  luncheon  served  by  Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for  National 
Preparedness;  vast  crowd  greets  soldiers  after  waiting  for  twenty-four  hours. 
First  Regiment,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania  leaves  Mt.  Gretna  for  border. 
July         2— Thhd  Regiment  leaves  Mt.  Gretna  for  border. 
July         6— Four  Philadelphia  cavalry  troops  leave  Mt.  Gretna  for  border. 

July         7— Philadelphia  cavalry   troops   pass   through  B.  &  O.  Station,  at  1  a.m.;  greeted  by 
crowd;  fed  by  West  Philadelphia  branch,   Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for 
National  Preparedness. 
Sixth  Infantry,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  leaves  Mt.  Gretna  for  border. 
July         n^Brusiloff's  Russian  offensive  against  Austria-Hungary  ends  after  remarkable  success. 

National  Guard  personnel  sent  to  border  shows  First  Infantry,  53  officers  and  876 
men;  Second  Infantry,  51  officers  and  981  men;  and  Third  Infantry,  51  officers 
and  875  men. 
July        10— Germora  merchant  submarine  " Deulschland"  arrives  at  Baltimore. 
July       15— One  hundred  and  twenty-five   Philadelphians  in  Naval  Militia  embark  at  League 

Island  for  two  weeks'  practise  cruise. 
July        16 — First  phase  of  Somme  offensive  ends. 
July       17— Citizens  Soldiers'  Aid  Committee,  at  meeting  at  City  Hall,  receives  generous  pledges 

for  support  of  guardsmen's  families. 
July        18 — Second  phase  of  Somme  offensive  begins. 

Great  Britain  publishes  blacklist  of  American  firms.     Eighty-three  on  original  list. 
Seven  removed  subsequently. 
Aug.         1 — Citizens  Soldiers'  Aid  Committee  sends  appeal  for  financial  help  to  14,000  citizens. 
Emergency  Aid   Home  Relief  Division   and   Permsylvania  Women's  Division   for 

National   Preparedness  take  joint  headquarters  at  222  S.  18th  Street. 
German  merchant  submarine  "Deulschland"  leaves  Baltimore. 
Aug.         9— War  Department  order  transfers  Second  Infantry  to  Second  Artillery  at  El  Paso, 

Texas. 
Aug.       15— Three  hundred  and  fifty  volunteers  of  the  Association  of  United  States   Naval 
Volunteers,  which  separated  from  Navy  League,  depart  for  practise  cruise  on 
U.  S.  S.  Rhode  Island. 
Aug.       16 — Second  phase  of  Somme  batik  ends. 
Aug.       27 — Roumania  declares  war  against  Germany  and  Austria. 
Aug.       28 — Italy  declares  war  against  Germany. 
Aug.       29 — Germany,  Austria  and  Turkey  declare  war  against  Roumania. 

Congress  passed  Naval  Defense  Act  with  three-year  building  program. 
Sept.        2 — German-Auslria-Hungarian  invasion  of  Roumania  begins. 
Sept.        3 — Third  phase  of  Somme  battle  begins. 
Sept.        7 — United  States  Shipping  Act  approved  by  President. 

24 


Sept.      13 — Secretary  Daniels,  of  Nav^y,  in  address  at  League  Island,  before  Atlantic  Deeper 

Waterways  Association,  pledges  Navy's  support  for  inland  waterways. 
Sept.      19 — War   Department  announces   that  brigade  of  Pennsylvania   National   Guard  will 

soon  be  ordered  home  from  border. 
Oct.  2 — Prinz  Eilel  Friederick  and  Kronprinz  Wilhelm,  interned  German  raiders,  arrive  at 

Philadelphia  Navy  Yard,  from  Norfolk,  with  their  crews  and  also  prize  crew  from 

Appam,  totaUng  about  750  men;  vessels  stored  in  Back  Channel  and  crews  begin 

erection  of  German  village  ashore. 
Special  Joint  Connnittee  on  Care,   Sustenance  and  Relief  of  Men  in  the  Naval 

Military  Service  of  the  United  States,  meets  at  City  Hall  to  arrange  to  continue 

work  of  Citizens  Soldiers'  Aid  Committee. 
Oct.  3 — Convention  Hall  leased  by  Councils'  special  connnittee  for  entertainment  of  national 

guardsmen  returning  from  border. 
Oct.  5 — Mayor   appoints   a   general   committee   to   act   in   conjunction   with   councilmanic 

committee  in  welcoming  home  guardsmen. 
Oct.  7 — German  U-boal,  U-53  visits  Newport  and  leaves  ivilhin  three  Iwurs. 

Oct.  8 — U-53  attacks  Altied  and  neutral  stiipping  off  Nantucket,  sinkinij  one  Norwegian,  one 

Dutch,  and  six  British  freight  and  passenger  steamers. 
Oct.  9 — First  Infantry,   National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  arrive  home,  parades  on  Broad 

street,  and  is  banqueted  at  Convention  Hall. 
Oct.        10 — Third  Infantry,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  arrives  home,  parades  on  Broad 

Street,  and  is  banqueted  at  Convention  Hall. 
Oct.        12 — National  Defense  Council,  named  by  President  Wilson. 

Oct.        21 — Philadelphia  Committee  for  Armenia  Relief  takes  up  collections  throughout  the  city. 
Oct.        22 — Three  thousand  Armenians  and  500  Syrians  hold  services  in  St.  Stephen's  Church 

in  behalf  of  aillicted  brethren  in  Asia  Minor. 
Oct.        24 — French  attack  at  Verdun. 
Oct.        31 — Southeastern    Chapter,    Red    Cross,    holds    first    annual    meeting   and    reelects    Dr. 

Richard  II.  llarte  to  ccmtinue  in  charge  of  work. 
Nov.         1 — German  merchard  submarine  " Deals. -hland"  arrives  at  New  London.  Conn. 

British  S.  S.  "Marina"  sunk  off  Ireland,  six  Americans  lost. 
Nov.        4 — Company   B,    Engineers,    National   Guard   of   Pennsylvania,   returu   from   border. 

parade  on  Broad  Street  and  are  banqueted  at  State  Fencible's  Armory. 
Nov.         7 — Woodrow  Wilson  reelected  for  second  term. 
Nov.      12 — Third  phase  of  Sommc  battle  ends. 
Nov.      17 — German  merchant  submarine  "Deutschland"  in  attempting  to  leave  New  London,  runs 

down  accompanying  tug  and  is  forced  to  return  to  pier:  five  of  tug  crew  drowned. 
Nov.       21 — German  nwrchanl  submarine  "Deutschland"  sails  for  home. 

Nov.       28 — Provisional  government  (if  Greece  declares  icar  again.'tt  Bulgaria  and  Germany. 
Dec.  6 — Bucharest,  Roumania.  captured. 

Lieutenant  Arnold  Bleeker,  member  of  crew  of  Kronprinz  Wilhelm.  drowned  when 

catboat  capsizes  in  Back  Channel. 
Dec.       11 — Second  "Made  in  America  Bazaar,"  conducted  for  week  by  Emergency  Aid,  opens 

in  Horticultural  Hall. 
Dec.       12 — Germany  invites  peace  negotiations  and  asks  President  Wilson  to  transmit  offer  to  England 

and  France. 
Dec.       15 — Conquest  of  Roumania  completed,  its  army  escaping  to  Russia. 
Dec.        16 — French  reconquer  nnwh  of  ground  lost  at  Verdun. 
Dec.        18 — .American  note  to  all  belligerents  asks  terms  to  l>ring  war  to  an  end. 
Dec.       30 — Twelve  army  aviators  complete  wing  flight  from  Mineola  to  League  Island. 

1917 
Jan.  4 — Allies  refuse  to  consider  German  peace  offer. 

Four  Philadelphia  troops  request  no  entertainment  upon  return  from  border. 
Jan.        12 — .illies  give  outline  of  war  aims,   including  restoration  of  Allied  territory,  reparation, 

dismemberment  of  .Austria-Hungary  and  partition  of  Turkey. 
Jan.        16 — Four  Philadelphia  cavalry  troops  arrive  at  West  Philadelphia  Station  and  go  to 
armories. 

25 


Jan.        18 — President  Wilson  delivers  "Peace  Wiihoui   Victory"  address  to  Senate,  and  outlines 

"League  of  Peace." 
Jan.        31 — German  note  announces  thai  all  ships  will  be  sunk  on  sight  in  war  zone,  but  offering 
safely  for  one  American  vessel  weekly  to   Falmouth,  England,   if  given  distinetire 
marks  and  forbidden  to  carry  contraband. 
Feb.         3 — President  Wilson  gives  German  Ambassador  von   Bernstorff  his  passports  and  recalls 
Ambassador  Gerard. 
President  Wilson  addresses  Congress  and  gives  reasons  for  action. 
Great  crowds  watch  bulletin  boards  in  all  sections  of  the  city. 

Owners  of  twenty-three  high  power  motor  boats  offer  them  to  the  Government. 
.\rrQy  recruiting  stations  open  recruiting  campaign  in  entire  district. 
Stoneman  Fellowship,  at  Baptist  Temple,  pledge  10.000  men  for  war  duty. 
Special  police  guard  placed  around  Midvale  Steel  Works. 

Pennsylvania  Women's  Di\Tsion  for  National  Preparedness  announces  itself  as  ready 
to  sene. 
Feb.         4 — Mayor  promises  police  cooperation  with  federal  authorities  in  guEutling  Government 
property. 
Southeastern  Chapter,  Red  Cross,  is  ordered  to  place  local  unit  on  war  basis. 
Philadelphia  Na>"\-  Yard  closed  to  the  public. 
Feb.         5 — Philadelphia  Tumgemeinde   closes   its   radio   station   on   Tumgemeinde   Building. 
Broad  Street  and  Columbia  Avenue. 
German  sailors  on  merchant  ships  in  harbor  to  be  arrested  if  they  go  ashore. 
State  leaders  of  Pennsylvania  Women's  Di%'ision  for  National  Preparedness  arrange 

for  conference  of  all  branches  for  February  8th. 
Collector  of  Port  Berr\-  orders  no  vessel  to  sail  without  proper  clearance  papers. 
Southeastern  Chapter,  Red  Cross,  starts  to  raise  $15,000  for  naval  base  hospital; 
has  two  army  base  hospitals  ready. 
Feb.         6 — William  Howard  Taft.  at  dinner  of  League  to  Enforce  Peace,  in  BeUe\Tie-Stratford, 

declares  that  America  is  being  driven  into  war. 
Feb.         7 — Delegates  to   National   German  .VUiance  convention  here,   pledge  loyaltj-  to   the 

United  States. 
Feb.         8 — ^Forty-three   branch   chairmen   of   Pennsylvania   Women's   Di>'ision  for   National 
Preparedness  meet  and  plan  two  naval  hospitals,  one  for  League  Island  and  one 
for  Fort  Mott  (Delaware). 
Crews  of  German  merchantmen  allowed  on  shore. 
Feb.         9 — ^Herbert  Hoover,  at  City  Qub  address,  makes  appeal  for  war  sufferers  of  Northern 

France  and  Belgium. 
Feb.       11 — Second  Artillen..  National  Guard  of  PennsylvEuiia,  returns  from  border. 

Red  Cross  api)eals  for  $100,000  to  establish  three  base  hospitals. 
Feb.       12 — Second  Artillery-,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  parades  on  Broad  Street   with 

full  equipment,  and  is  banqueted  at  Armory. 
Feb.       14 — Ambassador  Bernstorff  sails  from  ?>ew  York. 

Feb.       15 — ^Agitation  begun  to  remove  interned  German  seamen  from  Philadelphia  Na\"y  Yard. 
Feb.       16 — ^Urquhart  Chapter,  Women's  Di^■ision,  opens  working  headquarters  at  1802  Chestnut 

Street. 
Feb.       19 — Begin  erecting  barbed  wire  fence  aroimd  Gierman  village  at  Navy  Yard. 
Feb.       25 — Canard  liner  "Laconia"  torpedoed,  three  Americans  (two  women)  lost. 
Feb.       26 — President  Wilson  asks  Congress  for  power  to  arm  .American  merchardmen. 
March      1 — Zimmerman's  "Mexican-Japanese"  note  made  public. 
March     4 — Pacifist  filibuster  in  Senate  defeats  armed  merchantman  bill. 
March     5 — President  Wilson  inaugurated  for  second  term. 

Pennsylvania    Women's    Div-ision    for    National    Preparedness    and    Southesistem 
Chapter,  American  Red  Cross,  effect  merger. 
March     9 — President  calls  session  of  Congress  for  April  16th. 

March  10 — -Federal  agents  arrest  Frederick  Rohner,  Adelbert  R.  Fischer,  Mrs.  Helene  Fischer 
and  two  chauffeurs  on  charge  of  receiving  nineteen  chronometers  smuggled  from 
interned  German  raiders  at  Navy  Yard. 

26 


March    10 — Philadelphia  Medical  Auxiliary  of  Council  of  National  Defense  formed  at  meeting 

in  Bellevue-Stratford. 
March   11 — British,  under  General  Maude,  capture  Bagdad. 
March   12 — ^Belgian  Relief  Committee  begins  campaign  to  care  for  100,000  Beigiain  children 

for  six  months. 
March   14 — Enlistments  in  Naval  Coast  Defense  Reserve  begin  at  Naval  Home  on  Grays  Ferry 

Road. 
March   15 — Czar  of  Russia  abdicated. 

German  armies  retire  to  Hindenhurg  line,  behind  Somme  battlefields. 
Rumor  circulated  that  three  interned  Germans  were  shot  by  marines  for  attempting 
radio  messages  from  decks  of  interned  raiders. 
March   17 — American  S.  S.  "City  of  Memphis"  sunk  by  U-boat. 

George  Wentworth  Carr,  chairman  of  Committee  on  Home  Defense  for  Chamber 
of  Commerce,  Mayor  Smith  and  naval  officers  confer  on  plan  for  voluntary  military 
organization  of  15.000  men  to  cooperate  with  Naval  Coast  Defense  Reserve. 
Women's  Section  of  Nav-y  League  formed  for  rehef  work. 
German  interned  raiders  towed  out  of  Back  Channel  to  new  berths  at  Na\-y  Yard. 

and  crews  ordered  removed  to  Forts  McPherson  and  Oglethorpe,  Georgia. 
Governors  of  Pennsylvania,   New  Jersey,   Delaware,    Maryland,   and   New   York, 
meet  at  Union  League  and  adopt  resolution  calling  on  President  to  secure  funds 
and  equipment  to  put  National  Guard  In  shape  for  immediate  work. 
Recruiting  office  for  6,000  men  for  Naval  Coast  Defense  Reserve  opened  in  Mayor's 
reception  room. 
March   19 — American  S.  S.  "Illinois"  and  "Vigilancia"  sunk  by  U-boats. 

A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle  opens  campaign  to  recruit  division  of  20,000  men  at  1917  Mt. 

Vernon  Street. 
Fourteen  German  seamen  attempt  to  escape  from  interned  raiders  at  Navy  Yard; 
twelve  are  recaptured  and  Navy  Department  reports  two  drowned. 
March  20 — Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee  formed  at  meeting  at  Mayor's  office,  with 
300  citizens  in  attendance.     Mayor  Smith  elected  Chairman;  John  C.  Bell,  Vice- 
Chairman;  George  W.  Carr,  Secretar>-;  and  Joseph  E.  Widener,  Treasurer. 
Emergency  Aid  and  National  League  for  Women's  Service  plan  to  coordinate  all 
women's  work  in  state. 
March  21 — President  advances  date  of  exlra  session  of  Congress  to  April  2d. 

Navy  enrols  first  woman  for  active  duty.  Miss  Loretta  Walsh,  734  Pine  Street. 
Governor  Brumbaugh  appoints  Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Public  Safety,  including 

forty  Philadelphians,  and  George  Wharton  Pepper,  as  Chairman. 
American  tanker  Healdton,  twenty-one  days  out  of  Philadelphia,  torpedoed  and 
seven  Americans  lost. 
March  22 — ^Appeal  made  for  700  men  for  Philadelphia  Naval  Militia. 

March  23 — Mayor  announces  the  names  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  City  Home 
Defense  in  addition  to  the  officers:  E.  T.  Stotesbur>-.  Finance  Committee; 
A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle,  Home  Reserve;  John  F.  Lewis,  Decorations  and  Posters; 
W.  W.  Roper,  Recruiting  Stations;  Wilfiam  Potter,  Edward  A.  Noppel,  Mrs. 
J.  Willis  McLTtin,  Clarence  Wolf,  Ernest  T.  Trigg,  John  B.  Mayer  and  Cyrus 
H.  K.  Curtis. 
March  26 — German  sailors,  guarded  by  poUce  and  marines,  leave  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard  for 

south,  on  two  special  trains. 
March  27 — Enrolment  of  women  for  national  service  and  for  Navy  League  work    opens  at 

1428  Walnut  Street. 
Mwch  28 — .Vlbert  W.  Straub,  Director  of  Atlantic  Division,  Red  Cross,  tells  women  of  South- 
eastern Chapter  of  dastardly  plot  to  spread  death   among    wounded  American 
soldiers  by  poisoning  bandages. 
Permsylvania  Committee  of  Public  Safety  organizes  at  Harrisburg,  withGeorge 

^\  harton  Pepper,  Permanent  Chairman,  and  Effingham  B.  Morris,  Treasurer. 
British  War  ReUef  Bazaar  opens  in  Horticultural  Hall. 
Independence  Hall  thrown  open  for  Naval  Coast  Defense  Reserve  recruiting. 

27 


March    28 


National     Guard 
open      recruiting 


March   29 


Mai 


30- 


March    :U 


C^jurtesy  of  Frank   W.    Buhler,    Stanley   Co.    of    America. 

Nalionat  Guardsman  yuardinij  a  Bridge. 

April        1 — Police   prohibit   Peace   Meeting,   adverlisetl 
Emergency  Peace  Federation. 


-Pliiladelphia 
regiments 
campaigns. 

Joseph  R.  Wilson  plans  to 
raise  regiment  of  "President's 
Guards"  and  offer  it  to 
President  Wilson. 

First  Infantry,  National  Guard 
of  Pennsylvania,  mustered  into 
iM'deral  serv  ice  and  assigned  to 
guarding  bridges  and  munition 
plants  eastof  the  Susquehaima. 

Third  Infantry,  National  Guard 
of  Pennsylvania,  sworn  into 
Federal  service. 

Vast  patriotic  meeting  at  Inde- 
pendence Square,  addressed  by 
Senator  Hiram  Johnson  and 
others,  and  preceded  by  many 
parades  of  military,  patriotic 
and  fraternal  bodies  gathering 
from  all  sections  of  the  city, 
for  South  Broad   Street  Theater,  by 


Coui-tesy   of  Frank  W.    Buhler.    Stanley   Co.    of   .\merlca. 

Dr.  Conwell  leading  in  prayer  at  Palriotic  Meeting  in  Independence  Square. 


28 


April        1 — Philadelphia   Military  Training  Corps,   including  Drexel  Biddle,   Land  Title  and 

Maccabean  units,  hold  review  at  Landsowne,  and  addressed  by  Brigadier-General 

Waller,  Marine  Corps. 

April        2 — President   Wilson  addresses  Congress,  advising  declaration  of  war  against  Germany. 

Third  Infantry,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania  departs  in  four  sections  for  guard 

duty  in  western  part  of  State. 
War  Department  accepts  offer  of  International  Motor  Club  of  Philadelphia  tender- 
ing its  services. 
Recruiting  for  "President's  Guards"  opened  at  3303  Race  Street. 
Battleships  of  Atlantic  Reserve  Fleet  open  recruiting  drive  from  automobiles. 
State  Fencibles  establish  recruiting  booth  at  City  Halt. 
April        3 — Senate  passes  State  of  War  Resolution. 

U.  S.  Battleship  Kansas  opens  recruiting  tent  on  City  Hall  plaza. 
April        4 — Plans  made  for  volunteer  police  force  of  20.000  men,  composed  of  single  men  over 
forty-five,  or  married  men,  ineligible  for  military  duty. 
National  Security  League,  at  Scottish  Rites  Hall,  endorses  conscription. 
April        5 — Governor  requests  Philadelphia  Defense  Conuuittee  to  cooperate  with  State  Com- 
mittee of  Public  Safety. 
April        6 — House  passes  Slate  of  War  Resolution. 

PRESIDENT  WILSON  DECLARES  A  STATE  OF  WAR  WITH  GERMANY. 
Hamburg-American   liners  Rlisetia  and  Prinz  Oskar,  which  had  been  idle    in  port 

since  1914,  are  seized  by  Federal  authorities;  machinery  found  damaged. 
Naval  Militia  ordered  to  mobilize  at  First  Regiment  Armory. 
All  recruiting  in  city  spurred. 

Proclamation  by  mayor  in  ten  languages,  warns  ahens  to  obey  the  law. 
April        7 — Cuba  and  Panama  declare  war  against  Germany. 

Home  Defense  Committee  announces  formation  of  motor  transportation  corps. 
Home  Defense  Reserve  to  have  forty-one  companies  of  about  500  men  each. 
Battleship  Ohio  opens  recruiting  tent  on  City  Hall  plaza. 
April        9 — British  Armies  open  .Arras  offensive. 

Philadelphia  Naval  Militia.  170  men,  report  for  duty  at  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard. 
Engineers'  Club  gets  behind  movement  to  form  another  Philadelphia  engineer  com- 
pany for  National  Guard  (Company  E). 
Austria-Hungarian  steamer  Franconia  seized   by  Federal  authorities  in  Delaware; 
machinery  found  damaged. 
April      10 — Explosion   of   undetermined   origin   at    the   Eddystone   Ammunition    Corporation, 
near  Chester,  kills  121  men  and  women  workers,  including  thirteen  Philadelphians, 
and  injures  300,  including  many  from  this  city. 
April      11 — Brazil  severs  diplomatic  relations  with  Germany,  and  seizes  forty-six  German  ships. 
April      12 — Belgian  Rehef  Committee  receives  $52,500  from  six  groups  of  Chamber  of  Commerce 

for   child    relief   work. 
April      14 — Navy  Department  orders  cdl  wireless  stations  in  city,  whether  receiving  or  sending, 
dismantled,  save  those  government  owned  and  operated. 
Three  "anti-war"  moving  pictures  withdrawn  from  circulation  by  State  censors. 
April      15 — First  stage  of  Battle  of  Arras  ends. 

April      17 — Mayor  Smith  names  Committee  of  300  to  entertain  French  and  British  War  Missions. 
Engineers  Club  asked  to  secure  volunteers  for  regiment  of   engineers  for  Roosevelt 

Division. 
Emergency  Aid  votes  for  three-course  dinners  for  food  conservation. 
April      18 — Mayor  and  committee  call  on  Secretary  Tumulty  and  Assistant  Secretary  of  State 
Phillips,  at  Washington,  and  are  assured  visit  of  foreign  war  missions  to  Philadel- 
phia. 
Twenty-nine  recruits  enroll  at  new  Bourse  Recruiting  Station  for  volunteer  farm 
work,  in  wheat  and  rye  fields  of  Northwest. 
April      20 — Naval  recruiting  mass  meeting  held  at  Academy  of  Music. 

University  of  Pennsylvania's  battalion  of  2,000  students  is  reviewed  on  Franklin 
Field. 

29 


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May        ^ — Marimes  sbee  daai^  batde  st  Scnad  ^al  Aec&  streets. 

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sprr.egi  y^acs  or  @k^  t&  a 

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May       I  -     ■  -  -'''■-■  '  '  ajiee 

May      11 — TweBay-eevT-   -  ,  .  ,     .  -   Rivgir  Pbwer 

May      I? 

May       "_-  -  ~  ■     -     :.  ^J--t    -  _  s  ifivisjoo- 

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May      19— Sertiy  rf  C; - 

Scfaiy&3  ^EsaraL 
GoKial  WSaBB  G.  Kioe,  Jr^  BaK>^~.      --    _    ■  i  -;  ;,.    ._ 

"VatMBrf  Gsend  of  OennsflvaBa. 
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3iby      ^ — llflAted  Static  Jfeficsd  CiMiB  ^mnirn  krta- as  U.  3.  A  jsteiediii'. 

sariee  at  Cooper  BattaEoa  KIL 
May      ^ — Mayor  ■mbl^  bea&  of  soaae  of  legEstiatinn  boai^ 

May      3 — Major  eoB^detes  iiBwiHimE  le^tialiaB  boards  fat  fiorty-tiro  legkbatioo  tfistiicls. 
jMay      ^9 — Obluct  Bf^g^-JK^i*—  Boavu^  meet  wilii  li^s^tE^fiSH!  f^nawmwwqw*!  aitgi  leain  4}Qtie& 
May      31 — U.  S.  A.  A.  CI  ka««s  for  AOoitoan. 
Jame        1 — BaUe  sf  jlrras  andiL 

Ejmgfgency  Aid  iii^^iiK  Enod  eoononBy  diiv?. 

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Jujne        - — Mmniu^Ml  mJillafy  agjiii  idliiijl  canqt  opeofed  at  Bybeny,  with  tuFenty-^oar  boys. 

^MDth  ((19th]l  Ba^ineas  nmlaSied  at  Conumieiaal  Mieeain. 
Jnne        S — iSaikmai  RegisSiraiian  Dmr. 

Estimodte  Ffedaddpfan  emolment  will  leacb  176^([MM!L 
J^ae      10— Tbeodns  Booseireit.  as  goesl  cf  five  laBinad  bnithedioads,  in  addres  at  Metio- 
piJitaw  Opera  HotBeydetfaies  that  nan  urihowtm'tiiA  Bfem  war  Aoold  lose  vole. 

Marmes  liiaah  natinnal  leonoitiog;  we^  with  nuss  meelhig  at  Keith's  Tbeatie'. 
Jbil      12 — Coif  Cimrioriinie  of  Qreece  atikmlex. 

Home  Drfaise  Reserve  begne  diflls.  250  drilfans^eis  acting  as  mstmclas  at  forty 
ooifieis. 
Jme      14 — Fiist  Liberty  Loan  diive  enfe;  Philadelphia  lakes  $1-IS,172J*3(IL 
Jane      IS-^kd  Cxm^  Wedk  opais  with  Ffaifadd^pfaia's  quota  $a.«NMIt.(NN)L 

1st  Telegiaph  BattaEon  (Beil  Oimpany))  leaves  for  training  canqt  at  Long  Branch. 
X.J. 

Opoi  nsuuiiiug  office  for  eanSdates  Cor  Second  Officers'  Training  Canqk. 
Jme      20— It^an  Caaan^oa.  faeaifal  by  Eksico  Adotta.  entertained  in  Ffailaidelpliia. 
Jne      S— Mooter  Women's  Bed  Cknn  pm^e  fenlores  Red  Cros  driveL 

31 


June       2S — Pennsylvania  National  Guard  and  army  open  week's  recruiting  drive. 
Philadelphia  subscribes  $3,200,000  to  Red  Cross  fund. 
Fifty-one  Philadelphia  draft  boards  named  by  governor. 
July  2 — Greece  {Government  of  Alexander)  declares  war  against  Bulgaria  and  Germany. 

Company  B,  Engineers,  despatched  to  Camp  Meade. 
July         4 — City  holds  official  Independence  Day  celebration  at  Independence  Hall,  wilh  Dr. 

Ernest  LaPlace  and  Judge  John  M.  Patterson  as  orators. 
Jul\  7 — 1st  Regiment  headquarters  and  1st  Battalion  move  from  armory  to   Camp  Brown, 

at  Connnercial  Museum. 
July         9 — Police  begin  canvas  to  enlist  women  in  Hoover  food  army. 
July        10 — Governor  names  members  of  two  Government  appeal  boards. 
July        1 1 — City  observes  French  Bastile  Day  with  meeting  at  Independence  Square. 
July        15 — National  Guard  units  not  already  in  service,  mobilize  in  armories. 
July        17 — Truck  Companies  Nos.  3  and  I,  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania,  go  to  Mt.  Gretna. 
July        20 — National  draft  drawing  takes  place  at  Washington. 

Thousands  walch  bidletin  boards  for  draft  numbers. 
July       22 — Siam  declares  war  against  Austria  and  Germany. 
July       23 — British  Recruiting  Mission  opens  headquarters  at  23  S.  9th  Street. 
Philadelphia's  first  quota  for  National  Army  fixed  at  14,245  men. 
July       27 — Local  boards  send  out  first  call  to  draftees  to  report  for  examinations. 
Jvily       30 — Physical  examinations  of  draftees  begin. 

19th  Railway  Engineers  reviewed  in  Fairmount  Park. 
July       31 — British  open  offensive  around  Ypres. 
Aug.         4 — Liberia  declares  war  against  Germany. 
Aug.         9 — 19th  Railway  Engineers  leave  city  before  sunrise. 
Aug.       10 — Food  Control  bill  passed. 

Aug.       13 — Company  E,  Engineers,  National  Guard  of  Peimsylvania,  sent  to  Mt.  Gretna. 
List  of  Fort  Niagara  commissions  announced. 

Names  of  men  to  go  to  Second  Oflicers'  Training  Camp  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  announced. 
2d  Artillery,  in  camp  at  Camp  Wanamaker,  Noble,  Pa. 
6th  Regiment  goes  from  Armory  to  Camp  Ellis,  near  Lansdowne. 
Entire  1st  Regiment  assembled  at  Camp  Brown. 

3d  Regiment  begins   to  arrive   home  from   western   Pennsylvania,  and  encamps  at 
Camp  Taylor,  near  Springfield,  Delaware  County. 
Aug.       14 — Cliina  declares  war  against  Germany  and  Austria. 
Aug.       15 — Niagara  Training  Camp  oflicers  arrive  home  on  special  train. 

Aug.       16 — Company    B,   Engineers,    National   Guard   of  Pennsylvania,   with   balance   of   1st 
Battalion,  ordered  from  Camp  Meade  to  Camp  Hancock,  Georgia. 
Announce  proposed  numerical  units  of  79th  Di\ision  at  Camp  Meade. 
Aug.       19 — Italians  begin  second  Isonzo  offensive. 

Aug.       20 — Belgian  High  Commission,  headed  by  Baron  Ludovic  Moncheur,  entertained  lavishly 
by  city. 
First  City  Troop;  Battery  E,  2d  .\rtiller\;  Company  D,  1st  Infantry;  Company  K, 
3d  Infantry;  and  Company  I,  6th  Infantry,  are  regimentid  advance  guards  sent 
to   Camp  Hancock. 
Aug.       22 — Two  sections  carry  men  to  Second  Officers'  Training  Camp  at  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 
Aug.       28 — War  Department  halts  movement  south  of  2d  Artillery  within  three  hours  of  de- 
parture time;  equipment  held  on  trains. 
Aug.       29 — 2d  Artillery  leaves  Camp  Wanamaker  for  the  South. 

Sept.        1 — Philadelphia  holds  monster  parade  in  honor  of  drafted  men,  guard  units,  marines, 
sailors,  defense  units  and  patriotic  organizations  in  line. 
Survey  of  Hog  Island  is  first  step  in  proposed  shipyard  for  fabricating  steel  cargo 
steamers. 
Sept.        6 — -leoth  Aimiversary  of  birth  of  Lafayette,  celebrated  at  Independence  Hall,   with 
Ambassador  Jusserand  as  guest  of  honor. 
Field  Bakery  Co.,  Field  Hospitals  Nos.  2  and  3;  Ambulance  Company  No.  2,  and 
1st  Brigade  Headquarters,  leave  for  south. 

32 


Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 


Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 


Sept. 

Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 

Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Oct. 


8 — Explosion  kills  two  and  injures  score  at  Frankford  Arsenal. 

9 — 3d  and  6th  Regiments  hold  final  review  on  Garrettsford  Road,  Delaware  County. 
10 — :}(1  Regiment  holds  farewell  parade  on  Broad  Street. 

Philadelphia  Tageblall  raided  by  Federal  officers,  Herman  Lemke  and  Dr.  Martin 
Darkow  being  arrested  and  warrants  issued  for  three  other  oflicers  of  company. 
12 — 1st  Infantry  and  three  remaining  Philadelphia  cavalry  troops  leave  for  South. 
1.5 — 3d  and  6th  Infantry  leave  for  south. 

14 — Five  officials  of  Philadelphia  Tageblall  held  in  heavy  bail  for  Federal  Grand  Jury. 
15 — Federal  Grand  Jury  indicts  I^ouis  Werner,  Editor-in-Chief,  and  Dr.  Martin  Darkow, 

Managing  Editor,  for  treason,  and  other  three  for  violation  of  Espionage  Act. 
16 — Kerensky  becomes  virtual  didalor  of  Russia. 

Drafted  men  go  to  Lansdowne  for  two  days'  training  with  Philadelphia  Military 
Training  Corps. 
19— First  Philadelphia  draft  army  contingent,  387  men,  leave  from  three  West  Philadel- 
phia districts. 
20 — One  hundred  and  sixty-five  men  from  12th  District  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 
22— About  3,000  drafted  men  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 

23 — Two  thousand  eight  himdred  and  thirty-five  drafted  men,  completing  4.5   per  cent 
of  the  Philadelphia  increment,  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 
1 — Second  Liberty  I-oan  Campaign  opens. 

3 — William     Potter     appointed     Federal     Fuel      Administrator     for     Peimsylvania. 

6 — Last  increment  of  Philadelphia's  50  per  cent  of  drafted  men  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 

10 — E.  T.  Stotesbury  reelected  Chairman  of  Southeastern  Chapter,  American  Red  Cross. 

Francis  A.  Lewis  appointed  Federal  Fiu-X  Administrator  for  Philadelphia. 
15 — Women's  Ijibcrty  Loan  Connnittee  organized. 


Courtesy   iif   Frank   W.    Buliler.    Stanley   Co-    of    .America. 

Answer  inn  '■'"'  /"'"■.•>•/  I>r:ifl  ('all. 

33 


Oct.       17 — Transport  "Antilles"  sunk  by  submarines;  sixty-seven  lost. 

One  Philadelpbian,  H.  H.  Cummings,  lost  on  Antilles. 
Oct.        24 — Austria-Hungary  counter-attacks  Italians  on  Isonzo  and  at  Caporetlo. 
Oct.        25 — Liberty  Bell  parade  in  Independence  Square,  on  behalf  of  Second  Liberty  Ijian. 
Oct.        26 — Brazil  declares  war  against  Germany. 

Oct.       27 — Second  Liberty  Loan  drive  ends.    Philadelphia  subscribed  $234,901,000. 
Nov.        1 — ^Women's  Committee,  Council  of  National  Defense,  starts  two-day  drive  to  enlist 

600,000  Philadelphia  women  for  war  work. 
Nov.        3 — First  American  killed  in  action  in  France — Enright,  Gresham  and  Hay. 
Nov.        4 — Four  thousand  draftees  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 
Nov.        7 — Lenine  and  Trotsky  Revolution  overthrows  Kerensky  in  Russia. 
Nov.        8 — Italians  in  retreat  reach  Piave  River  line. 

Nov.      11 — Home  Defense  Reserves  fight  sham  battle  in  Fainnount  Park. 
Nov.      12 — Y.  M.  C.  A.  opens  campaign  for  funds. 

Federal  agents  begin  active  investigation  of  food  shortage  and  profiteering. 

Pennsylvania  Railroad  lifts  freight  embargo  to  supply  city  with  coal. 
Nov.      15 — .John  Frederick  Lewis,  named  Chief  of  Section  No.  2  of  Recruiting  Service  for  United 
States  Shipping  Board  and  its  Schools  of  Navigation  and  Marine  Engineering 
between  the  Connecticut  River  and  Norfolk,  Va.,  to  train  officers  for  the  Merchant 
Marine. 
Nov.      16 — Clemenceau  Ministry  formed  in  France. 

Ex-President  Taft  addresses  Y.  M.  C.  A.  campaign  rally  at  Bellevue-Stratford  Hotel. 
Nov.      18 — Sixty  Poles  leave  Philadelphia,  to  serve  in  Polish  Army. 
Nov.      19— Y.  M.  C.  A.  campaign  nets  $1,792,237. 
Nov.      20 — Battle  of  Cambrai  begins. 

Destroyer  "Chauncey"  rammed  and  sunk  in  war  zone. 

Seven  wheatless  meals  a  week  required  by  Food  Administration. 
Nov.      23 — British  attack  at  Cambrai  ends. 

Nov.      26 — State  Food  Administrator  Heinz  fixes  food  prices  for  City  and  State. 
Nov.      28 — Announce  list  of  officers  commissioned  at  Second  Officers'  Training  Camp,  at  Fort 
Oglethorpe,  Georgia. 

Food  Administration  requires  meatless  Tuesdays. 
Nov.      30 — Ludendorff  attacks  British  at  Cambrai. 

Food  Administration  requires  meatless  Fridays. 

University  of  Pennsylvania  Hospital  Unit  No.  20  mustered  into  Federal  service. 
Dec.         1 — ^Volunteer  enlistments  in  Army,  Navy  and  Marine  corps  resumed. 
Dec.         3 — German  attacks  at  Cambrai  end. 

War   Savings  Stamps  Campaign  opens  with  Robert  K.   Cassatt  as  Philadelphia 
District  Chairman. 
Dec.         6 — Destroyer  ".Jacob  Jones"  sunk  in  war  zone  by  submarines. 

Six  Philadelphians  lost  on  destroyer  Jacob  Jones. 

Walter  E.  Goodenough,   General  Manager  of  American  International  Shipbuilding 
Corporation,  in  address  to  900  Hog  Island  employes,  tells  them  of  120  ships  to 
be  fabricated  there  for  Government. 
Dec.         7 — United  States  declares  war  against  Austria-Hungary. 

Jay  Cooke  named  Federal  Food  Administrator  for  Philadelphia. 
Dec.       10 — General  Allenby,  with  British  Army,  captures  Jerusalem. 
Dec.       13 — Final  day  for  volunteer  enlistments  brings  total  to  2,750. 

Henry  P.  Davidson,  Chairman  of  war  council  of  American  Red  Cross,  addresses  mass 
meeting  in  Metropolitan  Opera  House  preceding  Red   Cross  membership  drive. 
Dec.       17 — Red  Cross  membership  drive  opens. 
Dec.       19 — .\uslria-Hungary-Italian  fighting  ends. 

City  promised  15,000  tons  of  anthracite  daily  to  relieve  fuel  shortage. 

Physicians  named  to  medical  advisory  boards. 

Councils  special  conunittee  on  care  and  sustenance  of  men  in  military  and  naval 
service  visits  Camp  Meade. 
Dec.       24 — Red  Cross  campaign  closes  with  more  than  540,000  members. 

34 


Dec.      27 — William  G.  McAdoo  appointed  Director-General  of  Railroads. 
Dec.       28 — United  States  lakes  over  control  of  railroads. 

Railroads  of  City  in  Allegheny  region. 
Dec.       30 — Coldest  day  in  nine  years,  with  thermometer  at  four  degrees  below  zero,  and  coal 
shortage  acute. 

1918 
Jan.  1 — Pennsylvania    Railroad    annuls    one   hundred  trains  and  Philadelphia  &  Reading 

annuls  sixteen. 
Two  killed,  six  injured,  at  explosion  at  Navy  Yard. 
Jan.  2 — Mobs  raid  coal  cars  on  West  Philadelphia  sidings. 

Jan.  3 — One  thousand  four  hundred  drafted  men  leave  for  Camp  Meade,  completing  86 

per  cent  of  city's  first  quota. 
Jan.  4 — Pennsylvania  Railroad  embargoes  all  general  freight  to  give  city  coal. 

Jan.  8 — President  Wilson  delivers  his  "li  Points"  address  to  Congress. 

Jan.  9 — Theodore  Roosevelt  visits  war  industries  and  addresses  Peirce  School,  commence- 

ment exercises,  at  Academy  of  Music,  scoring  the  country  for  unpreparedness. 
National  Shipbuilding  Labor  Adjustment  Board  begins  hearings  at  Hotel  Walton 

on  question  of  wages  affecting  45,000  shipyard  workers  in  district. 
Jan.       15 — Three  men  and  five  women  socialists  convicted  in  criminal  court  for  "unlawfully 

endeavoring  to  persuade  persons  from  entering  the  service  of  the  United  States." 
Jan.        16 — Fuel  Administrator  Garfield  issues  fuel  conservation  order,  closing  all  industries, 

except  shipbuilding  and  food  producers,  for  five  days  beginning  January  18th,  and 

commands  plants  to  remain  closed  on   Mondays  and  holidays  for  ten  weeks; 

order  effects  stores,  theaters,  etc.;  650,000  men  made  idle  in  Philadelphia  district. 
Jan.       21 — City  and  Government  authorities  take  first  steps  for  homes  for  Hog  Island  workers, 

in  Fortieth  Ward. 
Jan.       27 — Rear  Admiral  Francis  T.  Bowles  appointed  Assistant  General  Manager  in  charge  of 

agency  yards  of  the  Fleet  Corporation  and  ordered  from  Washington  to  this  city. 
Food  Administration  issues  orders  for  wheatless  Mondays  and  Wednesdays,  and  for 

all  suppers  to  be  likewise  wheatless. 
Jan.        29 — Senate  Commerce  Committee  decides  to  probe  charge  of  $6,000,000  profit  in  building 

of  Hog  Island. 
Four  Minute  Men  open  anti-sedition  drive  in  City. 
Feb.         4 — Fuel  Administration  seizes  surplus  domestic  size  coal  in  City  for  general  distribution. 
Feb.         5 — Rear  Admiral  Bowles  opens  office  in  Medical  Arts  Building,  and  assumes  control 

of  Hog  Island  and  Bristol. 
Feb.         6 — War  Welfare  Council  formed  to  conduct  all  future  welfare  drives. 

Adalbert  K.  Fischer,  seized  and  interned  as  a  dangerous  afien  enemy. 
Feb.        12 — Americanization  campaign  opens  with   rally  at  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  Senator 

Kenyon,  of  Iowa,  being  the  principal  speaker. 
Recruiting  campaign  for  shipyard  workers  opens  station  in  Widener  Building. 
Feb.       13 — Fuel  Administrator  Garfield  suspends  Monday  closing  order. 

Police,  after  ten-day  campaign,  register  6,481  German  alien  enemies  in  City. 
Feb.       14 — Plant  of  Schutte  and  Koerting,  12th  and  Thompson  streets,  seized  by  Alien  Property 

Custodian. 
Feb.       20 — Department  of  Justice  begins  probe  of  Hog  Island. 
Feb.       26 — Naval  tug  Cherokee  sinks  in  storm  twelve  miles  off  Fen  wick  Island  Light;  Philadelphia 

commander  and  two  men  included  in  twenty-nine  lost;  ten  survivors  rescued  from 

raft. 
Feb.       27 — Philadelphia  sends  last  of  its  100  per  cent  quota  to  Camp  Meade,  under  first  call 

for  14,245  men 
Feb.       28 — General  Allenby  and  British  Army  take  Jericho. 

Food  Administration  hmits  bread  rations  to  two  pounds  per  week,  per  person. 
March     3 — Russian  Soviet  signs  Brest-Litovsk  peace  treaty  with  Germany. 

35 


Courtesy  of  Frank 


Stanley   Co.    of   America. 

The  Arclihislmi)  of  York  ami  Bishoj)  lihiiietiwile 


March     4 — Archbishop  of  York  visits  City. 

March   18 — During  week  of  March  18th,  enrolment  of  8,000  boys  and  men  begun,  for  Pennsyl- 
vania's Farm  Army. 
March   19 — Philadelphia  oilicer,  one  of  sixteen  killed  when  destroyer  Manley  is  in  collision  in 

war  zone. 
March   21 — Ludendorff  begins  Somme  offensive. 

Congress  passes  hill  giving  President  power  to  operate  railroads  to  end  of  war. 
March  23 — British  caterpillar  tank  arrives  to  boost  British  and  Canadian  recruiting  campaign. 
March   26 — Marshal  Foch  appointed  Allied  Generalissimo. 

Judge  Dickinson  orders  Federal  Jury  to  acquit  two   Tagehlalt  editors   accused  of 

treason;  to  be  tried  later  on  espionage  charge. 
March   28 — British  halt  German  Somme  offensive  williin  gun  range  of  Amiens. 

Germans  repulsed  in  attack  at  Arras. 
March  31 — First  daylight  saving  law  becomes  effective. 
April        1 — Base  Hospital  No.  20  leaves  for  France. 

April        2 — Five  hundred  men,  first  contingent  of  second  draft  quota,  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 
April        3 — ^Approximately  $500,000,000  worth  of  orders,  covering  construction  of  382  ships, 

by  eleven  Delaware  River  shipyards,  announced  by  Admiral  Bowles. 
April        6 — Third  Liberty  Loan  campaign   opens  with  exercises,  marking  unveiling  of  Statue 

of  Liberty,  in  South  Penn  Square. 
April        7 — Hog   Island   employes    observing   "Liberty   Day"   pledge    themselves  to   win   war 

with  ships. 
April        9 — Ludendorff  launches  Lys  offensive  toward  Channel  ports. 
April      14 — Navy  Department  announces  disappearance  at  sea  of  naval  collier  "Cyclops,"   with 

293  officers  and  men. 

36 


April      11 — Six  Philadelphia  men  lost  on  Cyclops. 

April      16 — Charles  M.  Schwab  named  Director-General  of  Emergency  Fleet  Corporation. 

Philadelphia  named  as  port  of  debarkation  for  supplies  and  troops,  by  War  Depart- 
ment. 
April      19 — Schwab  annomices  that     Emergency  Fleet  Corporation  offices  will  be  transferred 

from  Washington  to  Philadelphia,  and  commandeers  Gomery-Swartz  Building, 

Broad  and  Cherry  streets. 
April      20 — Women  war  workers  parade  25,000  strong  for  Liberty  Loan. 
April      21 — Guatemala  declares  war  against  Germany. 
April      22 — Vice  situation,  in  Philadelphia,  cleared  by  appointment  of  Captain  William  B.  Mills 

as  Acting  Superintendent  of  Police. 
April      2.5 — William  Howard  Taft  makes  two  local  addresses  on  behalf  of  Liberty  I^oan. 

Dragnet  out  for  10,000  British  slackers  in  city. 
April       26 — British  close  Zeebrugge  harbor  in  daring  naral  feat. 

Thirty-five  thousand  school  children  parade  with  Liberty  Bell  for  Liberty  Loan. 
April      27 — Four  hundred  and  si.xty-two  men  depart  for  Camp  Meade,  as  first  contingent  of 

3,632  men  ordered  to  Camps  Meade  and  Lee,  in  five-day  movement. 
British  halt  German  offensive  at  Lys. 
April      28 — Provisional  brigade  of  78th  Division,  from  Camp  Dix,  parades  on  Broad  Street,  in 

Liberty   Loan. 
April      29 — Eleven  of  Pershing's  Crusaders  arrive  for  Liberty  Loan. 

Sixty-seven  Philadelphia   High   School  boys,  first  of  local  School   Farm  Army,  leave 

for  State  College  camp. 
May         1 — Sixty-six  men  drown  when  French  cruiser  rams  coastwise  steamer  City  of  Athens. 

off  Delaware  coast. 
May         4 — Third  Liberty  Loan  ends;  Philadelphia  subscribes  §169,350,600. 
May         5 — S.  S.  Tuckahoe  launched  at  New  York  Shipbuilding  Corporation  plant,  75  per  cent 

complete,  in  twenty-seven  days  and  three  hours  after  first  piece  of  steel  was  laid. 
May         6 — Nicaragua  declares  war  against  Germany. 
May         8 — A.  Merritt  Taylor,  named  head  of  Transportation  and  Housing  Section,  Emergency 

Fleet  Corporation. 
May         9 — British  partly  close  harbor  of  Ostend  to  submarines. 
May       13 — One  hundred  and  five  French  Blue  Devils  pay  city  brief  visit. 
Thrift  Pledge  Week  opens  in  new  War  Savings  Stamp  drive. 
May       It — Board  of  Education  votes  to  end  teaching  of  German  in  public  schools. 
May       15 — First  air  mail  route  from  New  York  to  Washington  opened,  with  half-way  stop  at 

Philadelphia  (Byberry). 
Lieutenant  Torrey  H.  Webb,  United  States  Signal  Service,  pilots  first  plane  to  this 

city.     Lieutenant  James  C.  Egerton  continues  flight  to  Washington. 
May       17 — Governors  and  former  governors  of  thirty-four  states  gather  at  Independence  Hall 

and  pledge  themselves  and   their  respective  states  "to  carry  the  war  to  a  vic- 
torious end." 
May       19 — War  Chest  campaign  for  $20,000,000  opens  with  many  exercises. 
May       22 — Detachment  of  Company  L,  315th  Infantrv,  first  79th  Division  unit  to  visit  city, 

takes  part  in  Women's  Service  flag  parade  for  War  Chest  drive. 
May       23 — Costa  Rica  declares  war  against  Germany. 

Provost  Marshal  General  Crowder  issues  "Work  or  Fight"  order. 
May       26 — One  thousand  two  hundred  drafted  men  leave  for  Camp  Meade. 
May       27 — Ludendorff  launches  Aisne  offensive. 

Schooner  Edna,  from  Philadelphia,  towed  into  port  a  derelict,  and  gives  first  warning 

of  submarine  operations  off  the  coast. 
May       28 — ist  Division.  .American  Expeditionary  Force,  captures  Canligny. 
May       30 — Charles  H.   Markham  takes  charge  of  Allegheny  region.  United  States  Railroad 

Administration. 
War  Chest  Ccmapaign  extended. 
Announce  winners  of  commissions  at  Third  Officers'  Training  Camp,  Camp  Hancock. 

37 


Courtesy    of    the    Diiladelphia    "Inqiii;    r 

French  "lilua  Devils'    cuinr  In  Philudelphia. 


June         1 — Transfer  of  oflScers  of  Emergency  Fleet  Corporation  frdiii  Washington  to  Philadelphia, 

begun. 
June         2 — German  submarine  (U-151)  destroys  Carolina.  Texal  and  Winneconne,  steamships; 
and  Isabel  B.  Wiley,  Edward  H.  Cole  and  Samuel  B.  Haskell,  schooners,  in  raid  off 
Jersey  and  Delaware  coasts. 
June        3 — Tanker  Herbert  L.  Pratt  damaged  by  mine  off  Delaware  Breakwater. 
June        4 — Crew  of  Edna,  and  of  Schooners  Hauppauge  and  Hatlie  Dunn,  reach  New  York 
with  stor>'  of  being  eight  days  prisoners  on  the  U-151. 
Port  of  Philadelphia  closed  for  three  hours. 
June         5 — 2d  American  Division  enters  battle  against  German  Marne  offensive. 

Second  registration  day  for  men  who  became  twenty-one  since  Jime  5,  1917. 
Sergeant-Major  Ryan  arrested  as  bogus  war  hero. 
June        9 — Fourth  German  offensive  (Montdidier-Noyon)  opens. 

June       13 — Emergency  Aid   asked  by  Federal  authorities  to  supervise  welfare  problems  for 
women  entering  war  industries. 
War  Chest  fiUed. 
Fourth  German  offensive  stopped. 
June       15 — Austro-Hungarian  offensive  on  Italian  Piavo  line  opens. 
June       23 — Austria-Hungary  begins  to  retire  from  Italian  front. 
June       27 — National  draft  lottery  for  June  5th  registrants  held. 

June       28 — First  Liberty  Sing  held  at  Liberty  Statute,  with  1,200  sailors  and  marines  parti- 
cipating. 
July         1 — Food  Administration  established  sugar  ration  of  three  pounds  per  month,  per  person. 
Federal  Grand  Jury  starts  draft  scandal  investigation. 

Mrs.  Emma  C.  BergdoU  arrested  for  aiding  her  son,  Grover  C,  to  dodge  draft  duty. 
July         4 — Six  cargo  carriers  and  two  destroyers  launched  as  Delaware  River  district's  part 
in  the  national  Fourth  of  July  launching  of  one  hundred  ships. 
Sixty  thousand  ahen-born  march  in  great  patriotic  parade. 

38 


Courtesy    of    the    Atlantic    Refining    Co. 

Tank  Sleamxhip  "Ufrhrrl  L.   Pnill"  duinayed  hy  a  Cennaii  Mine  uff  Hen    and    Chicken    Slioals, 

at  the  entrance  to  Delaware  Bay. 


July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 


July 


July 
July 

July 
July 

July 


1— Naval  barracks,  at  Sewell's  Point,  N.  J.,  destroyed  by  mysterious  fire. 
6 — Pennsylvania  Reserve  Militia  goes  to  Mt.  Gretna  to  camp  for  two  weeks. 
9 — Southeastern  chapter,  Red  Cross,  starts  drive  to  enrol  300  nurses. 
10 — Fifth  Ward  draft  board  suspended  by  order  of  President  Wilson. 
11 — Explosion  at  Frankford  Arsenal  kills  two  and  injures  six. 
12 — Haiti  declares  war  against  Germany. 

14 — Bastile  Day  celebrated  at  Mass  Meeting  at  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  speakers, 
including  George  Wharton  Pepper,   James   M.   Beck,   and   Lieutenant   Paul  de 
Perigord,  French  soldier-priest. 
Ten  thousand  people  at  Valley  Forge  celebrate  Bastile  Day  and  honor  United  States 

Marines,  from  League  Island  and  Camp  Fuller,  Paoli,  Pa. 
Federal  agents  and  marmes  arrest  400  in  Chester  vice  clean-up,  forerunner  of  slacker 
raids. 
1.5 — Ludendorff  opens  fifth  offensive  (Cliampagne-Marne). 

28th  Division,  excluding  artillery,  engaged  south  of  the  Marne. 
Marines  open  week's  recruiting  drive. 
18 — Foch's  counter-attack  (Ainse-Marne  offensive)  stops  German  drive. 
19 — Armored  cruiser  "San  Diego"  sunk  by  mine  off  Fire  Island,  N.  Y.;  six  seamen  lost. 

Honduras  declares  war  against  Germany. 
23 — Department  of  Justice  starts  hunt  for  Erwin  Bergdoll,  draft  dodger. 
24 — Fuel  Administration  enforces  lightless  nights  for  the  first  four  days  of  each  week  to 

conserve  coal. 
26 — Twenty  South  Americcm  diplomats  inspect  Hog  Island. 

39 


Mrs.  Wilson  C.hrisli^ninq  Die  "Quislconck.' 


July       29 — First  casualties  of  the  28th  Division  bepin  to  be  received  in  city. 

Aug.         2 — Two  huiiflrt'd  men  arrested  in  Woodside  Park  slacker  raid,  conducted  by  Department 

of  Justice  and  .\uierican  Protective  League. 
Food  Administration  cuts  sugar  rations  to  two  pounds  per  month,  per  person. 
Aug.         3 — Watonwan,  first  ship  to  be  launched  at  the  Merchant  Shipbuilding  Corporation, 

Bristol,  sticks  on  ways. 
Aug.         5 — Mrs.  Wilson  (accompanied  by  the  President)  christens  the  Quislconck,  Hog  Island's 

first  ship. 
Aug.         6 — Five  hundred  men  arrested  in  Shibe  Park  slacker  raid. 
Aug.         8 — British  open  Somme  offensive. 
Aug.       10 — -American   Isl  Army   organized. 

Aug.       12 — Dry  zone  established  in  one-half  mile  radius  of  Frankford  Arsenal. 
Aug.       14 — Walouan  launched  successfully  at  Bristol. 
Aug.       15 — Several  hundred  arrested  in   Atlantic  City  slacker  raid,  conducted  by  Department 

of  Justice  and  Philadelphia  branch  of  American  Protective  League. 
.\.ug.       18 — Oise-Aisrte  offensive  launched. 

53d  Artillery  Brigade  of  28th  Division  enters  fighting. 
Aug.       19 — Ypres-Lys  offensive  launched. 

One  hundred  and  fifty  negroes  arrested  in  South  Philadelphia  slacker  raid. 

40 


Courtesy  of  A. -I.  S.  C. 


Tlw  "^Jii  islronci':"  rrdily  Jiir  hrr  JirsI  (rip. 


Aug. 
Aug. 

Aug. 


Aug. 

Aug. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 


Sept.   13 


Sept. 
Sept. 


Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 


22 — First  local  curb  market  opened  at  North  College  and  Ridge  avenues. 

24 — National   Registration  Day  for  men  who  have  reached  twenty-one  since  Juno  .S, 

1918. 
26 — Battle  of  the  Scarpe  opens. 

One  thousand  two  hundred  and  eighty-one  drafted  men  leave  for  Camp  Lee. 
New  call  received  for  10,000  men. 
27 — Submarine  Chaser  No.  209  sunk  by  Felix  Taussig,  in  mistake  for  submarine  south 

of  New  York;  4  Philadelphians  among  seventeen  lost;  five  saved. 
30 — Five  hundred  and  fifty  men  captured  in  vice  raids  in  city. 
1 — Fuel  Administration  enforces  first  "Gasless  Sunday." 
2 — Ten  thousand  men,  war  workers  in  Labor  Day  Parade. 
3 — Battle  of  Scarpe  ends. 

5 — District  Appeal  Roard  No.  2  dismis.sed  by  Provo.st  Marshal  General. 
11 — $300,000  fire  in  New  York  Shipbuilding  Corporation. 
12 — Battle  of  Havrincoart-Epehy  opens. 
Battle  of  St.  Mihiel  opens. 
National  Registration  Day  for  men  from  eighlci'n  to  twenty-one  and  from  ihirty- 

one  to  forty-five;  240,.i63  registered  in  city. 
St.  Mihiel  salient  reduced  hy  1st  American  .Army. 
Federal  Grand  Jury  indicts  twenty-eight  for  various  draft  frauds. 
15 — .illied  dritv  in  Balkans  opens. 
17 — Battle  of  Harrincourt-Epehy  ends. 

The  Spanish  influenza  makes  its  appearance  in  city  when  fourteen  nurses  and  five 
internes,  at  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  are  reported  ill  as  the  result  of  observations 
and  research  upon  six  sailors  taken  there  suffering  with  the  disease. 
18 — One  thousand  influenza  cases  rejuirted  in  epidemic  at  Pliiladelphia  Navy  Yard. 
19 — Allenby  begins  final  campaign  against  Turkey,  in  .Asiatic  Turkey. 
21 — Bulgarian  armies  retreat  in  Balkans. 

24 — Registration  of  women  for  new-  W  omen's  Food  Army  begvm. 
25 — One  thousand  four  hundred  cases  of  influenza  reported  in  city. 

41 


Sept.      26 — Meiise-Argonne  and  Champagne  offensives  begin. 

28th  anil  79lh  (National  Army)  divisions,  entering  fighting. 
27 — Five  Tagebtalt  defendants  convicted  of  having  violated  the  Espionage  Act. 
28 — Pageant  on  Broad  street  precedes  opening  of  Fourth  Liberty  Loan. 
30 — Bulgaria  granted  an  Armistice. 

U.  S.  A.  T.  C.  Ticonderoga  sunk  by  submarine  (U-152),  230  lives  lost;  twenty-tliree 
saved  and  two  captured. 
1 — Student  Army  Training  Corps  becomes  compulsory  in  all  colleges  and  universities. 
2 — Influenza  epidemic  spreads  to  all  parts  of  the  city. 

3 — Board  of  Health  closes  pubhc  schools;  all  Liberty  Loan  meeting  indoors  called  ofi'. 
4 — Second  stage  of  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  begins. 

Five  hundred  and  seventy  deaths  and  4,064  cases  of  influenza  reported. 
Board  of  Health  closes  aU  saloons,  theaters  and  churches. 
8 — Second  battle  of  La  Cateau  begins. 
9 — 2d  American  Army  created. 
14 — Belgians  open  Dixmude  offensive. 
16 — Seven  hundred  and  eleven  deatlis  in  twenty-four  hours  estabUshes  an   influenza 

record  for  city. 
n— Battle  of  tlie  Selle  begins. 
20 — Fourth  Liberty  Loan  ends;  Philadelphia  subscribes,  $311,306,250. 

Influenza  epidemic  considered  well  under  control. 
23 — Six  hundred  Home  Defense  reservists  patrol  beats  of  police  made  ill  by  influenza. 
24 — Italy  begins  Victory  offensive. 

25 — Board  of  Health  lifts  quarantine  on  schools  and  churches. 

26 — Representatives  of  65,000.000   Slavs   meet   at   Independence   Hall   to  declare   the 
independence  of  the  mid-luiropean  states. 


Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Oct. 
Oct, 

Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct, 


Courtesy    of    the    Philadelphia    "Press." 

Reading  the  Declaration  of  Independence  of  Mid-European  Nations,  Independence  Square. 

42 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W.    Buhler,    Stanley    Co.    of    America. 

Governor  Sproul  and  members  of  the  Union  League  at  the  IJIjcrty  Statue- 


Armistice  Day,  t'llH. 


Oct.        26 — ^Board  of  Health  lifts  quarantine  against  .saloons,  theaters  and  public  meetings. 
Nov.         1 — Battle  of  Samlire  begins. 

Final  stage  of  Meuse-Argonne  offensive  begins. 
Nov.        3 — Austro-Hungarian  armies  in  Italy  completely  routed. 
Nov.        4 — Austria-Hungary  granted  an  armistice. 

Italian  colony  holds  great  celebration  for  victory,  culminating  with  meeting  in  In- 
dependence Square. 
Nov.        5 — ^William  C.  Sproul  elected  Governor  of  Pennsylvania. 

43 


Nov.        6 — Federal  agents   and   American   Protecti\e   League  raid   Olympic   boxing   club   for 

slackers. 
Nov.        7 — False  armistice  report  starts  jubilee  in  city. 

Secretary  of  the  Navy  Daniels,  at  reception  to  Director  Schwab,  at  Metropolitan 

Opera  House,  tells  Emergency  Fleet  he  favors  big  merchant  marine. 
Nov.      11— ARMISTICE  DAY. 

President   Wilsons  Armistice    Duy    I'rocluuiatioii;     "Aly   fellow   countrymen — The 

armistice  was  signed  this  morning.     Everything  for  which  America  fought,  has 

been  accomplished.     It  will  now  be  our  fortimate  duty  to  assist  by  example,  by 

sober,  friendly  counsel,  and  by  material  aid,  in  the  establishment  of  just  democracy 

throughout  the  world.     Woodrow  Wilson." 
Nov.       13 — Food  Administration  lifts  all  wheat  restrictions. 

Nov.      21 — President  Wilson  signs  War  Prohibition  Bill,  making  nation  dry  after  July  1.  l')19. 
Nov.      27 — War  Department  orders  demobilization  of  Student  Army  Training  Corps. 
Dec.         1 — British  cruiser  Cumberland  arrives  at  Navy  Yard. 
Dec.         4 — Captain  Alfred  F.  B.  Carpenter,  hero  of  Zeebrugge,  is  speaker  at  Red  Cross  meeting 

at  Academy  of  Music,  opening  Red  Cross  Christmas  membersliip  drive. 
Dec.  .5 — First   British   armed   force   to   parade   streets   of   Philadelphia   since   Revolution,   is 

detachment  of  sailors  and  marines  from  H.  M.  S.  Cumberland. 
Dec.         7 — President  Wilson  sails  for  Peace  Conference. 


1919 
Jan.        30 — First  troopship  with  returning  American  soldiers  to    reach  this  port  is  American 
liner  Haverford,  with  2.500  men  of  6.5th  Coast  Artillery;   138  wounded  colored 
enlisted  men,  and  38  wounded  and  sick  officers. 


Courtesy  of  Frank   \\.    Buhler.    Stanley    Co.    of    Ameriea. 

Troops  on  the  "Haverford." 
44 


Feb.       21 — ^American  liner  Northland  arrives  with  47  Red  Cross  and  Y.  M.  C.  A.  workers  and 

1,50 1  fighting  men. 
Feb.       23 — President  Wilson  reaches  Boston,  returnimj  from  Peace  Conference. 
March     5 — President  Wilson  sails  again  for  Peace  Conference. 
March   22 — American  Hner  Haverford  arrives  with  2,095  American  soldiers,  including  100  Penn- 

sylvanians. 
April      20 — Victory  Loan  opens  with  un\  eiling  of  Victory  Statue. 
April      28 — Transport  Mongolia  reaches  New  York  with  first  28th  Division  imits;  part  of  11 1th 

Infantry. 
April      29 — Transport  Kroonland  reaches  New  York  with  balance  of  111th  Infantry. 
April      30 — Transport  Finlarui  arrives  at  New  York  with  103d  Engineers. 

Transports   Pocalmntas   and   Mercury   race   up  the   Delaware   with   Major-General 

Muir  and  the  112th  Infantry  complete,  and  107th  Machine  Gun  Battalion. 
May         4 — Transport  Maui  brings  109th  Infantry  to  Philadelpliia. 
May         7 — Transport  Liheralor  brings  103d   Field  vSignal   Batt;dion,   103d  Supply   Train   ami 

balance  of  103d  Engineers,  to  Philadelphia. 
May         9 — Transport  Mongolia  reaches  New  York  with  53d  Artillery  Brigade  Headcjuarters, 

107th  and  109th  Field  Artillery  and  103d  Sanitary  Train. 
May       10— Victory    Loan   ends;    Philadelphia   subscribed    $208,450,500. 

May       11 — Transport  Edgar  F.  Luckenbach  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  part  of  110th  Infantry. 
May       12 — Transport  Sanlu  Olivia  arrives  at   Philadelphia  with  balance  of  llOth  Infantry. 
May       15 — 28tb  Division  1  olds  last  review  in  monster  parade  on  Broad,  Chestnut  and  Market  streets. 
May       16 — Transport  Peerless  reaches  Philadelphia  with  108th  Field  Artillery  and  108th  Machine 

Gun  Battalion,  too  late  for  the  Divisional  Review. 
May       26 — Transport  Princess  Maloika  reaches  New  York  with  first  units  of  79th  Division — 314th 

Infantry;  304th  Field  Signal  Battalion  and  15  1th  \rtillery  Brigade  Headquarters. 
Transport  Tiger  arri\es  in  New  York  with  310th  Field  Artillery. 
Transport  Virginian  arrives  at  Newport  News,  Va..  with  312th  Field  Artillery  and 

311th  Machine  Gun  Battalion;  met  by  representatives  of  Philadelphia  Welcome 

Home  Committee. 
May       28 — Transport  Edward  Luckenbach  arrives  at  New  York  with  311th  Field  Artillery  and 

312th  Machine  Gun  Battalion. 
May       29 — Transport  Kroonland  arrives  at  New  York  with  part  of  316th  Infantry,  Divisional 

Headquarters,  304th  Engineers,  Headquarters  Troop  and  Divisional  Train  Head- 
quarters.    Major-General  Jos.  E.   Kuhn  greeted  at  the  dock  by  Mayor  Smith 

and  Committee  from  Philadelphia. 
Transport  Texan  reaches  Philadelphia  with  balance  of  316th  Infantry. 
May       30^Transporl  Santa  Rosa  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  the  315th  Infantry  (Philadelphia's 

Own). 
May       30 — Secretary  of  the  Navy  Daniels   witnesses   launching  of   five  ships  at   Hog   Island 

in  forty-eight  minutes. 
May      31 — Transport  Dakolan  arrives  at  Philadelphia  with  304th  Supply  Train,  79th  Military 

Police  Company,  detachment  of  310lh  Field  Artillery  and  Companies  L  and  M, 

315th  Infantry. 
June         1 — Transport  Shoshone  brings  final  79th  Division  men  to  Philadelphia;  Horse  Battalion 

of  304th  Ammunition  Train  and  301th  Sanitary  Train. 
Transports  Central  Gorgas  and  Canandaigua  arrive  at  Philadelphia  with  933  and 

1,327  troops,  respectively. 
June       28 — Versailles  Peace  Treaty  with  Germany  signed  by  Allies. 
Sept.       10 — Austro-Hungarian  peace  treaty  signed  at  St.  Germain. 

Sept.      26 — His  Eminence,  Cardinal  Mercier,  Archbishop  of  Malines,  is  guest  of  city. 
Oct.        27 — The  King  and  Queen  of  the  Belgians  and  the  Duke  of  Brabant,  received  by  Mayor 

Smith.    Also  entertained  by  the  Belgian  Committee  of  the  Emergency  Aid,  and 

by  the  Red  Cross.    The  King  christens  LInited  States  Army  Transport  Cantigny, 

at  Hog  Island. 
Nov.      18 — Prince  of  Wales  makes  brief  visit  to  city. 
Nov.      27 — Treaty  with  Bulgaria  signed  by  Allies  at  Neuilly. 

45 


MAYOR  SMITH'S  WAR  COMMITTEES 
William  Bell  Clark 

^ARGE  groups  of  public-spirited  citizens  were  twice  called 
into  volunteer  service  by  Mayor  Thomas  B.  Smith  during 
the  mid-years  of  his  term.  Both  functioned  admirably, 
the  first,  in  1916,  in  caring  for  the  families  of  the  National 
Guardsmen  from  this  city  sent  to  the  border,  and  the 
second,  in  1917,  in  encouraging  patriotic  endeavor,  aiding 
recruiting,  preparing  for  home  defense  and  oifering  prac- 
tical assistance  to  service  men  and  their  families. 

The  volunteer  organization  of  1916  was  the  Citizens' 
Soldiers  Aid  Committee  of  Philadelphia;  the  one  of  1917, 
the  Philadelphia  Hf>me  Defense  Committee.  While  their  duties  were  widely  diver- 
gent, the  personnel  in  each  instance  was  somewhat  similar,  and  the  Mayor  was 
Chairman  of  each.  Likewise,  the  Mayor's  reception  room  was  generally  the 
meeting  place,  and  the  original  office  personnel  remained  almost  intact  through 
the  life  of  both  organizations.  For  these  reasons  it  has  been  deemed  best  to  deal 
with  them  in  a  single  chapter. 

In  the  few  years  which  have  elapsed  since  the  days  of  the  Mexican  border  and 
those  of  the  World  War,  confused  impressions  have  arisen  regarding  the  work  of 
the  mayor's  committees  and  those  of  other  organizations.  Frequently  the  Citizens' 
Soldiers  Aid  Committee  and  the  .Joint  Councilmanic  Committee  have  been  mis- 
taken as  one  and  the  same,  while  the  myriad  of  mushroom  organizations  which 
sprang  into  temporary  existence  in  the  early  days  of  1917  have  resulted  in  hazy 
ideas  as  to  just  what  each  did. 


Plioto  by  L.   R.   Snow. 


Philadelphia  Mounted  Police. 
46 


To  one  seeking  to  separate  "the  wheat  from  the  chaff,"  the  files  of  the  Phila- 
delphia newspapers  were  che  first  recourse.  Their  columns  were  filled  with  valu- 
able information;  the  early  activities  of  each  of  the  committees  were  described 
in  full.  But  the  world-wide  war  news  of  1916  and  1917  could  not  help  but  crowd 
the  committee  work  into  narrowing  space  until  it  eventually  disappeared.  This 
was  particularly  true  when,  with  the  first  hurrah  at  an  end,  the  organizations  got 
down  to  routine.  Fortunately,  the  original  files  of  both  committees  are  in  exis- 
tence. Those  of  the  Citizens'  Soldiers  Aid  Committee  are  in  the  oflice  of  George 
Wentworth  Carr,  who  was  Secretary  of  both  organizations;  those  of  the  Philadel- 
phia Home  Defense  Committee  in  the  Mayor's  filing  room,  No.  353,  City  Hall. 

The  Citizens'  Soldiers  Aid  Committee 

On  June  18,  1916,  a  Uttle  more  than  three  months  after  Pancho  ViUa  and 
his  Mexican  bandits  raided  the  border  town  of  Columbus,  N.  M.,  President 
Wilson,  by  official  proclamation,  called  the  National  Guard  into  Federal  service. 
Two  days  later,  Brigadier-General  WiUiam  G.  Price,  Jr.,  commanding  the  1st 
Infantry  Brigade^the  1st,  2d  and  3d  Regiments,  all  of  Philadelphia— ordered  the 
men  under  arms  in  their  respective  armories  on  the  morning  of  June  22d,  and, 
on  the  day  of  mobiUzation,  the  Citizens'  Soldiers  Aid  Committee  was  formed. 

Mayor  Smith  had  issued  a  call  for  the  meeting  the  previous  day  and  more 
than  300  representative  citizens  crowded  into  Room  202  (the  Mayor's  reception 
room)  in  response  to  his  request.  The  mayor,  as  chairman  of  the  meeting,  outfined 
the  purpose — to  take  steps  to  safeguard  the  famifies  of  the  guardsmen  by  extending 
financial  aid  to  those  whose  income  was  cut  suddenly  from  a  Uving  wage  to  the 
thirty  dollars  a  month  paid  by  the  Government  to  an  enlisted  man.  In  the  course 
of  his  opening  address  he  said : 

"No  red  tape  methods  should  be  pennitted  to  delay  temporary  relief  where  the  need  is 
apparent.  It  is  far  better  that  an  miworthy  few  should  impose  upon  us,  than  that  the  sufferings 
of  the  many  deserving  be  prolonged,  while  a  too  critical  investigation  of  their  cases  is  being  made. 
Our  aim  should  be  quick,  effective,  but  quiet  helpfulness  For  the  present,  and  until  experience 
has  indicated  more  clearly  the  phases  into  which  our  work  will  develop,  our  organization  should 
be  simple  and  flexible;  and  I,  therefore,  suggest  that  our  officers  and  committee  be  limited  to 
a  chairman,  vice-chairman,  secretary,  treasurer,  an  executive  committee,  a  managing  committee, 
and  a  finance  committee.  Obviously  the  first  thing  needed  is  money  and  that  in  large  amounts, 
[f  Philadelphia's  soldiers  should  be  in  the  field  for  a  year,  we  shall  need  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
dollars.  We  cannot  start  too  soon  to  raise  it.  Some  sources  from  which  speedy  responses  should 
be  expected  have  occurred  to  me.  Some  of  the  plans  suggested  were  by  large  individual  sub- 
scriptions from  Philadelphia  citizens  of  wealth;  the  use  of  glass  bowls  in  public  places,  and  appeal 
to  pastors  of  churches  to  take  up  special  collections." 

Following  the  Mayor's  suggestions  an  election  was  held  and  the  following 
officers  selected;  Chairman  of  the  General  Committee,  the  Mayor;  Vice-Chairman, 
Colonel  Sheldon  Potter;  Treasurer,  Joseph  E.  Widener,  and  Secretary,  George  Went- 
worth Carr.  In  addition  it  was  decided  to  have  a  managing  committee  of  the 
officers  and  eleven  other  members;  an  executive  committee  of  sixty-five,  and  finance 
committee  of  eighteen. 

The  Citizens'  Soldiers  Aid  Committee  became  operative  on  June  24th,  within 
one  hour  after  the  first  troop  train  had  left  the  city  for  Mt.  Gretna,  when  an  appU- 

47 


cation  was  received  from  a  twenty-year  old  bride  of  a  few  months.  She  was  given 
immediate  assistance  and  subsequently  placed  in  a  lucrative  position.  Between 
June  21th  and  July  7th,  the  Committee  paid  out  $,508  without  any  investigation, 
following  the  Mayor's  idea  that  it  was  better  to  lose  a  few  dollars  than  to  permit 
some  needy  and  worthy  person  to  suffer. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  executive  committee  of  sixty-five  was  held  on  June 
27th,  at  which  time  a  large  sum  of  money  was  pledged.  The  personnel  of  the  Ex- 
ecutive Committee  was  as  follows: 

Herbert  D.  Allman,  Richard  L.  Austin,  C.  C.  A.  Baldi,  John  C.  Bell,  General  R.  Dale  Benson, 
A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle,  former  Mayor  Rudolph  Blankenburg,  Samuel  T.  Bodine,  Charles  S.  Calwell, 
George  Wentworth  Carr,  Mrs.  Alexander  J.  Cassatt,  Mrs.  J.  Gardner  Cassatt,  Frederick  T. 
Chandler,  Morris  L.  Clothier,  Dr.  Russell  Conwell,  Edward  M.  Cooke,  Colonel  J.  Howell  Cum- 
mings,  Cyrus  H.  K.  Curtis,  Agnew  T.  Dice,  Mrs.  George  Dallas  Dixon,  Mrs.  George  W.  C. 
Drexel,  Franz  Ehrlich,  Jr.,  William  S.  EUis,  Nathan  T.  Folwell,  Howard  B.  French,  Joseph  P. 
Gaffney,  Ellis  A.  Gimbel,  Dr.  E.  B.  Gleason,  Colonel  John  C.  Gribbel,  Mrs.  John  C.  Groome. 
William  Hancock,  Charles  C.  Harrison,  Stevens  Heckscher,  Max  Herzberg,  Isaac  D.  Hetzel, 
Mrs.  George  Q.  Horwitz,  James  E.  Lennon,  Howard  W.  Lewis,  Colonel  Samuel  D.  Lit,  L.  H. 
Kiimard,  Charles  H.  Krumbhaar,  Hugh  McCaffrey,  Joseph  B.  McCall,  Judge  J.  Willis  Martin, 
Thomas  Martindale.  Gustav  Mayer,  Thomas  E.  Mitten,  George  Wharton  Pepper,  Colonel 
Sheldon  Potter,  Eli  Kirk  Price,  Frank  P.  Prichard,  Samuel  Rea,  Francis  B.  Reeves,  Levi  L.  Rue, 
Dr.  George  E.  de  Schweinitz,  Edgar  Fahs  Smith,  Joseph  IV.  Snellenburg,  Mrs.  E.  T.  Stotesbury, 
E.  T.  Stotesbury,  Edwin  S.  Stuart,  Judge  Mayer  Sulzberger,  Charlemagne  Tower,  John  Wana- 
maker,  Mrs.  Rarclay  H.  Warburton,  Joseph  E.  Widener,  Alexander  Van  Rensselaer  and  Mayor 
Smith. 

On  June  30th,  the  General  Committee  met  in  the  Mayor's  reception  room  and 
the  personnel  of  the  finance  and  managing  committees  were  announced  as  follows: 

Finance  CommiUee:  E.  T.  Stotesbury,  chairman;  Frederick  T.  Chandler,  Morris  L.  Clothier, 
Cyrus  H.  K.  Curtis,  Mrs.  George  Dallas  Dixon,  William  S.  Ellis,  Nathan  T.  FolweU,  EUis  A. 
Gimbel,  Colonel  John  C.  Gribbel,  Charles  C.  Harrison,  Mrs.  George  Q.  Horwitz,  Howard  W. 
Lewis,  Colonel  Samuel  D.  Lit,  Hugh  McCaffrey,  Levi  L.  Rue,  Joseph  N.  Snellenburg,  Edwin  S. 
Stuart,  Alexander  Van  Rensselaer  and  John  Wanamaker. 

Managing  CommiUee:  Mayor  Smith,  chairman;  all  officers  ex-officio  and  John  C.  Bell, 
Samuel  Bodine,  William  Hancock,  Stevens  Heckscher,  Max  Herzberg,  Mrs.  A.  J.  Cassatt,  Mrs. 
George  W.  C.  Drexel,  Mrs.  John  C.  Groome,  Edgar  F.  Smith,  Mrs.  E.  T.  Stotesbury  and  Colonel 
J.  Howell  Cummings. 

As  the  relief  work  progressed  an  affiliation  was  effected  with  the  Home  ReUef 
Division  of  the  Emergency  Aid  Committee,  and  by  July  8th  the  work  of  the  or- 
ganization had  been  so  extended  as  to  necessitate  three  departments,  the  Executive 
and  Registration  in  City  Hall  and  the  Home  Relief  Division  at  221  S.  18th  Street. 
The  Executive  Department  received  contributions  and  disbursed  the  General  Fund, 
took  care  of  the  general  correspondence  and  outlined  the  policies  of  the  Committee. 
The  Registration  Department  received  applications  and  the  Home  Relief  Division, 
in  charge  of  the  Emergency  Aid,  made  investigations  and  paid  the  allowances  to 
the  dependents  of  the  soldiers.  The  Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for  National 
Preparedness  cooperated  with  the  Emergency  Aid  Committee  in  the  home  reUef 
work.  Under  the  direction  of  Mrs.  J.  Gardner  Cassatt,  a  member  of  the  Executive 
Committee  of  the  Citizens'  Soldiers  Aid  Committee,  twenty -seven  volunteer  visitors 
made  investigations.     These  twenty -seven  were : 

Miss  Madeline  Asbury,  Mrs.  L.  C.  Black,  Miss  Louise  Cochran,  Miss  Heanor  Solis-Cohen, 
Miss  Judith  Solis-Cohen,  Mrs.  C.  L.  Card,  Miss  Ethel  Dripps,  Miss  Blanche  V.  Moore,  Miss 
Helen  E.  Donaghy,  Miss  Mary  A.  Gilbert,  Mrs.  Francis  S.  Hoskins,  Mrs.  Henry  I.  Hyneman, 

48 


Mrs.  Emma  Hoffa,  Mrs.  Henry  F.  Kassebaum,  Mrs.  George  O.  Lummis,  Mi.ss  Martha  C.  F. 
Bent,  Dr.  H.  E.  McSorley,  Mrs.  H.  Gordon  McGough,  Mrs.  Mustard,  Mrs.  Marshall,  Mrs. 
Powers,  Mrs.  B.  Ale.xander  Bandall,  Miss  M.  H.  Stryker,  Miss  Amy  D.  Smith,  Mrs.  J.  Harry 
Scott,  Mrs.  J.  Frederick  Thomas  and  Mrs.  H.  Frederick  Wilson. 

The  Emergency  Aid  Volunteer  workers  were:  Mrs.  J.  Willis  Martin,  acting  chairman; 
Mrs.  John  C.  Groome,  chairman  Home  Belief  Division;  Mrs.  Bodman  E.  Griscom,  Mrs.  Beed  A, 
Morgan,  Mrs.  F.  M.  Myer,  Mrs.  Gibson  Bell,  Miss  Loviise  Snowden,  Mrs.  Francis  D.  Lewis, 
Mrs.  Henry  C.  Boyer,  Mrs.  Alexander  Bandall,  Mrs.  W.  Penn  Smith,  Mrs.  J.  B.  Lipi)in(olt,  .Jr., 
Mrs.  Charles  Piatt,  Jr.,  Miss  Eleanor  Baker,  Miss  Eleanor  E.  Carr,  and  Miss  Elizabelh  D. 
Wheeler. 

By  mid-July  the  Committee  had  received  a  total  of  $6,000  and  had  expended 
more  than  .§4,000  for  relief  work.  In  addition,  by  personal  subscription  outside  of 
the  Relief  Fund  but  within  the  Committee,  about  $1,200  had  been  gathered  to  pur- 
chase baseball  equipment  for  each  of  the  thirty-six  Philadelphia  National  (iuard 
companies  then  at  Camp  Stewart,  El  Paso,  Texas.  On  July  18th,  when  the 
financial  condition  became  exceedingly  precarious,  Mr.  Stotesbury,  as  Chairman 
of  the  Finance  Committee,  addressed  a  meeting  of  the  General  Cftmmittee  and 
secured  pledges,  within  a  half  hour,  for  $9,540.  He  showed  that  the  Committee 
needed  between  $500  and  $1,800  weekly  to  carry  on  the  work.  Pledge  cards  were 
issued  at  the  meeting,  and  also  placed  in  the  hands  of  business  and  other  organ- 
izations and  sent  to  a  large  maihng  list  of  reputable  citizens.  On  July  22d,  the  Com- 
mittee announced  that  it  had  received  a  total  of  $15,712.05  and  had  expended 
$5,756.10. 

The  overhead  expenses  were  kept  tliroughout  at  a  mimimum.  The  Pennsyl- 
vania Women's  Division  for  National  Preparedness  paid  for  the  services  of  one 
clerk  and  Mrs.  J.  Gardner  Cassatt  paid  the  expenses  of  a  stenographer.  Other 
patriotic  women  in  the  Committee  personally  paid  incidental  expenses,  so  that  the 
overhead  to  the  Committee  consisted  of  the  salary  for  six  clerks — four  at  the  City 
Hall  and  two  at  221  S.  18th  Street— with  a  total  payroll  of  $94  weekly. 

By  the  end  of  .liily  more  than  400  families  had  appealed  for  help.  These 
were:  21.3  wives;  seventeen  fathers;  206  mothers  of  soldiers.  There  was 
a  total  of  486  dependent  children  in  these  appeals  and  there  were  twenty-four 
expectant  mothers.  At  first  the  persons  on  the  allowance  list  called  at  the  Home 
Relief  Division  for  their  money,  but  when  the  infantile  paralysis  epidemic  became 
virulent  in  the  summer  of  1916,  a  plan  was  devised  whereby  money  could  be  sent 
by  check.  In  the  case  of  foreign  born  parents  of  soldiers,  the  money  was  sent  in 
cash  to  avoid  misunderstanding. 

On  August  1st,  Mayor  Smith  made  a  public  appeal  for  funds  to  aid  the  woik, 
and  the  immediate  results  were  apparent  when  $981  came  in  on  August  .'5d  and 
$1,658  on  August  4th.  By  August  8th,  the  Committee  had  received  a  total  of 
$27,060.40  and  had  expended  $11,876.10.  Through  the  balance  of  the  month  and 
early  September  receipts  and  disbursements  grew  alik(>,  and  on  September  7th,  the 
former  reached  $36,996  and  the  later  $22,322. 

About  the  middle  of  September,  the  Committee  learned  that  the  Army  Ap- 
propriation Bill,  approved  by  the  President  on  September  8th,  contained  an  item 
of  $2,000,000  for  the  relief  of  the  dependents  of  the  soldiers  of  the  National  Guard 
and  the  Begular  Army.  At  that  time  it  appeared  as  if  the  Philadelphia  soldiers 
would  remain  indefinitely  in  the  field.  The  Committee,  realizing  that  its  funds 
were  inadequate  to  carry  it  beyond  December  15th,  took  up  the  question  of  another 

49 


public  appeal  or  securing  the  relief  through  the  War  Department.  Fortunately 
in  early  October,  two  of  the  Philadelphia  regiments — the  1st  and  3d — returned 
from  border  service.  There  remained  at  Camp  Stewart  the  2d  Regiment,  at 
that  time  being  converted  into  the  Second  Field  Artillery.  The  Committee  sent 
to  the  Commander  of  the  2d  Artillery  the  names  of  the  soldiers  in  the  unit  whose 
families  were  being  aided  and  advised  to  apply  for  relief  to  the  War  Department 
under  the  terms  of  the  act. 

Negotiations  were  at  the  same  time  carried  on  with  the  War  Department,  and 
on  September  26th,  N.  B.  Kelly,  Secretary  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  in- 
terviewed Secretary  of  War  Baker  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  acting  for  the  Committee 
while  traveling  on  another  matter.  Mr.  Kelly  wired  the  result  of  his  interview 
as  follows: 

"Secretary  of  War  Baker  advises  that  you  do  not  seek  additional  contributions.  Have 
applicants  for  relief  inform  their  relatives  to  secure  application  blanks  from  their  commanding 
officers  at  the  front  to  be  forwarded  to  War  Department.  Said  department  will  secure  family 
records  through  your  committee.  Said  applicants  will  be  paid  by  Government,  if  your  reports 
as  to  their  needs  are  favorable." 

With  the  return  of  two  regiments  in  October  the  Committee  found  its  funds 
sufficient  to  continue  providing  for  the  125  dependent  families  in  the  2d  Artillery 
for  a  Uttle  longer  than  had  been  anticipated,  and  it  was  not  until  November  27th 
that  a  letter  was  sent  to  each  of  the  125  soldiers  stating  that  allowances  would  not 
be  paid  after  December  15th,  and  instructing  them  to  apply  to  the  War  Department 
for  relief.  When  December  15th  arrived  the  Committee's  funds,  as  had  been 
anticipated,  came  to  an  end.  From  June  24th  to  December  15th  it  had  raised 
and  expended,  the  major  part  being  received  from  members  of  the  Committee,  the 
sum  of  $42,323.47.  Its  work  practically  ended  on  that  date.  What  remained  was 
merely  considerable  routine  endeavor  to  get  the  dependent  families  safely  trans- 
ferred from  the  payroll  of  the  Committee  to  that  of  the  War  Department.  The 
Citizens'  Soldiers  Aid  Committee,  as  an  organization,  passed  into  history  with  the 
end  of  the  year  1916. 

The  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee 

The  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee  grew  out  of  a  meeting  called 
originally  to  formulate  plans  to  aid  the  Fourth  Naval  District  recruit  6,000  men 
for  the  Naval  Coast  Defense  Reserve.  It  was  during  the  pre-war  (for  America) 
days,  while  the  nation  was  awaiting  President  Wilson's  address  to  the  pending 
special  session  of  Congress,  after  Ambassador  Bernstorff  had  been  handed  his 
passports,  and  when  all  activities  centered  on  preparedness.  Captain  Robert 
Lee  Russell,  U.  S.  N.,  Commandant  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard,  had  requested 
public  assistance  in  making  the  recruiting  campaign  go,  and  on  March  20,  1917, 
in  response  to  Mayor  Smith's  invitation,  there  gathered  in  the  Mayor's  reception 
room,  representatives  of  many  organizations,  business,  fraternal,  social  and  pa- 
triotic.    The  total  was  close  to  400. 

The  gathering  saw  more  before  it  than  the  recruiting  campaign.  It  sensed 
the  inevitable  entry  of  the  nation  into  war,  and  it  used  the  opportunity  of  the 
public  meeting  to  line  up  the  city  in  solid  front  behind  the  President.  Mayor 
Smith  acted  as  chairman  and,  a  few  minutes  after  the  opening  of  the  session,  Franz 
Ehrlich,  Jr.,  President  of  the  Philadelphia  Branch  of  the  National  German-American 

50 


Alliance,  introduced  a  resolution  pledging  the  resources  of  the  city  and  its  people 
to  the  President.  To  make  the  resolution  more  emphatic  in  showing  the  disap- 
pearance of  the  hyphen,  the  seconder  was  John  B.  Mayer,  President  of  the  German 
Society  of  Pennsylvania.  Ten  minutes  later  the  following  telegram  was  on  its 
way  to  Washington: 

"The  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee,  just  organized,  and  now  in  session  at  the 
Mayor's  office,  Philadelphia,  composed  of  representatives  of  great  railroads,  public  utility  com- 
panies, large  mercantile  and  industrial  establishments,  great  commercial  and  labor  organizations, 
sectional  business  men's  associations,  athletic  and  yacht  clubs,  and  representing  a  vast  majority 
of  all  the  citizens  of  Philadelphia,  have  unanimously  adopted  the  following  resolution: 

"The  members  of  the  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee,  as  individuals  and  for  the 
corporations  and  associations  represented  by  them  as  well  as  for  the  people  of  Philadelphia 
generally,  pledge  the  ungrudging  support  of  all  the  men  and  women  of  Philadelphia  and  all  its 
resources  to  the  President  of  the  United  States  in  his  efforts  to  maintain  the  honor  and  dignity 
of  the  Nation  and  protect  the  Uves  and  property  of  Americans  on  land  and  sea. 

"Thomas  B.  Smith,  Mayor." 

Before  adjournment,  the  newly  formed  committee  pledged  its  aid  to  the 
naval  recruiting  campaign  as  outlined  by  Captain  H.  A.  Bispham,  U.  S.  N..  repre- 
senting Commandant  Russell;  decided  upon  an  executive  committee  to  be  appointed 
by  the  chairman,  and  elected  the  following  officers: 

Chairman,  Mayor  Smith;  Vice-Chairman,  John  C.  Bell;  Secretary,  George  Wentworth  Carr; 
and  Treasurer,  Joseph  E.  Widener. 

The  City  beat  the  State  by  twenty-four  hours  in  its  preparedness  work.  It 
was  not  until  the  following  day,  March  21st,  that  Governor  Brumbaugh  appointed 
the  Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Public  Safety. 

On  March  23d,  the  Executive  Committee  having  been  appointed,  met  in  the 
Mayor's  reception  room  and  considered  a  vast  patriotic  meeting  as  one  of  the  best 
ways  to  arouse  the  people  of  the  city  to  the  emergency.  At  the  same  time  the 
Mayor  named  the  chairmen  of  the  standing  committees  as  follows: 

Finance,  E.  T.  Stotesbury;  Home  Resen-e,  A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle;  Decorations  and  Posters, 
John  Frederick  Lewis;  Recruiting  Stations,  William  W.  Roper. 

These  chairmen,  with  the  officers  of  the  General  Committee  and  the  following 
others,  constituted  the  Executive  Committee: 

William  Potter,  John  B.  Mayer,  Clarence  Wolf,  Edward  A.  Noppel,  Mrs.  J.  Willis  Martin, 
and  Ernest  T.  Trigg. 

Likewise  a  publicity  committee  was  appointed  that  day  consisting  of: 

M.  F.  Hanson,  Colonel  James  Elverson,  Jr.,  Cyrus  H.  K.  Curtis,  Samuel  Meek,  E.  A.  Van 
Valkenburg,  W.  L.  McLean,  Thomas  D.  Taylor,  P.  H.  Whaley,  Gustavus  Mayer,  C.  Lemke  and 
Rowe  Stewart. 

On  the  following  day,  Saturday,  March  24th,  the  Executive  Committee  met 
at  the  Poor  Richard  Club  and  laid  plans  for  the  previously  approved  patriotic 
meeting  to  be  held  in  Independence  Square  on  the  subsequent  Saturday,  March 
31st,  with  a  special  celebration  for  the  school  children  in  Washington  Square, 
adjoining,  at  the  same  time.  A  Committee  on  Celebration  was  appointed  with  the 
following  members: 

51 


f*itvmitiume  1' 


On  IMairvl)  2t»th  IIk^  pn^rsMiwel  icif  swaue  of  tine'  standing  «-<oaunittie«$  v»s^  ai»- 
nnHtmwl  ;^  Mk>w^: 

Jid.  IVini->  \|..  OfcmBiJBwr.  J.  Hk'^fUl  OncommnMHiSs.  S<lau!«fe-y  Hi.  Ufanfic.  Jr..  JuiAux  H.  MaiajiiL  Ltvi  L^ 
Ri«r„  iV««j(MMiMt  RtKt^.  Dwmrl  B.  W^ettli.;.  iVfiaiii^  II.  Fituwr.  ESis  D.  (LSontwl.  CiitwMn}  F.  l{«Dtiunj. 
CkiAoMfl  StitvwMl  IX  litv  RiMMdbil  \M^:!«ii.  iVve^if  II.  MdR«i(Ulvn>  Inkvkt  K.  RftssniiaiK'.  .\dh!l|p& 

It/mu  JOfstflnif  CtumnSlStii:  \.  J.  nnrawt  ESdkttr.  CktHtwiwi:  Dr.  CfenMBt  GiJAr.  Obiites  B.. 
IMmis.  LiW  J.  lia$«nittiM».  J.  IVW  tit  JkoUNwvL  OoAimwI  Jittrwb  D.  lit.  TiHfifihiiiia  B^  Xocrisv  CL  &.  W. 
IV-t^wnl  iMftdl  .VlkaMnfter  ViMk  Rtmt$s<dbKir. 

The  firsl  big  »clneviein«nt  (ftlf  the  HuxvHe'  rV't<;'a-?ii'  <.■..■■■-■■:■:.•■.  '.:■•:■  vatri.nk 
ralllly  at  Indefwrnlmo^  Squainf  and  Washin^nw  Sqiwairif-  w,i-  .•  o-i  r.  \Liah  "^UC. 
AS  lpilanne<dl.  a  full  ww4  Mfuwv'  the  <oJffkul  i(k<i-feaattoin  oif  «Rar.  U  was  iwwwkd  by 
ntany  iMvu-wssinims  <i>if  miKlary  unit&  fratieniral  loj^nuankvns.  husiniK^  asjoctatknitSv 
s)dhio«>l  dttkliKWL  <e4c..  all  ITiwniing  in  tbnr  i«$|.wclivi^  kwditkis  and  i<:<etili»tii$  ujp^t 
thf  hklkifk-  sqmiainftf.  A  ttvuwd  vai«>u$ly  <ftj*UMaU\l  as  fnun  KDLliXW  liiv  2llXt!W«!>  pxvtpiitf 
partkii-XAliNi  in  the  tw>  niadn  (c«liflMratk>tt&  Mayvr  Snukh  pret^Kkd  at  tlmr  nue^tiini^ 
in  IwkfXMndiniKir  Squan^.  and  addrftssws  wvixf  d«fivi««cl  by  Smatior  Hiiam  W.  Jiohn- 
s»iiia.  coif  CaKfttWWiia;  Sfnalioc  IViiftj.  INftiroee.  oJf  IVmnsybiTania:  Ftankltin  Sjixfowr 
KktntMmisv  C  Stunart  PaUwrsunt.  Pirvii\\>is4t  Kd^r  Faks  Stuikk.  of  tluf  I  mi^vtJsity  oJf 
]^i«tt$\hania:   R«t\.  Dr.  Rui$«idlll  H.  CtMJwidlL  RU  Rev.  H«ury   T-    DiMUi^Kok'. 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W.    l^uhler.    Ptanlpy   Co.    of    America. 

Hflalives  of  Philadelphia  men  in  Ihv  Service  briiuj  Clirisimas  packiii/es. 


and  Lipu tenant-General  S.  B.  M.  Yoiin':.  The  speaker  at  the  meeting  for  schiK>l 
children  in  Washington  Square  was  city  statistician,  Edward  J.  Cattell. 

In  the  meanwhile  the  work  of  the  standing  committees  was  not  neglected. 
The  Committee  on  recruiting  stands  enlisted  many  volunteer  workers  who  placed 
their  ser\ices  in  clerical  capacities  under  the  recruiting  officers  of  the  Naval  Coast 
Defense  Reserve,  the  Regular  \avy.  the  Regidar  \rniy  and  the  National  (uiard. 
This  volunteer  force  of  helpers  enabled  the  various  branches  of  the  Federal  service 
to  extend  recruiting  work  to  all  parts  of  the  city  instead  of  being  confined  to  certain 
central  localities.  The  first  Naval  Coast  Defense  Reserve  Station  at  the  naval 
home  was  s<K)n  augmented  by  a  permanent  station  in  the  Mayor's  reception  ri.K)m, 
another  in  Independence  Hall  and  a  third  in  the  Crozier  Building.  The  battle- 
ships of  the  Atlantic  Reserv  e  Fleet  set  up  recruiting  tents  on  the  plaza  of  City  Hall. 
The  National  Cuard  went  beyond  their  armories,  centering  around  the  City  Hall, 
and  they,  with  the  Navy  and  Regular  .\rmy,  conductetl  flying  automobile  recruiting 
squads,  the  machines  in  many  instances  being  secured  by  the  Rwruiting  Stands 
Committee. 

The  work  of  the  Home  Defense  Reserve  Committee,  resulting  in  the  creation 
of  the  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Reserve,  is  fully  described  elsewhere  in  this  vol- 
ume, and  is  only  touched  upon  here  to  show  the  connection  between  it  and  the 
Home  Defense  Committee, 

The  work  of  the  Sch<x)l  Mobilization  Committee,  under  the  chairmanship  of 
Franklin  Spencer  Kdmonds.  is  also  reviewed  elsewhere. 

\\  hile  the  Home  Defense  Committee  found  it  uimecessary  to  take  up  the  finan- 
cial aid  to  soldiers'  dependents,  which  had  been  the  function  of  the  earUer  Citizens' 

33 


Soldiers  Relief  Committee  of  the  Mexican  border  days,  it  did  find  a  valuable  source 
of  work  in  the  establishment  of  a  Personal  Service  Bureau  to  aid  the  soldier  and 
his  family  to  adjust  themselves  to  war  conditions,  convey  messages  between  them, 
look  up  those  who  failed  to  communicate  properly  with  their  homes,  forward  mail 
and  packages  and  offer  a  general  helping  hand  to  service  men  from  other  cities 
located  temportuily  in  Philadelphia. 

Perhaps  the  biggest  achievement  of  the  Personal  Service  Bureau,  under  Mrs. 
M.  L.  Woodruff,  was  the  forwarding  of  Christmas  packages  to  the  Philadelphia  sol- 
diers in  American  camps  in  the  holiday  season  of  1917.  All  that  the  Home  Defense 
Committee  required  was  that  the  package  conform  to  War  Department  rules  and 
be  properly  addressed.  Arrangements  had  been  made  with  the  various  draft 
boards  so  that  packages  left  with  them  were  forwarded  to  the  City  Hall  and,  during 
the  entire  month  of  December,  thousands  of  packages  were  sent  to  the  men  in  the 
service,  the  great  bulk  going  to  Camps  Hancock  and  Meade.  The  detail  of  this 
work  was  tremendous,  as  the  Committee  gave  a  receipt  for  each  package  accepted 
for  shipment,  issued  acknowledgment  cards  which  had  to  be  placed  within  the  pack- 
age, and  then  traced  those  which  went  astray  or  which  failed  of  acknowledgment. 

The  Personal  Service  Bureau  remained  in  existence  throughout  the  war, 
conducting  in  February,  1918,  a  military  census  of  the  city.  This  census  lost  its 
value  because  it  was  not  possible  to  continue  it  daily  throughout  the  balance  of 
the  war,  the  great  draft  exoduses  of  the  subsequent  months  being  too  large  to  per- 
mit of  codifying  at  the  time.  The  census  had  an  immediate  value,  however,  to 
the  bureau,  as  it  enabled  it  to  clear  up  questions  of  home  address  and  nsunes  which 
were  in  doubt  or  confusion. 

Of  the  other  committees,  the  work  of  the  Home  Defense  Reserve  was  also 
permanent  throughout  the  war,  but  the  Committees  for  Recruiting  Stations, 
and  Posters  and  Decorations  gradually  ceased  activities  through  the  substitution 
of  the  draft  for  volunteer  enlistments,  and  the  establishment  of  the  State  head- 
quarters of  the  Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Public  Safety  in  this  city. 

The  activities  of  the  State  Committee  naturally  found  expression  in  the  col- 
umns of  the  local  newspapers;  its  organization  was  perfected  on  a  larger  scale  and 
gradually  it  took  over  much  of  what  the  Philadelphia  Home  Defense  Committee 
had  planned.  By  the  time  the  State  Committee  found  it  necessary  to  establish 
a  Philadelphia  branch  of  the  Council  of  National  Defense  and  Committee  of  Public 
Safety,  the  old  Home  Defense  Committee,  save  for  the  Personal  Service  Bureau 
and  the  Home  Defense  Reserve,  was  a  thing  of  the  past.  Its  existence  had  been 
comparatively  brief,  but  it  had  functioned  well  in  the  emergency.  And,  after 
all,  it  was  for  the  emergency  that  it  sprang  into  being. 


54 


PHILADELPHIA   HOME   DEFENSE  RESERVE 

j^^^]N  the  eai'ly  days  of  1917,  when  the  wtir  clouds  were 
gathering  thick  and  fast  and  it  became  more  and  more 
appai'ent  that  this  country  would  soon  be  drawn  into 
the  World  War,  the  formation  of  a  Philadelphia  Home 
Defense  Reserve  was  suggested. 

Two  preliminary  and  simultaneous  efforts  were  made, 
independently  of  each  other,  which  later  resulted  in  one 
definite  movement,  under  the  Mayor's  Committee  for 
Home  Defense. 

George  Wentworth  Carr,  afterweu'ds  captain  in  the 
Ordnance  Department,  held  a  series  of  conferences  with  Mayor  Smith  and  at  the 
same  time  Wm.  H.  Wilson,  former  Director  of  Pubhc  Safety,  was  also  working 
out  a  general  plan  to  be  submitted  to  the  Mayor  for  his  approval.  As  a  result 
of  the  efforts  of  Captain  Carr  and  Director  Wilson,  a  call  for  21,000  men  was 
made  on  April  7,  1917. 

Cards  were  printed  and  distributed  widely  throughout  the  city,  outlining  the 
general  purpose  of  the  Home  Defense  Reserve,  giving  the  plan  of  organization  and 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W.    Bubler,    Stanley   Co.    of   America. 

Home  Defense  Reserivs  Pass  in  Review. 


55 


mobilization,  authority  conferred  and  the  equipment  which  would  be  supplied. 
The  appeal  further  suggested  the  formation  of  a  motor  transportation  corps. 

The  response  to  this  call  was  encouraging,  and  all  over  the  city  the  organiza- 
tion was  effected.  With  so  large  an  enrolment  it  was  soon  found  diflicult  to  main- 
tain discipline  and  enthusiasm;  therefore  in  September,  1917,  a  meeting  was  held 
which  was  attended  by  delegates  from  the  different  companies  and  a  plan  for 
reorganization  was  submitted  to  the  mayor  and  approved  by  liim. 

As  a  result  of  this  suggestion  an  executive  committee  of  ten  was  appointed  in 
addition  to  a  chairman,  who  was  to  act  as  C.ivilian  Director  of  the  Reserve,  and 
on  October  31,  1917,  the  following  circular  letter  was  issued: 

Under  the  plan  of  reorganization,  an  executive  committee  of  ten,  in  addition  to  a  chairman, 
who  will  act  as  civilian  director  of  the  reserve — and  a  secretary,  in  conjunction  with  Captain 
William  B.  Mills,  will  effect  the  contemplated  reorganization.  After  careful  consideration  the 
following  plan  has  been  adopted  and  unanimously  indorsed  at  a  meeting  of  delegates  held  on 
Wednesday  afternoon,  October  21,  1917,  in  room  627.  City  Hall. 

The  organization  shall  be  known  as  the  Pliiladelphia  Home  Defense  Reserve. 

The  units  of  the  reserve,  now  divided  into  forty-one  districts,  will  continue  in  their  respective 
districts,  but  will  be  grouped  into  four  divisions,  corresponding  as  nearly  as  practicable  to  the 
five  main  police  divisions  of  the  city. 

The  first  division  will  be  east  of  the  Schuylkill  River  from  South  Street,  south,  and  will 
comprise  the  following  districts:     1,  2,  17,  25,  3.3,  37,  41. 

The  second  and  third  di\  isions  will  be  east  of  the  Schuylkill  River  from  South  Street,  north 
to  Lehigh  Avenue,  and  will  roniprise  the  following  districts;  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10,  11,  12,  18, 
19,  20,  24,  26,  28,  31,  40. 

The  fourth  division  will  be  east  and  west  of  the  Schuylkill  River,  north  of  Lehigh  Avenue 
and  Fairmount  Park  line,  and  will  comprise  districts  13,  14,  15,  22,  24,  27,  30,  35,  36,  39. 

The  fifth  division  will  be  west  of  the  Schuylkill  River  from  the  Fairmount  Park  line,  south, 
and  will  comprise  districts  16,  21,  29,  32,  38. 

All  of  the  districts  in  each  division  will  be  formed  into  a  battalion,  which  will  be  under 
the  command  of  a  major  and  the  whole  organization  of  the  city  will  be  under  a  regimental 
commander  or  colonel.  All  appointees  in  the  military  organization  of  the  reserve  will  be 
provisional. 

The  provisional  appointees  were  as  follows:  WiUiam  B.  Mills,  Commander;  Waller  Glascow, 
Major,  First  Division;  Harry  W.  \\  alton.  Major,  Second  and  Third  Divisions;  Edwin  Hulley, 
Major,  Fourth  Division;  Lucien  M.  \\  iler,  Major.  Fifth  Division. 

Pursuant  to  order,  each  division  conmiander  will  inunediately  get  in  touch  with  the  ollicers 
now  in  command  of  the  various  districts  now  included  in  his  division  and  arrange  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  provisional  company  officers.  In  each  case  the  wishes  of  the  respective  units  as  to  the 
identity  of  company  officers  shall  be  considere  d;  fitness  and  experience  to  be  the  deciding  factors 

Qualifications  for  Membership  in  the  Reserve 

Every  applicant  shall  be  at  least  twenty-one  years  of  age.  physically  normal,  ot  good  moral, 
character  and  shall  either  be  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  or  in  possession  of  his  first  papers; 
provided,  however,  that  he  is  not  an  enemy  alien. 

The  Home  Defense  Reserve  will  operate  upon  the  above  basis  and  continue  intact  in  so  far 
as  each  district  is  at  present  constituted  and  can  muster  a  full  company  in  accordance  with  the 
above  regulations.  Such  districts  as  cannot  muster  a  full  company  will  be  consolidated  with 
the  nearest  adjoining  district  in  the  same  division.  The  members  of  the  reser\  e  will  be  instructed 
in  general  military  work  and  particularly  in  pohce  duties.  Regular  drill  will  be  conducted  and 
promotions  made  on  merit.  Members  will  be  sworn  in  only  when  ordered  to  acti\e  duty  in  an 
emergency  and  will  not  carry  arms  except  at  drill  and  when  on  active  duty. 

Social  organizations  in  aid  of  the  reserve  will  be  encouraged  and  may  combine  in  one  or 
more  districts.  No  special  rules  or  regulations  governing  their  formation  will  be  promulgated 
for  the  present,  the  only  conditions  being  that  they  shall  be  a  help  and  credit  to  the  organization. 

Recruiting  will  be  supervised  by  the  major  in  command  of  each  division. 

56 


Statement  of  Purpose 

The  organizcitioii  is  being  created  to  servo  in  case  of  an  emergency  that  niiglU  threaten  the 
lives  and  property  of  the  citizens  of  Philadelpliia  and  tlieir  families,  necessitating  the  presence 
of  a  large  part  of  the  uniformed  police  force  in  a  particular  section  of  the  city.  Under  such  con- 
ditions, it  is  provided  that  the  Home  Defense  Reserves  shall  patrol  beats  temporarily  vacated 
by  the  regular  police  and  render  such  other  service  as  the  exigency  may  demand.  Should 
the  police  require  assistance  to  meet  the  emergency,  then  the  members  of  the  Home  Defense 
Reserve  will  be  called  upon  to  report  to  any  place  in  the  city. 

The  members  of  the  reserve  can  only  be  summoned  by  the  mayor,  through  duly  constituted 
oflicers,  and  cannot  be  called  upon  as  an  organization  by  any  state  or  federal  officer  nor  be  required 
to  do  any  military  or  police  duty  by  reason  of  membership  in  the  reserve. 

The  above  statement  was  signed  by  William  B.  Mills,  acting  colonel,  and 
Arno  P.  Mowitz,  civilian  director. 

In  the  course  of  the  reorganization  ot  the  Reserve  it  was  apparent  that  many 
of  the  men  desired  advanced  military  training  and  to  meet  this  desire  it  was  decided 
to  organize  a  special  regiment  of  1,500  officers  and  men,  to  which  were  added  the 
Home  Defense  Reserve  units  already  organized,  uniformed  and  equipped.  This 
special  regiment  of  1,500  men — later  increased  to  2,500 — was  uniformed  and 
armed  at  the  expense  of  the  city.  The  men  were  selected  by  their  respective 
captains  on  account  of  regularity  at.  drill,  interest  manifested,  and  general  qualifi- 
cations. Out  of  the  number  so  recommended  the  major  of  the  particular  division 
made  a  final  choice  and  certified  them  to  the  commander.  The  tentative  allotment 
to  the  four  divisions  was:  First  Division,  200;  Second  and  Third  Divisions,  300; 
Fourth  Division.  400;  Fifth  Division,  600. 

In  a  short  time  the  full  number  of  men  was  enrolled  and  a  waiting  list  was 
prepared  of  men  anxious  to  serve.  The  known  presence  of  2,500  fully  equipped, 
trained  and  aimed  men,  subject  to  the  call  of  the  Mayor  and  the  Director  of  Pubhc 
Safety,  was,  ipso  facto,  a  powerful  deterrent  to  those  who  might  have  otherwise 
tried  to  stir  up  trouble. 

A  uniform,  consisting  ot  a  blouse  (United  States  regulation,  except  color  of 
forestry  green),  trousers,  overcoat,  belt,  police  club,  badge  and  cap  was  provided 
by  the  city  and  when  the  reserve  was  mustered  out  became  the  property  of  the 
men.    Rifles  were  issued  to  800  men  and  revolvers  to  l.-'JOO. 

William  B.  Mills  was  made  colonel  of  the  regiment  and  he  appointed  Joseph 
Klapp  Nicholls  regimental  adjutant  on  November  8,  1917.  Major  Lucien  M. 
Miller,  commanding  the  fifth  division  was  appointed  fieutenant-colonel  on  April  24, 
1918. 

On  November  19,  1917,  companies  were  formed  in  Germantown  and  Chestnut 
Hill  and  a  mounted  troop  was  accepted  as  members  of  the  military  unit.  The 
fourth  division  was  divided  into  the  fourth  and  sixth  and  G.  Henry  Davis  was 
appointed  major,  commanding  the  sixth  division. 

On  November  19,  1917,  Major  Glascow  resigned  and  Captain  James  W. 
Johnson  was  appointed  acting  major  until  January  18,  1918,  when,  upon  resigna- 
tion, he  was  succeeded  in  command  of  the  first  division  by  Joseph  L.  Bailey. 

During  the  period  of  reorganization,  from  September,  1917,  to  April,  1918, 
the  men  were  drilled  twice  a  week  and  by  March  were  uniformed  and  ready  for 
any  call  to  duty.  The  officers  were  sworn  in  by  the  Director  of  Public  Safety  on 
April  3,  1918. 

57 


The  first  call  made  by  the  Bureau  of  Police  Avas  on  May  1  i',  1918,  when  some 
of  the  platform  employees  of  the  Philadelphia  Rapid  Transit  Company  struck  for 
more  pay  and  threatened  to  create  a  disturbance.  The  divisions  were  mobilized 
at  the  various  station  houses,  sworn  in  by  the  Director  of  Public  Safety  and  placed 
at  the  disposal  of  the  Bureau  of  Police.  Tliis  duty  lasted  from  May  17th  to  21st, 
and,  although  no  serious  outbreak  occurred,  the  presence  of  2,500  efficient  Reserves 
no  doubt  helped  to  keep  in  check  any  disorderly  element. 

On  June  5,  1918,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Wiler,  entered  the  national  service  and 
was  succeeded  by  Major  Edwin  Hulley,  of  the  fourth  division.  Colonel  HuUey, 
who  had  successfully  commanded  the  fourth  division,  was  a  veteran  of  the  Spanish 
War  and  developed  the  regiment  to  a  great  degree  of  efficiency.  A  full  regimental 
staff  was  appointed  and  meetings  were  held  twice  a  week  at  the  headquarters, 
room  697,  City  Hall.  Regular  military  discipline  prevailed,  reports  were  received 
from  each  division  giving  the  name,  address,  badge  number  and  equipment  of  each 
officer  and  man.  This  information  was  card  indexed  and  kept  in  perfect  order. 
In  a  short  time  the  whole  regiment  felt  the  effects  of  his  leadership. 

On  July  1.  1918,  the  Reserve  policed  Broad  Street  from  Girard  Avenue  to 
Washington  Avenue  in  connection  with  the  Parade  of  All  Nations. 

From  July  30  to  August  4,  1918,  the  Reserve  helped  the  poUce  bureau  main- 
tain order  in  South  Philadelphia  during  the  race  riots.  The  entire  regiment  was 
quickly  mobilized  in  South  Philadelphia  and  Cooper  Battalion  Hall,  23d  and 
Christian  streets,  made  field  headquarters. 

On  September  28th,  the  regiment  policed  Broad  Street  from  Lehigh  Avenue 
to  Snyder  Avenue  during  the  Fourth  Liberty  Loan  Parade,  and  on  October  11th 
assisted  the  Liberty  Loan  workers  in  details  of  two  men  each  in  about  600  parades 
to  arouse  popular  enthusiasm  and  bring  the  citizens  to  a  reahzation  of  the  serious- 
ness of  the  situation  and  of  their  duties  in  connection  with  the  loan.  All  over  the 
City  at  a  certain  fixed  time,  two  Home  Defense  Reservists  escorted  two  Boy 
Scouts  who  carried  the  colors,  two  four-minute  speakers  and  a  town  crier  with 
a  bell. 

Probably  the  most  self-sacrificing  duty  performed  by  the  members  of  the 
Reserve  was  in  connection  with  the  epidemic  of  influenza  which  swept  over  our 
City  during  the  fall  of  1918.  INIembers  of  the  fourth  division  rendered  assistance 
at  the  Emergency  Hospital  at  Holmesburg  on  October  13th,  14th  and  15th.  The 
fifth  division  was  also  very  active  along  the  same  lines  in  West  Philadelphia. 
The  transportation  corps  of  this  division  took  the  doctors  to  their  patients  during 
the  epidemic,  one  doctor  alone  making  200  calls  in  one  day.  They  also  main- 
tained transportation  service  in  connection  with  the  Emergency  Hospital  at 
18th  and  Cherry  streets.  This  division  was  equipped  with  a  regulation  army  ambu- 
lance which  was  donated  by  citizens  of  West  Philadelphia.  From  October  23d 
to  31st,  owing  to  the  number  of  policemen  who  were  taken  down  by  the  epidemic, 
450  reservists  were  assigned  each  evening  to  the  various  police  stations  and  per- 
formed regular  police  duty.  At  the  same  time  about  100  men  each  day  policed 
the  down-town  streets  of  the  city  in  plain  clothes,  arresting  spitters  who  were 
summarily  fined.  This  service  was  particularly  valuable  during  the  epidemic  and 
was  efficiently  rendered,  as  was  demonstrated  by  the  decrease  in  the  number  of 
arrests  the  second  day  of  duty.  Public  recognition  of  this  service  was  made  by  a 
resolution  of  Councils. 

58 


On  November  7,  1918,  due  to  the  rumor  of  the  armistice  being  signed,  an 
emergency  call  was  issued  at  3  p.m.  and  by  6  p.m.  the  Reserves  were  on  the  streets 
at  points  designated  by  the  Police  Bureau,  aiding  in  handling  the  crowds  in  the 
center  of  the  city.     This  work  lasted  till  midniglit. 

On  November  11,  1918,  at  3.50  a.m.,  when  the  news  of  the  signing  of  the 
armistice  was  given  out,  every  man  reported  at  once  to  the  call  and  was  on  duty 
until  midnight,  helping  to  maintain  order  and  handle  the  crowds  in  the  center  of 
the  city  and  along  the  important  avenues  which  were  congested. 

On  August  12,  1918,  the  Wingohocking  sewer  at  Broad  and  Courtland  streets 
caved  in,  endangering  property  and  hfe.  Members  of  the  fourth  division  rendered 
special  service  in  aiding  the  citizens  and  pohce  in  this  instance. 

October  29,  1918,  members  of  the  second  and  fourth  divisions  helped  police 
the  large  fire  on  Broad  Street  below  Montgomery  Avenue. 

The  members  of  the  fifth  division  guarded  the  pubhc  school  at  56th  Street 
and  Kingsessing  Avenue  from  January  1  to  May  1,  1918,  to  protect  it  from  in- 
cendiaries, who  had  set  on  fire  several  other  school  buildings.  This  service  was 
especially  arduous  on  account  of  the  severe  weather,  the  thermometer  registering 
as  low  as  six  degrees  below  zero. 

From  February  18  to  28,  1919,  the  Reserve  furnished  the  Pohce  Department 
with  automobiles  and  men  to  be  used  as  decoys  in  an  effort  to  catch  auto  thieves 
and  discover  the  disposition  of  stolen  cars. 

What  threatened  to  be  the  most  hazardous  duty  assigned  to  the  Reserves  was 
the  order  mobiUzing  the  whole  regiment  for  duty  on  May  1,  1919.  May  Day  had 
been  set  as  a  day  upon  which  a  labor  protest  would  be  made  over  our  whole  country. 
No  parade  permits  were  issued  in  this  city  and  no  gatherings  in  public  squares 
were  permitted.  Threats  of  labor  agitators  to  pai-ade  and  hold  meetings  were 
made  and  it  was  feared  that  force  would  be  required  to  back  up  the  orders 
of  the  PoUce  Bureau.  The  Reserves,  fuUy  armed,  cooperated  with  the  Police 
Bureau. 

On  May  15th,  the  Reserves  helped  to  pohce  the  hne  of  the  parade  of  the 
28th  Division,  which  had  been  engaged  in  France  and  had  won  an  enviable 
record. 

During  the  floating  of  the  Second  Liberty  Loan  the  Reserve  secured  $545,050, 
mostly  in  §50  bonds.     There  were  about  3,000  individual  subscriptions. 

When  the  Third  Liberty  Loan  campaign  was  organized  the  divisions  turned 
in  with  a  wiU  and  the  results  spoke  for  themselves. 

In  the  Fourth  and  Fifth  Liberty  Loans,  the  Reserves  cooperated  throughout 
the  City  with  the  Citizens'  Committee  without  any  definite  organization  of  the 
Reserves  as  a  whole,  although  many  of  its  members  held  important  executive 
offices  under  the  various  district  directors. 

In  the  War  Chest  and  Salvation  Army  campaigns  as  in  the  Fourth  and  Fifth 
Liberty  Loans,  the  Reserve  was  not  asked  to  cooperate  in  its  entirety,  but  co- 
operated individually,  many  of  its  members  holding  important  positions  and 
contributing  largely  to  their  success. 

The  work  of  the  Home  Defense  Reserve  in  Liberty  Loans  was  under  the 
direction  of  Captain  W.  Nelson  Mayhew. 

After  May  15,  1919,  the  Home  Defense  Reserve  was  inactive  hut  always 
subject  to  call,  until  demobilized. 

59 


Intelligence  Bureau 

This  bureau,  under  the  personal  direction  of  Captain  Joseph  B.  Seaman, 
assisted  by  Lieutenant  W.  H.  S.  Bateman,  Company  C,  Fourth  Division, 
consisted  of  a  large  number  of  men  of  exceptionally  high  ability   and  standing. 

The  Intelligence  Bureau  was  in  a  position,  due  to  its  peculiar  circumstances, 
to  do  valuable  work  in  securing  a  voluminous  amount  of  highly  interesting  in- 
formation. 

It  is  of  special  note  that  two  foreign  governments  as  well  as  our  own  govern- 
ment complimented  Chief  Seaman  on  the  valuable  information  secured  by  this 
bureau. 

The  spirit  of  cooperation  was  so  strong  that  arrangements  have  been  made  to 
maintain  the  organization  as  a  permanent  agency  for  the  promotion  of  mutual 
and  government  interest.  Public  spirited  men  within  the  bureau  financed  its  past 
and  future  work. 

On  Saturday,  December  27th,  a  parade  was  held,  and  the  Philadelphia  Home 
Defense  Beserve  officially  passed  out  of  existence  at  1  p.m.,  December  19,  1919. 

The  Select  and  Common  Councils  of  Philadelphia  commended  the  Beserves 
for  their  work  and,  in  view  of  the  patriotic  service  which  they  rendered  without 
pay,  permitted  the  members  to  retain  possession  of  their  uniforms. 

THE  PHILADELPHIA  SCHOOL  MOBILIZATION  COMMITTEE 

Immediately  after  the  declaration  of  war,  a  group  of  Philadelphia  teachers 
requested  Mayor  Smith,  to  appoint  a  committee  for  the  purpose  of  mobilizing  the 
resources  of  the  schools  for  public  service  to  the  nation,  and  in  April,  1917,  the  Phila- 
delphia School  Mobilization  Committee  was  appointed  to  serve  under  the  Phila- 
delphia Home  Defense  Committee.  It  continued  its  work  until  shortly  after  the 
signing  of  the  armistice. 

The  Committee  coordinated  the  resources  of  the  schools  along  the  following 
lines: 

(1)  The  facilities  afforded  by  the  buildings,  laboratories,  shops,  playgrounds, 
etc.,  of  the  schools  of  Philadelphia  and  vicinity. 

(2)  The  services  of  young  men  and  women,  largely  pupils  in  the  schools, 
who  desired  to  work  to  the  best  interests  of  the  city.  State  and  nation. 

(3)  The  services  of  teachers,  who  could  be  released  from  their  regular  school 
duties  during  a  part  of  the  school  year,  to  exercise  an  oversight  and  direction  of 
these  young  men  and  women  in  patriotic  service,  either  within  or  without  the 
schools. 

(4)  The  services  of  teachers  during  the  summer  vacations. 

(5)  The  services  of  other  volunteer  workers. 

Headquarters,  in  the  Widener  Building,  were  donated  for  this  purpose  by  the 
management,  and  various  commissions  were  appointed  to  take  charge  of  the  de- 
tails of  the  work.  At  this  time  William  H.  Hall,  of  New  York  City,  was  Director 
of  the  United  States  Junior  Working  Beserve  of  the  United  States.  He  met  with 
the  Committee  and  aided  in  the  consideration  and  formulation  of  plans  of  classes, 
which  were  later  developed  to  a  very  large  extent,  not  only  in  Philadelphia  but 
throughout  the  nation.     The  Philadelphia  School  Mobilization  Committee  was 

60 


the  first  local  committee  appointed  with  these  purposes  in  view,  and  therefore, 
its  work  has  special  significance. 

A  resume  of  the  woriv  accomplished  is  as  follows: 

The  Commission  on  Junior  Instruction  inaugurated  a  campaign  of  education 
in  patriotism  and  thrift  among  the  pupils  of  the  schools,  and  indirectly  through 
them  to  their  parents  and  the  general  public.  Addresses  were  delivered  at  the 
various  schools  on  current  war  topics,  war  and  Liberty  Loan,  daily  lessons  were 
prepared  for  school  use,  instructions  in  thrift  and  domestic  science  were  distributed 
through  the  schools  for  home  use,  and  a  series  of  pamphlets  were  prepared,  pub- 
lished and  distributed  in  conjunction  with  the  Educational  Committee  of  the  Phila- 
delphia Chamber  of  Commerce,  the  most  important  being  as  follows:  "Bobby 
and  the  War."  "Democracy  and  Autocracy  Compared,"  and  "What  the  I'nited 
States  Stands  for  in  the  War. " 

The  Commission  on  Community  Service  lent  encouragement  to  the  Big  Brother 
and  Big  Sister  movement,  established  summer  classes  in  public  school  buildings 
for  delinquents,  and  organized  committees  on  the  care  and  feeding  of  young  children. 
Eventually  a  large  portion  of  the  activities  of  this  commission  was  assumed  by  the 
War  Camp  Community  Service  in  Philadelphia. 

The  Commission  on  Science  and  Technical  Trainimi  aimed  to  secure  the  fullest 
use  of  scientifically  trained  teachers  and  laboratory  equipment  for  the  service  of 
the  war,  and  stimulated  instruction  for  those  who  desired  to  enlist  in  lines  of  work 
for  which  specialized  skill  was  needed.  This  Commission  assisted  in  the  enlarged 
organization  of  the  Philadelphia  Trade  School  for  Girls,  and  eventually  secured 
the  acceptance  of  this  school  by  the  Board  of  Public  Education  as  a  part  of  the 
school  system  of  the  city.  It  also  estabhshed  and  furnished  teachers  and  equip- 
ment for  classes  of  sailors  and  soldiers  in  cooking,  typewriting,  French,  surveying 
and  navigation;  it  assisted  the  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard  in  starting  apprentice 
classes  in  shipbuilding  by  examining  and  classifying  applicants,  securing  instructors, 
and  obtaining  class-rooms  and  equipment  for  these  purposes  in  the  South  Phila- 
delphia High  School  for  Bo>s.  It  also  aided  in  the  development  of  the  Summer 
High  School  for  Girls  in  the  William  Penn  High  School  in  the  summer  of  1018. 

The  Commission  on  Adult  Enlistment  and  Census  prepared  an  enrollment  blank 
for  the  teachers  of  the  city  who  would  volunteer  for  public  service  in  their  vaca- 
tions and  free  time.  Over  500  applications  were  received  from  men  and  women 
in  the  educational  institutions  of  Philadelphia  for  services  in  agricultural,  indus- 
trial and  commercial  work.  This  Commission  supplied  the  material  with  which 
the  other  commissions  worked. 

Tlie  Commission  on  Farms  and  Farm  Camps  inaugurated  the  movement  for 
placing  older  High  School  boys  upon  farms  for  farm  labor,  of  which  there  was  a 
great  shortage.  Permission  was  obtained  from  the  Board  of  Public  Education  to 
excuse  from  the  schools  as  early  as  May  first  those  boys  whose  school  standing  justi- 
fied this  privilege.  Hundreds  of  farms  were  investigated,  and  thousands  of  acres 
of  unused  farm  lands  in  the  vicinity  of  Philadelphia  were  tested,  and  agricultural 
production  stimulated  wherever  possible.  During  the  summer  of  1917  farm 
camps  were  established  at  Swedesboro,  N.  J.,  and  at  PaoH,  Berwyn,  Phoenixville, 
Glenloch,  Gettysburg,  and  Byberry.  in  Pennsylvania.  High  School  boys  lived 
at  these  camps  and  went  out  during  the  day  to  work  on  the  farms  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  camp,  returning  to  the  camp  at  night.     The  success  of  the  work  of  High 

61 


School  boys  on  farms  in  1917,  not  only  in  Philadelphia  but  over  the  whole  country, 
led  to  the  promotion  by  the  Department  of  Labor  at  Washington  of  this  method 
of  helping  to  meet  the  acute  farm  labor  shortage  throughout  the  country  by  the 
organization  of  the  United  States  Boys'  Working  Reserve. 

During  the  summer  of  1918  the  Philadelphia  School  Mobilization  Committee 
organized  the  work  of  the  Boys'  Working  Reserve  for  the  Philadelphia  district, 
comprising  Philadelphia,  Delaware,  Bucks,  Montgomery  and  Chester  counties 
under  the  direction  of  William  J.  Serrill,  with  the  Secretary  of  the  Philadelphia 
School  Mobilization  Committee  acting  as  Associate  Director. 

Under  this  organization,  Farm  Camps  organized  as  Liberty  Camps  were 
established  at  Andalusia,  Bustleton,  Byberry,  Media,  Kennett  Square,  Chelsea, 
Whiteland,  Concordville,  Norristown  and  Hatboro. 

These  Liberty  Camps  were  managed  locally  by  Pennsylvania  State  College 
agricultural  students.  Pennsylvania  State  College  further  contributed  largely 
to  the  success  of  these  camps  and  to  the  farm  work  of  the  Committee  in  general 
by  the  establishment  and  conduct  of  a  series  of  Farm  Training  Camps  for  High 
School  boys  from  all  parts  of  the  State.  The  successive  periods  of  instruction 
were  two  weeks  in  length,  and  during  the  existence  of  the  training  school  more 
than  150  Philadelphia  boys  were  taught  the  rudiments  of  farm  work. 

The  Commission  on  Junior  Enlistment  and  Placement  registered  over  2,500 
pupils  in  the  schools  for  patriotic  service.  From  among  these  registrants  the  fol- 
lowing services  were  rendered: 

(a)  More  than  1,300  were  placed  in  farm  work;  of  these  between  500  and  600 
during  the  summer  of  1917,  and  800  during  the  summer  of  1918. 

(b)  More  than  200  boys  were  placed  in  industrial  and  clerical  work  and  in 
apprenticeship  courses  in  the  United  States  Navy  Yard. 

(c)  More  than  150  boys  were  sent  to  the  Pennsylvania  State  College  Farm 
Training  Camp  for  instruction  in  farm  work  prior  to  assignment  to  summer  farm 
work. 

(d)  Several  hundred  girls  were  assigned  to  volunteer  and  paid  services  in 
Red  Cross  activities,  food  conservation  work,  community  services,  and  light  agri- 
cultural pursuits. 

(e)  Recruits  were  selected  by  competitive  examination,  and  sent  to  Camp 
Devens,  the  training  camp  of  the  L'nited  States  Naval  Reserves. 

(f)  Many  hundreds  of  boys  were  enrolled  in  war  garden  and  cooperative 
garden  enterprises. 

The  Commission  on  Inspection  investigated  the  hours  of  labor,  provision  for 
recreation,  working  and  living  conditions  before  placement  of  these  junior  patri- 
otic workers,  and  continued  this  inspection  at  regular  intervals  during  the  period 
of  their  service.  During  the  summers  of  1917  and  1918  the  Commission  regularly 
inspected  the  boys  in  farm  work,  and  recommended  at  the  termination  of  such 
service  in  all  meritorious  cases  that  full  credit  be  given  by  the  various  schools. 
It  also  provided  supervision  in  motion-picture  theaters  for  the  High  School  girls 
engaged  in  the  soUcitation  of  funds  for  the  Red  Cross  in  June,  1917. 

The  Commission  on  Food  Supply  conducted  the  pioneer  campaign  for  thrift 
in  the  use  of  food,  and  conducted  campaigns  for  signers  of  Hoover  Food  Pledge  Cards. 

It  prepared  and  distributed  literature,  etc.,  to  schools  and  houses  in  the  cam- 
paign of  education  in  food  conservation. 

62 


It  conducted  series  of  food  canning  and  drying  demonstrations  in  twenty- 
one  public  schools  to  acquaint  housewives  with  the  latest  and  best  methods  of 
drying  and  canning.  It  published  a  daily  report  of  the  condition  of  the  wholesale 
produce  market,  listing  the  supply  as  "abundant,"  "normal,"  and  "scarce,"  and 
thus  prevented  serious  gluts  of  food  on  the  markets  with  their  attendant  waste. 

It  also  published  wholesale  prices  of  fish  daily,  together  with  propaganda  for 
the  greater  substitution  offish  for  meat. 

With  the  organization  of  the  United  States  Food  Administration  in  Phila- 
delphia with  Howard  Heinz  as  Director,  the  Commission  was  discontinued  as  a 
part  of  the  Philadelphia  School  Mobilization  Committee  and  became  a  part  of  the 
Food  Administration. 

The  Commission  on  Manufacturing  Service  organized  the  equipment  in  school 
shops  and  laboratories  for  the  manufacture  of  articles  and  supplies  in  demand  by 
the  government  and  Red  Cross.  It  supervised  the  construction  of  forty  food  dry- 
ing trays  and  apparatus  for  food  canning  and  drying  demonstrations  under  the 
school  luncheon  department  of  the  public  schools,  the  manufacture  of  ten  thousand 
tent  pins  for  the  United  States  Quartermaster,  Red  Cross  packing  boxes.  Red 
Cross  bandage  rollers  and  other  types  of  Red  Cross  supplies. 

The  Commission  on  Country  Club  Entertainment  secured  the  cooperation  of 
twenty  country  clubs  in  and  near  Philadelphia  for  the  entertainment  of  enlisted 
men  stationed  in  Philadelphia  during  the  summer  of  1917.  Each  club  organized 
a  Saturday  or  a  Sunday  party  of  fifty  to  one  hundred  sailors  or  soldiers,  and  pro- 
vided the  transportation,  meals  and  recreation  for  the  day.  This  work  later 
developed  into  the  provision,  through  other  channels,  of  a  country  club  for  enlisted 
men  at  Rockledge,  Pa. 

The  Commission  on  Lecture  Courses  for  men  in  the  service  organized  lecture 
courses,  at  the  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard,  Camp  Dix,  Camp  Meade  and  Wissahickon 
Barracks. 

The  Commission  on  School  Entertainment  organized  a  series  of  entertainments 
at  the  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard  by  High  School  pupils  from  the  South  Philadelphia 
High  School  for  Girls  and  the  Northeast  High  School. 

The  Conmiission  on  the  Junior  Red  Cross  organized  the  Junior  Red  Cross  School 
Auxiliaries  in  the  schools  of  Philadelphia,  Bucks,  Chester,  Delaware  and  Mont- 
gomery counties.  The  national  campaign  for  the  Junior  Red  Cross  was  held  between 
Lincoln's  Birthday  and  Washington's  Birthday  in  1918,  and  was  a  great  success. 

The  work  of  the  School  Mobilization  Committee  was  financed  through  4; 
popular  subscription,  through  appropriations,  from  the  Municipal  Home  Defense 
Committee,  and  the  State  Committee  on  Public  Defense,  and  was  supported  bounti- 
fully by  all  of  the  public  authorities.  The  private  and  parochial  schools  cooperated 
to  the  utmost,  and  the  Superintendent  of  the  Parochial  Schools  in  Philadelphia 
served  as  a  member  of  the  Committee.  In  large  measure  the  Committee  served 
as  an  experimental  testing  station  for  work  among  juniors,  and  as  soon  as  an  idea 
had  been  tested  out  and  its  practicality  demonstrated,  it  was  copied  in  other 
communities,  and  by  other  committees,  so  that  the  work  of  this  Committee  may 
be  fairly  recorded  as  a  pioneer  in  this  line. 

As  a  result  it  demonstrated  the  tremendous  capacity  for  public  work  among 
the  juniors,  their  enthusiasm  and  sincerity  more  than  making  up  for  their  lack 
of  experience ;  and  it  may  be  fairly  stated  that  among  the  factors  in  bringing  the 

63 


war  to  a  successful  conclusion,  the  boys  and  girls  of  Pliiladelphia  contributed 
to  their  full  capacity. 

The  oilicers  of  the  Committee  and  the  members  of  the  Commissions  were  as  follows: 
General  Officers: 

Chairmen. — Franklin  Spencer  Edmonds,  Frankhn  C.  Brodhead. 

V ice-Chairmen. — John  C.  Frazee,  April,  1917,  to  September,  1917:  Louis  iNiisbaum.  Septem- 
ber, 1917,  to  January,  1919. 

Treasurers. — Jos.  E.  Widener,  April,  1917,  to  October.  1917;  Maurice  Kcls,  October,  1917,  to 
January.  1919. 

Finance  Manayer. — Thomas  Robins,  April,  1917,  to  Septcuiber,  1917. 

Secretaries. — Joseph  M.  Jameson,  April.  1917,  to  June.  1917;  Edwin  W.  Adams,  June.  1917, 
to  September,  1917;  Raymond  L.  Chambers,  September,  1917,  to  August,  1918;  Henvis 
Roessler,  August,  1918,  to  October,  1918;  Charles  C.  Hazlet,  October,  1918,  to  January, 
1919. 

Commission  on  Informalion  and  Publicity. — ^Joseph  M.  Jameson,  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Junior  Instruction. — Wm.  D.  Lewis.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Comnuinitv  Seri'ice. — Wm.  O.  Easton.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Science  and  Teclinicat  Training. — Henry  V.  Cummere,  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Adult  Eidistmcnt  and  Census. — Arthur  J.  Rowland,  Chairman. 

Commissicm  on  ,/unior  Enlistment  and  Placement. — Henry  J.  (iideiin.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Inspection. — Louis  N'usbaum.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Food  Supply. — Dr.  J.  Russell  Smith.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Farms  and  Farm  Camps. — Edward  E.  \\  ildman.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Manufacturing  Service. — Charles  C.  Heyl,  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Conunercial  Seri'ice. — Parke  Schoch.  Chairman. 

Commission  on  Medical  Inspection. — Dr.  Walter  S.  Cornell.  Chairman. 


Courtesy    of    the    Philadelphia    "Inquirer." 

Lord  Reading  and  Charles  M.  Schwab  at  Hog  Island 
64 


THE  JOINT  SPECIAL  COMMITTEE  ON  THE  CARE,  SUSTE- 
NANCE AND  RELIEF  OF  THOSE  IN  THE  MILITARY  AND 
NAVAL  SERVICE  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES 

By  Charles  P.  O'Connor 


^^ 


^HE  uncertainty  of  the  Mexican  situation  in  1916  found 
the  Councils  of  Philadelphia  preparing  for  eventualities. 
At  a  meeting  of  Select  Council,  held  on  June  22,  1916, 
a  joint  convention  of  Select  and  Common  Councils  was 
authorized  on  motion  of  Isaac  D.  Hetzell,  and  an  invitation 
extended  to  the  Hon.  Thomas  B.  Smith,  Mayor  of  the 
City,  to  address  the  meeting.  The  joint  convention  was 
held  on  Thursday.  June  22d,  at  3  p.m.  Mayor  Smith 
presented  a  resolution  calling  for  the  appointment  of  a 
joint  committee  for  the  care  and  sustenance  of  those 
in  the  military   and  naval  service. 

The  resolution  was  presented  and  passed.  It  provided  for  a  "joint  special 
committee  of  twenty  members  (ten  from  each  chamber),  to  arrange  for  the  pro- 
vision for  the  families  of  Philadelphians  in  the  military  and  naval  service,  and  for 
the  care,  sustenance  and  entertainment  of  those  in  such  military  and  naval  service 
who  may  be  permanently  or  temporarily  quartered  in  Philadelphia,  for  the  trans- 
portation of  the  injured  or  sick,  and  for  the  burial  of  any  who  may  die  while  in  the 
service." 

The  personnel  of  the  committee  was :  From  Select  Council,  Messrs.  Lennon 
(ex-ofTicio),  D'Autrechy,  Davis,  Dugan,  Finley,  Harris,  McKinley,  Quigley, 
Seger,  Willard,  J.  and  Hetzell  (chairman).  From  Common  Council,  Messrs. 
Gleason  (ex-officio),  Barnes,  Conn,  Gafl'ney,  Kelly,  C.  F.,  McCloskey,  Bighter, 
Roberts,  J.,  Schwartz,  F.,  Siegert,  Trinkle.  At  the  meeting  for  organization 
Charles  B.  Hall  was  elected  secretary,  Harry  Wittig,  sergeant-at-arms  and  Charle 
P.    O'Connor,    stenographer. 

The  following  sub-committees  were  appt)inted: 

Finance:   GafTney  (chairman),  Seger,  Finley,  McKinley,  D'Autrechy. 
Sustenance  and  Relief:  Kelley  (chairman),  Dufjaii,  McKinley.  Quigley.  Schwartz. 
Hospitals  and  Quarters:   Righter  (chairman),  Trinkle,  Harris,  Conn,  Davis. 
Burials:  Willard  (chairman),  Siegert,  Barnes,  Roberts,  Finley. 

Mr.  Siegert  resigned  from  Councils  and  was  succeeded  by  Joseph  S.  O'Brien 
who  also  served  on  the  sub-committee  on  bmials. 

The  executive  committee  consisted  of  th(^  chairman  of  the  general  committee, 
the  presidents  of  Select  and  Common  Councils  and  the  chairman  of  the  subcom- 
mittees. This  executive  committee  cooperated  with  the  "Citizens'  Soldiers' 
Aid  Committee,"  appointed  by  his  Honor,  the  Mayor,  to  prevent  overlapping 
or  duplication  of  assistance  to  those  in  need. 

65 


Work  During  the  World  War 

When  the  United  States  entered  into  the  World  War,  and  it  became  ap- 
parent that  the  National  Guard  troops  in  Philadelphia  and  other  military  and 
naval  organizations  would  be  immediately  called  into  active  service  and  that 
great  recruiting  efforts  would  be  made  in  the  city,  the  duties,  powers  and  juris- 
diction of  the  committee  were  extended  by  resolution  to  "meet  any  other  emer- 
gency that  may  arise  in  the  future  which  the  committee  may  be  called  upon  to 
consider  in  connection  with  the  terms  of  the  original  resolution  under  which  they 
were  appointed."  All  expenses  incurred  were  paid  out  of  appropriations  to  the 
Clerks  of  Councils  for  the  purposes  of  the  committee  and  work  was  developed  and 
continued  until  January  7,  1918. 

A  resolution,  similar  to  the  one  of  June  22d,  1916,  was  adopted,  and  the  com- 
mittee for  1918-1919  consisted  of  the  following  members: 

Ex-officio,  .lames  E.  Lennon,  president  of  Select  Council;  Ex-officio,  Edward  B.  Gleason, 
president  of  Coninion  Council;  Isaac  D.  Hetzell,  chairman;  Morris  E.  Conn,  Harry  H.  Davis, 
John  F.  Dugan,  Joshua  Evans,  William  E.  Finley,  Joseph  P.  Gaffney,  Dennis  J.  Grace,  John 
McArthur  Harris  (deceased),  William  J.  McCloskey,  Pringle  Borthwick  (appointed  to  succeed 
Mr.  McCloskey),  John  J.  McKinley,  Jr.,  Philip  M.  Myers,  Joseph  S.  O'Brien  (resigned),  Robert 
Smith  (appointed  to  succeed  Mr.  O'Brien),  William  H.  Quigley,  Fred.  Schwartz,  Jr.,  Charles 
Seger  (deceased),  George  W.  Sheehan,  Jefferson  Shiel,  W.  W.  Trinkle,  James  Willard,  Charles 
B.  Hall,  secretary,  Harry  Wittig,  sergeant-at-arms,  Charles  P.  O'Connor,  stenographer,  David 
W.  Harris,  stenographer. 

Sub-Committees 

Executive  Connnittee:  Isaac  D.  Hetzell,  chairman;  James  E.  Lennon,  Edward  B.  Gleason, 
Joseph  P.  Gaffney,  James  Willard,  W.  W.  Trinkle,  John  F.  Dugan. 

Camps  and  Quarters:  Joseph  P.  Gaffney,  Chairman;  William  J.  McCloskey,  Charles  Seger, 
Joshua  Evans,  Joseph  S.  O'Brien. 

Sustenance  and  Relief:  John  F.  Dugan,  chairman;  William  E.  Finley,  Morris  E.  Conn, 
Philip  S.  Myers,  William  H.  Quigley,  John  J.  McKinley,  Jr.,  Fred.  Schwartz,  Jr. 

Hospitals:  W.  W.  Trinkle,  chairman;  J.  McArthur  Harris,  Dennis  J.  Grace,  George  W. 
Sheehan,  Harry  H.  Davis. 

Burials:  James  Willard,  chairman;  Jefferson  Shiel,  J.  McArthur  Harris,  William  E.  Finley. 
Fred  Schwartz,  Jr. 

The  various  committees  rendered  reports  which  are  herewith  added. 

Executive  Committee 

The  first  meeting  of  this  committee  was  held  on  July  13,  1916,  when  the 
question  of  taking  care  of  city  employees  in  the  military  service  by  payment  of 
their  salaries,  less  the  amount  received  from  the  Government,  and  the  matter  of 
substitute  employees  was  taken  up.  Mr.  Gaffney  stated  that  he  had  had  a  con- 
ference with  the  mayor  on  the  subject,  and  that  the  mayor  had  notified  his  directors 
to  prepare  a  roster  of  city  employees  in  the  service  to  approximate  the  amount  that 
should  be  set  aside  for  their  payment,  and  to  use  this  for  making  an  appropriation. 
The  following  were  passed  by  Councils  relative  to  the  payments  to  be  made  to  those 
entering  the  service  as  well  as  to  substitute  employees: 

An  Ordinance 

Granting  leave  of  absence  to  city,  county  and  other  employees  paid  on  warrant 
from  the  city  treasury  whUe  on  military  service  in  the  National  Guard  of 

66 


Pennsylvania  or  in  the  service  of  the  United  States  Government;  providing  for 
the  appointment  and  payment  of  temporary  appointees  to  fill  such  vacancies. 

Sect.  1.  The  Select  and  Common  Councils  of  the  City  of  Philadelphia  do  ordain. 
That  leave  of  absence  with  pay  shall  be  granted  to  any  employee  paid  by  warrant 
of  the  city  and  county  of  Philadelphia,  who  makes  application  therefor,  for  the 
purpose  of  military  service  in  the  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania  or  in  the  service 
of  the  United  States  Government. 

Sect.  2.  That  the  vacancy  created  by  the  absence  of  any  employee  on  such 
military  service  shall  exist  only  until  such  time  as  said  employee  shall  return  fnon 
said  military  service.  Such  vacancy  may  be  filled  by  temporary  appoiulmcnl 
thereto,  and  such  temporary  employee  shall  be  paid  at  the  same  rate  of  compensa- 
tion as  was  paid  to  the  employee  to  whose  position  he  was  temporarily  appointed. 

Sect.  3.  The  term  "leave  of  absence  with  pay"  as  mentioned  in  Sect.  1  of 
this  ordinance  is  hereby  defined  as  the  difference  between  the  salary  or  wages  of  said 
employees  and  the  salary  or  wages  paid  them  in  the  service  of  the  state  or  nation 
(where  the  same  is  less  than  paid  by  the  city),  and  warrants  for  such  amounts  shall 
be  turned  over  to  such  jiersons  as  shall  be  designated  by  them. 

Approved  the  30th  day  of  June,  A.  D.  1916. 

Thomas  B.  Smith, 

Mayor  of  Philadelphia. 

By  resolution  of  July  26,  1916,  an  appropriation  was  made  and  approved  by 
the  Mayor. 

An  ordinance  later  approved  July  26.  1916.  amended  the  Ordinance  of  June 
30,  1916.  and  provided  that  employees  of  the  city,  entitled  to  "leave  of  absence  with 
pay"  must  have  been  "employed  at  least  three  months  continuously." 

The  committee  met  frequently  during  the  period  of  trouble  on  the  Mexican 
border  and  all  matters  referred  to  it  were  given  prompt  attention. 

Welcoming  Troops  Returning  From  The  Border 

With  the  return  of  the  troops,  authority  was  given  the  committee  to  arrange 
suitably  for  their  reception  and  entertainment. 

The  receptions  and  banquets  to  the  1st  and  3d  Begiments  returning  from  the 
border  of  Mexico  on  October  9  and  10,  1916,  respectively,  were  held  in  Convention 
Hall,  Broad  Street  and  Allegheny  Avenue;  acconnnodations  being  made  upon  the 
stage  for  some  6,000  relatives  and  friends  of  the  men. 

A  program  of  one  of  these  receptions  is  printed  for  future  reference  and 
guidance. 

CONVENTION   HALL,    PHILADELPHIA 
Reception  to  the  3d  Regiment,  N.  G.  P.,  Tuesday,  October  10,  1916. 

Prayer  of  Thanksgiving Rev.  Thomas  W.  Davis,  Chaplain,  3d  Regiment,  N.  G.  P. 

Introduction  of  the  Mayor  .  .  .Mr.    Isaac  D.  Hetzell. 

Address  of  Welcome Hon.  Thomas  B.  Smith,  Mayor  of  Philadelphia. 

Address Colonel  George  E.  Kemp,  Commanding,  3d  Regiment,  N.  G.  P. 

Greetings     from     Gov.     Brum- 
baugh  (Read  by  Mayor  Smith.) 

67 


Presentation    of     bouquet    to 

Capt.   Derr,    Co.   C,   from 

His  Fellow-Officers  of  the 

23d  Police  District Hon.  Joseph  S.  MacLaughlin,  Director  of  Supplies. 

Address General  William  G.  Price. 

Mess  Call 

The  following  was  the  menu  furnished  at  these  banquets:  ice  cream  and  cake 
being  served  to  the  friends  of  the  men :  Oyster  Cocktails,  Celery,  Olives,  Gherkins, 
Stewed  Snapper,  Vienna  Rolls,  Sweetbread  Cutlets,  Punch,  Broiled  Half  Spring 
Chicken,  Glaced  Sweet  Potatoes,  Peas.  Harlequin  Ice  Cream,  Fancy  Cakes, 
Coffee,  Cigars,  Cigarettes,  White  Rock,  Ginger  Ale,  ApoUinaris. 

Additional  Receptions  and  Parade 

On  the  return  of  Company  B,  1st  Pennsylvania  Engineers,  a  reception  and 
banquet  was  tendered  them  at  the  State  Fencibles  Armory  on  Saturday,  November 
4,  1916.  In  the  absence  of  the  Mayor,  Joseph  S.  MacLaughlin,  Esq.,  Director 
of  the  Department  of  Supplies,  officially  welcomed  the  engineers  to  Philadelphia. 

A  reception  and  banquet  to  the  2d  Regiment  was  held  on  February  12,  1917, 
in  the  2d  Regiment  Armory,  Broad  Street  above  Diamond.  The  banquet  was  pre- 
ceded by  a  parade  of  the  regiment  in  full  army  equipment,  this  being  the  first  time 
that  Philadelphians  had  an  opportunity  of  viewing  it  as  an  artillery  regiment. 

In  connection  with  this  parade,  the  committee  was  called  upon  to  furnish 
800  horses  and  mules.  These  were  secured  with  the  cooperation  of  Messrs. 
John  Wanamaker,  Edwin  H.  Vare,  James  Mullen,  James  Irvin,  T.  L.  Flannigan, 
Howard  E.  Ruch,  Frank  Curran,  McMahon  Brothers,  S.  A.  McClay,  the  United 
Gas  Improvement  Company,  R.  &  A.  J.  Peoples,  and  the  Penn  Reduction 
Company. 

The  horses  and  mules  were  delivered  at  13th  and  Callowhill  streets  on  the 
morning  of  the  parade,  February  12,  1917,  to  Captain  Geisel,  of  the  2d  Regiment. 

Every  detail  incident  to  the  parade  and  reception,  such  as  printing  of  invita- 
tions, menu,  police  arrangements,  souvenirs,  etc.,  was  completed  prior  to  the  arrival 
of  the  soldiers,  and  nothing  occurred  to  mar  what  was  conceded  to  be  a  gala  event. 

The  committee  received  a  telegram  from  Major  Cheules  W.  Edmunds, 
commanding  the  1st  Squadron,  Pennsylvania  Cavalry,  comprising  the  1st  City 
Troop,  2d  City  Troop,  Troops  A  and  G,  stating  that  the  squadron  did  not  desire 
any  reception  or  entertainment  upon  their  return  from  the  Mexican  border,  as 
they  wished  to  return  to  their  homes  immediately  upon  their  arrival  in  Philadelphia. 

The  approximate  number  of  soldiers  who  were  accommodated  and  fed  at  these 
various  banquets  was  about  4,000. 

World  War 

Beginning  with  the  mobilization  of  troops  for  the  World  War,  the  executive 
committee  was  constantly  called  upon  to  dispose  of  various  subjects  which  were 
referred  to  them  by  the  general  and  sub-committees. 

Hon.  Norris  S.  Barratt,  President  Judge  of  Court  of  Common  Pleas  No.  2, 
called  the  attention  of  the  committee  to  the  fact  that  the  men  in  the  315th  Infantry, 
an  all-Philadelphia  regiment  at  Camp  Meade,  were  without  gloves  and  other  neces- 
sary woolen  clothing.     The  committee  visited  Camp  Meade  and  learned  that  many 

68 


Philadelphians  were  in  the  311th  and  315th  Infantries;  312th  Field  Artillery  and 
30 1th  Engineers.  The  officers  of  these  regiments  stated  to  the  committee  that  the 
men  were  in  need  of  woolen  clothing,  such  as  sweaters,  gloves,  helmets,  wristlets 
and  stockings.  Immediately  after  the  visit  of  the  committee  to  Camp  Meade 
bids  were  received  and  contracts  made  for  the  articles  mentioned,  and  as  soon  as 
the  same  were  delivered  to  the  committee,  they  were  sent  by  special  messengers 
to  the  men  at  Camp  Meade.  Many  other  soldiers  who  made  appHcation  for  these 
articles  were  also  supplied. 

The  winter  of  1917-1918  was  the  most  severe  in  twenty-five  years,  and  sweaters, 
hehnets,  socks,  wristlets,  etc.,  were  given  away  at  various  camps  to  the  Phila- 
delphia men.  Many  pairs  of  woolen  stockings  were  donated  to  the  committee  by 
the  Home  Defense  Committee  for  distribution,  and  woolen  wristlets  in  vast  num- 
bers were  knitted  by  the  ladies  of  a  church  in  Bridesburg  of  which  Rev.  August 
Piscator,  3391  Frankford  Avenue,  is  the  pastor. 

Major  E.  St.  John  Greble,  commander  of  the  108th  Field  Artillery  (formerly 
the  2d  Pennsylvania  Artillery)  appeared  before  the  committee  in  March,  1918, 
and  requested  the  purchase  of  a  machine  designed  for  bathing  purposes  for  the 
use  of  the  men  in  the  108th  Field  Artillery,  stating  that  such  a  machine  was  espe- 
cially adapted  for  this  purpose  and  for  sterilizing  the  clothing  of  the  men,  and  was 
necessary  to  prevent  an  epidemic  of  vermin,  and  that  such  a  machine  would  cost 
about  $9,000.  The  committee  immediately  took  up  the  question  and  unanimously 
agreed  that  purchase  should  be  made  and  an  order  was  given  to  the  Exshaw 
Company  of  Bordeaux,  France,  to  build  one.  It  was  later  dehvered  to  Major 
Greble  in  France,  and  the  committee  received  many  letters  of  thanks  for  their 
kindly  act  in  this  respect.  After  the  war  was  over  this  machine  was  sold  in  France 
for  $1,724.14,  and  the  money  used  by  the  108th  Field  Artillery  to  defray  expenses 
incurred  prior  to  their  departure  overseas. 

On  July  17,  1918,  the  members  of  the  executive  committee  and  a  committee 
appointed  by  the  Mayor  received  Lieutenant  Clarke,  five  aviators  and  observers 
who  flew  from  Mineola,  N.  Y.,  to  Philadelphia  in  battle  planes,  landing  at  Belmont 
Plateau.  A  luncheon  was  given  at  the  Bellevue-Stratford,  their  stay  being  limited, 
but  all  the  men  enjoyed  the  welcome  very  much. 

John  Ashhurst,  librarian  of  the  Free  Library  of  Philadelphia,  urged  the  com- 
mittee to  appropriate  the  sum  of  $500  to  defray  the  expenses  incident  to  furnish- 
ing books,  magazines  and  other  reading  matter  to  the  soldiers  at  training  camps, 
cantonments,  etc.,  stating  Jthat  the  citizens  of  Philadelphia  had,  in  answer  to  their 
appeal,  sent  tons  of  reading  matter  for  transmission  to  the  men,  and  that  consider- 
able expense  was  necessary  in  the  selecting,  sorting,  pasting,  etc.,  of  all  this  material 
incident  to  its  being  forwarded.  The  committee,  recognizing  the  worthiness  of 
the  request,  acquiesced.  Four  tons  of  tliis  matter  was  sent  to  the  Navy  Yard  and 
almost  two  tons  distributed  among  the  soldiers  on  the  troop  trains  passing  through 
the  city. 

Reception  to  the  28th  Division 

The  joyous  news  of  the  signing  of  the  Armistice  in  November,  1918,  was  fit- 
tingly received,  but  when  the  report  came  that  the  28th  (Iron)  Division  was  headed 
homeward,  Philadelphians  felt  a  deep,  personal  thrill.  This  division,  composed 
largely  of  Philadelphia  men  formerly  of  the  1st  Infantry  Brigade,  N.  G.  P.,  bore,  as 

69 


its  divisional  insignia,  the  red  Keystone.  It  was,  indeed,  a  City  and  State  unit 
and  the  news  of  its  return  struck  a  responsive  chord  in  the  lieart  of  every  citizen 
of  the  Commonwealth. 

The  story  of  the  parade  of  the  division,  and  the  general  entertainment  pro- 
vided for  the  men,  will  be  found  elsewhere. 

Reception  Plans  for  the  79th  Division 

When  word  was  received  that  this  division  was  about  to  return  home,  a 
city-wide  demand  was  made  that  it,  also,  be  paraded  again.  The  War  Depart- 
ment was  communicated  with  and  expressed  entire  willingness  to  accede  to  the 
request  of  the  relatives  and  friends,  but  the  long  drawn  out  release  of  the  units 
from  France  and  the  intense  heat  in  Philadelphia  at  the  time  that  the  distinc- 
tively local  men  were  at  Camp  Dix,  combined  to  make  a  parade  physically  im- 
possible. The  welcome  accorded  to  General  Kuhn  and  his  men  is  described 
elsewhere. 

Subsequent  to  the  return  of  the  two  divisions,  the  Welcome  Home  Com- 
mittee continued  to  function  in  arranging  for  the  reception  of  otiier  units. 

Reception  to  General  Pershing 

On  September  12,  1919,  General  John  J.  Pershing,  commander-in-chief  of 
the  American  Exp(>ditionary  Forces,  arrived  in  Piiiladelphia  and  was  tendered  a 
magnificent  reception  by  the  citizens  of  Philadelphia.     The  general  was  met  at 


CeiuTid  Perxliiittj.  iitilh  Governor  Sproul  and  Mayor  Sniilli,  escorted  by  the  "City  Traiip.' 

70 


North  Philadelphia  Station  by  the  Hon.  William  C.  Sproul,  Governor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania; the  Hon.  Thomas  B.  Smith,  Mayor;  a  committee  of  representative  citizens, 
the  executive  committee,  and  an  honorary  guard  of  Distinguished  Service  men, 
whom  the  general  especially  recognized.  General  Pershing,  his  staff,  and  the 
members  of  the  committees  then  proceeded  to  Independence  Hall,  where  in  the 
Declaration  Chamber,  the  Mayor  presented  to  General  Pershing,  with  the  love 
of  the  people,  a  little  golden  reproduction  of  the  world-loved  Liberty  Bell.  In 
his  response  to  the  address  of  presentation.  General  Persliing  said:  "It  fills  me 
with  deepest  emotions  to  be  on  this  sacred  spot  and  it  seems  especially  fitting  that, 
upon  the  conclusion  of  the  war  which  was  fought  fur  the  sacred  principles  declared 
to  the  world  by  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  we  should 
be  here.  I  feel  that  I  should  say  a  word  as  to  the  splendid  part  taken  in  this 
battle  for  civilization  by  the  city  of  Philadelphia  and  by  the  state  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. You  have  given  of  your  soldierly,  young  manhood  in  large  numbers;  they 
have  carried  forward  to  the  battlefields  of  France  the  patriotism  that  they  learned 
in  this  Cradle  of  Liberty;  they  have  done  a  service  not  only  to  your  state  and  your 
city,  but  a  service  to  the  world.  We  are  all  proud  of  them,  and  I,  as  their  com- 
mander, desire  especially  to  convey  to  you  this  appreciation.  I  am  very  grateful, 
for  your  thought  of  me  in  this  connection  and  thank  you  from  the  bottom  of 
my  heart  for  this  precious  gift,  which  I  accept  as  a  present  not  only  to  me,  but  to 
the  men  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Force,  whom  I  had  the  honor  to  command, 
and  it  is  to  them  that  I  give  the  credit.     I  thank  you,  sir." 

After  the  exercises  in  the  Declaration  Chamber,  General  Pershing  and  his 
party  took  their  places  on  the  stand,  erected  at  the  south  entrance  of  Independence 
Hall.  He  was  greeted  by  thousands  of  Philadelphians  and  responded  to  their 
welcome  in  a  brief  speech. 

General  Pershing  then  planted  a  tree  to  the  east  of  the  hall,  the  Emergency 
Aid  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  Emergency  Aid  Aides,  assisting. 

Reception  to  Cardinal  Mercier 

On  September  26,  1919,  a  public  reception  was  tendered  Desideratus,  Cardinal 
Mercier,  Archbishop  of  Malines  and  Primate  of  Belgium.  A  luncheon  was  served 
at  the  Bellevue-Stratford  to  Cardinal  Mercier  and  his  suite,  at  which 
addresses  were  made  by  Rabbi  Joseph  Krauskopf,  Archbishop  Dougherty,  Bishop 
Rhinelander  and  Cardmal  Mercier.  The  Cardmal  remained  in  Philadelphia  for 
several  days  and  during  his  stay  was  accompanied  by  a  special  committee  to 
numerous  institutions,  where  individual  receptions  were  given. 

Reception  to  the  King  and  Queen  of  the  Belgians 

King  Albert  and  Queen  EUzabeth  of  Belgium,  accompanied  by  the  Duke  of 
Brabant,  arrrived  in  Philadelphia  on  October  27,  1919,  and  were  given  an 
official  reception  at  Independence  Hall.  Their  Majesties  were  obhged  to  leave 
at  6  P.M.,  but  following  the  visit  to  Independence  Hall,  the  King  christened  a  boat  at 
Hog  Island,  and  was  taken  through  the  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  at  Eddystone 
through  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  Samuel  Vauclain,  a  member  of  the  Citizens'  Committee. 
Queen  Elizabeth  was*entertained  at  the  headquarters  of  the  Belgian  Relief  Commit- 
tee of  the  Emergency  Aid  and  at  Bryn  Mawr  College. 

71 


Sub-Committee  on  Sustenance  and  Relief 

In  1916,  immediately  after  the  National  GuEird  regiments  were  assembled  by 
the  War  Department  for  service  on  the  Mexican  border,  this  committee's  attention 
was  called  to  several  cases  of  destitution,  caused  by  reason  of  the  main  support 
of  a  family  being  sent  to  the  Mexican  border  and  his  iniome  from  civil  life  cut  ofl". 

Applications  for  aid  were  made  to  members  of  the  committee  personally, 
through  the  Police  Department  and  other  public  ofTicials  and  to  various  charitable 
organizations,  who  in  turn  forwarded  tlicni  to  your  committee. 

The  sergeant-at-arms  of  the  committee  was  given  charge  of  this  branch  of  the 
work  and  authorized  to  investigate  each  application  and  make  such  payments 
as  the  cii'cumstances  warranted.  The  committee  agreed  that  no  publicity  should 
be  given  about  those  seeking  assistance  and  that  all  applications  for  aid  be  con- 
sidered in  executive  session.  In  carrying  on  its  work  the  committee  had  the  hearty 
cooperation  of  the  Citizens'  Soldiers'  Aid  C'.onunittee,  which  prevented  duplication 
of  payments  to  those  seeking  financial  assistance. 

The  first  payment  was  made  on  June  27,  1916.  and  payments  continued  weekly 
to  March  2,  1917.  During  that  period  the  maximum  number  of  applications 
favorably  acted  upon  was  fifty-nine,  and  the  total  amount  expended  was  $4,925.30. 

The  work  of  the  committee  during  the  Mexican  border  trouble  had  just  been 
completed  when  Congress  declared  war  upon  (iermany  and  other  luuopean  coun- 
tries. Upon  the  decleu-ation  of  war  the  Philadelphia  regiments  were  again  called  into 
service  and  immediate  requests  made  upon  the  committee  for  financial  assistance. 

The  committee  instructed  the  sergeant-at-arms  to  take  charge  and  resume 
his  former  work  of  investigation.  The  first  payments  were  made  on  April  13,  1917, 
to  eighteen  families  and  amounted  to  -SIO.t. 

In  June,  1917,  the  draft  law  was  passed  and  in  September  of  that  year  the  first 
draft  made,  followed  at  short  intervals  by  others,  which  automatically  sent  thou- 
sands of  our  young  men  to  various  camps,  and  later  overseas.  As  the  drafts  were 
made  the  number  of  applications  for  assistance  jumped  in  leaps  and  bounds  and 
the  payments  made  by  the  committee  increased  correspondingly. 

Payments  were  continued  weekly  to  December  28,  1917,  on  which  date 
$2,932.39  was  paid  to  417  families. 

The  payments  due  December  28,  1917  and  1918,  being  after  Christmas,  it  was 
decided  by  the  committee  to  make  payments  of  the  same  prior  to  the  2.5th,  so  that 
famiUes  of  the  soldiers  might  enjoy  the  festive  season. 

The  committee  then  decided  to  make  payments  semi-monthly  and  on  January 
11,  1918,  $6,503.61  was  paid  to  a  total  of  512  families.  Semi-monthly  payments 
continued  and  the  number  of  families  on  the  roll  increased  to  1,085  on  November 
29,1918,  with  a  total  pa>Tnent  of  $12,961.40  for  that  period,  and  it  is  estimated  that 
at  least  5,000  dependents  benefited  thereby. 

Preceding  the  above  date  (November  29,  1918),  the  armistice  was  signed, 
and  the  number  of  applications  materially  decreased,  owing  to  discharges  from 
service,  etc.  The  committee  continued  making  payments  until  November  14,  1919, 
when  they  were  discontinued,  and  the  total  amount  expended  from  April  13,  1917, 
to  above  date  was  $416,855.17. 

In  the  early  period  of  the  work  of  the  committee  applications  were  received 
so  rapidly  that  it  was  necessary  to  employ  two  skiUed  investigators  as  assistants 

72 


to  the  sergeant-at-arms,  and  not  a  single  application  was  neglected.  Every  case 
was  thoroughly  investigated  in  a  confidential  way  and  considered  on  its  merits. 

Before  making  payments  to  applicants,  the  committee  verified,  through  the 
local  draft  boards  and  the  War  and  Navy  Departments,  the  fact  that  the  soldier 
named  in  the  application  was  in  the  service.  In  a  number  of  cases,  however, 
circumstances  were  such  that  it  was  necessary  to  grant  immediate  relief  and  later 
verify  the  service  record  of  the  man.  but  every  case  so  assisted  was  found 
bona  fide. 

From  April.  1917.  the  office  of  the  committee  was  open  for  those  seeking  finan- 
cial assistance — many  times  such  applications  being  made  at  night.  Hundreds 
were  given  advice  on  subjects  of  all  kinds,  viz:  locating  a  relative  in  service;  securing 
delayed  allotments;  adjusting  controversies  between  landlords,  agents  and  tenants; 
instalment  accoimts  and  gaining  admission  to  hospitals  for  those  who  were  ill. 

Over  3.000  applications  for  aid  were  received  and  the  conunittee  worked  in 
harmony  witli  tiic  following  organizations  to  prevent  duplication  of  assistance  and 
fraud : 

American  Red  Cross  (Home  Relief  Division);  The  Jewish  Welfare  Board; 
The  Mayor's  Personal  Service  Bureau;  Local  Draft  Boards;  The  Police  Depai't- 
ment;  The  Home  Defense  Reserves. 

Delayed  government  allotments  caused  considerable  hardship  to  the  families 
of  those  in  the  service.  These  delays  were,  no  doubt,  due  to  the  fact  that  men 
were  constantly  being  transferred  from  one  branch  of  the  service  to  another ;  from 
camp  to  camp,  or  sent  overseas,  but  Dr.  Carl  Kelsey,  the  allotment  officer  at  Phila- 
delphia,  cheerfully   aided  the  committee  in  adjusting  all  such  matters. 

By  reason  of  the  delay  in  receiving  these  allotments,  many  of  the  dependents 
receiving  aid  from  the  committee,  were  unable  promptly  to  pay  their  rent,  so 
that  landlords  and  agents,  not  knowing  the  circumstances,  placed  the  collection 
of  rents  in  the  hands  of  constables.  Immediately  upon  receipt  of  notices  the 
dependents  would  rush  to  the  office  of  the  committee,  complaining  of  the  prospective 
eviction.  Not  less  than  two  huiidr(>d  cases  of  this  nature  were  cared  for,  and 
through  the  kindness  of  the  Philadelphia  Constables'  Association  no  evictions  were 
made. 

Henry  M.  Stevenson,  Esq.,  offered  his  legal  seivices  free  to  families  of  soldiers 
and  sailors,  and  the  committee  was  indebted  to  him  for  preventing  the  eviction  of 
many  dependents. 

In  numerous  cases  ai'rangements  were  made  with  hospitals  for  care  of  a  wife, 
mother  or  children  of  men  in  the  service  who  were  unable,  through  lack  of  funds, 
to  secure  medical  treatment,  or  who  were  too  ill  to  remain  at  home.  To  those  who 
could  remain  at  their  home,  but  were  unable  to  pay  for  medical  attention,  the 
committee  procured  the  services  of  the  district  doctor  free. 

Many  cases  were  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  committee  where  an  order 
had  been  made  upon  a  delinquent  husband  by  the  Municipal  Court.  In  accordance 
with  the  Allotment  Act  these  orders  had  precedence  over  other  claims,  and  with 
the  cooperation  of  the  Municipal  Court  the  committee  were  able  to  have  the  orders 
complied  with. 

Several  cases  were  reported  to  the  committee  where  tlie  man  in  service  was 
killed  and  the  question  came  up  as  to  how  long  the  committee  should  carry  his 
dependents  upon  the  committee's  list.     After  careful  consideration  it  was  finally 

.    73 


agreed  to  continue  payments  to  such  dependents  until  they  received  their  first 
payment  from  the  War  Risk  Insurance. 

In  the  beginning  the  committee  was  greatly  concerned  as  to  the  manner  of 
making  payments  to  the  dependents,  but  through  an  agreement  with  the  City 
Controller  a  warrant  was  drawn  for  a  lump  sum  semi-monthly  and  vouchers  later 
filed  with  his  office  covering  the  amount  ptiid  to  each  individual. 

All  payments  were  made  by  check  which  numbered  upwards  of  1,000  semi- 
monthly, and  officials  of  the  Continental-Equitable  Trust  Company,  through  which 
the  checks  were  paid,  were  extremely  courteous,  and  rendered  a  real  service. 

The  committee  feels  that  its  work  was  deeply  appreciated  by  those  who 
received  financial  assistance  and  that  the  taxpayers'  money  was  judiciously 
expended. 

Sub-Committee  on  Camps  and  Quarters 

Shortly  after  the  United  States  declared  war  on  Germany  a  number  of  soldiers 
arrived  in  Philadelphia  unannounced,  and  as  no  accommodations  had  been  made 
for  them,  they  were  obliged  to  sleep  in  one  of  the  city  parks  in  the  southern  section 
of  the  city.  This  information  was  received  by  the  committee  and  the  matter 
promptly  taken  up  by  the  Mayor  and  the  secretary  of  the  committee. 

The  first  motor  truck  company  remaining  over  night  in  Philadelphia  was  on 
January  31,  1918,  and  was  housed  at  the  State  Fencibles  Armory.  Supper  and 
breakfast  were  furnished  to  the  men  and  every  comfort  given  them. 

As  the  armory  was  being  used  for  mifitary  purposes,  it  became  necessary  to 
arrange  other  quarters  in  which  to  billet  the  men  remaining  over  night.  After 
giving  this  problem  considerable  thought  it  was  decided  that  the  rooms  and  cor- 
ridors of  Councils  (fourth  floor.  City  Hall)  were  the  most  available  in  which  to  house 
the  companies,  owing  to  the  central  location.  Arrangements  were  immediately 
entered  into  with  the  Police  Department  to  furnish  cots  and  pillows;  new  sheets, 
towels  and  soap  were  purchased,  and  shower  baths  installed. 

The  following  procedure  was  carried  out  in  preparing  for  the  comfort  and 
convenience  of  those  billeted:  Upon  receipt  of  information  that  a  motor  truck 
company  would  arrive  and  remain  over  night  in  Philadelphia,  notice  was  given  the 
office  of  the  superintendent  of  police,  requesting  that  a  motorcycle  detail  escort 
the  train  te  the  city's  center.  The  trucks  were  parked  on  the  Parkway  or  plaza 
of  City  Hall,  and  many  times  from  150  to  200  trucks  were  on  City  Hall  Plaza, 
Broad  Street  and  the  Parkway.  The  doors  at  the  northeast  corner  of  City  Hall 
were  open  at  all  times  during  the  night  and  the  elevators  kept  running  continuously. 
City  Hall  guards  were  stationed  on  the  fourth  floor  and  at  the  entrances,  to  prevent 
outsiders  from  disturbing  the  men;  cots  were  erected  and  soap  and  towels  placed 
in  the  wash  rooms  and  shower  baths.  The  corridors  were  lighted,  stationery  and 
stamps  placed  in  the  writing  room  set  apart  for  use  of  the  men;  free  telephone 
service  was  given  and  everything  done  to  make  the  men  feel  "at  home." 

A  kitchen  was  equipped  on  the  fifth  floor  of  City  Hall  where  mess  was  served 
to  companies.  In  the  event  of  a  company  being  without  rations,  or  in  emergencies, 
the  men  were  fed  at  nearby  restaurants  at  an  average  price  of  sixty  cents  per  meal. 
This  occurred  frequently  and  many  times  late  at  night. 

When  a  large  contingent  arrived,  too  many  to  accommodate  in  the  kitchen 
on  the  fifth  floor  of  City  Hall,  field  kitchens  were  erected  on  the  plot  of  ground  on 

74 


Filbert  Street,  between  Broad  and  15th  streets,  leased  by  the  Pennsylvania  State 
Construction  Company,  which  showed  a  patriotic  spirit  by  permitting  the  use  of 
this  ground  and  furnishing  the  necessary  wood  for  the  fires. 

As  soon  as  a  company  arrived  either  at  City  Hall,  at  the  Studebaker  Building, 
or  at  18th  and  Race  streets,  a  representative  of  the  committee  was  on  hand 
and  immediately  got  in  touch  with  the  officer  in  charge  and  procured  for  them  oil, 
gasoline  or  rations,  and  telephoned  the  Fire  Bureau,  during  the  winter  months, 
to  have  a  fireman  with  hose  put  water  in  the  radiators  of  the  cars,  which  wore 
emptied  immediately  upon  arrival  to  prevent  freezing. 

The  officers  were  entertained  at  one  of  the  hotels  or  clubs,  and  it  was  said  by 
many  of  these  men,  that  nowhere  else  in  the  country  were  the  men  treated  with 
such  kindness  and  consideration  as  they  were  in  Philadelpliia. 

Quite  frequently  men  arriving  required  medical  attention  which  was  im- 
mediately rendered.  Late  in  1918,  an  order  was  received  from  the  government 
that  all  such  cases  be  referred  to  Major  Pollard,  who  thereafter  had  general  super- 
vision and  gave  medical  attention  to  all  ill  or  injured  men. 

A  medical  officer  from  the  War  Department  was  sent  to  Philadelphia  to  in- 
spect the  quarters  used  by  the  soldiers.  He  was  given  all  information  asked  for, 
and  when  he  saw  that  each  man  was  provided  with  individual  towel,  soap,  comb 
and  brush,  and  that  the  cots  were  arranged  so  as  to  leave  nearly  two  feet  of  space 
between,  he  was  most  agreeably  surprised,  and  informed  the  committee  that  the 
sanitEiry  arrangements  and  surroundings  were  excellent  and  in  keeping  with  the 
stringent  rules  of  the  government. 

On  June  1,  1918,  and  continuing  for  about  a  week,  the  Emergency  Fleet 
Corporation  moved  their  headquarters  from  Washington  to  Philadelphia  by  motor 
trucks.  This  gigantic  task  was  performed  by  the  Motor  Transport  Corps,  their 
trucks  leaving  Washington  and  arriving  in  Philadelphia  without  a  stop,  the  trip 
being  made  in  about  twenty  hours.  Immediately  upon  unloading  the  trucks  at 
140  North  Broad  Street,  the  men  came  to  City  Hall  carrying  their  heavy  laden 
packs  into  the  corridors  and  dropping  exhausted  upon  the  cots  arranged  for  them. 

Motor  truck  companies  were  housed  in  City  Hall  corridors  until  the  influenza 
epidemic  of  October,  1918,  when  Director  Wilmer  Krusen,  of  the  Department  of 
Public  Health  and  Charities,  directed  that  no  soldiers  be  billeted  in  City  Hall 
during  this  terrible  epidemic,  and  suggested  that  a  building  be  commandeered  for 
the  purpose  of  accommodating  motor  truck  companies.  Immediately  the  new 
building  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Broad  and  Brown  streets,  known  as  the  Stude- 
baker Building  was  taken  over  and  within  twenty-four  hours  it  was  fully  equipped 
and  ready  for  occupation.  The  lessor  of  the  building  desired  a  two  years'  lease 
at  a  rental  approximating  $45,000  per  year.  This  seemed  excessive  and  a  search 
for  other  quarters  was  begun.  The  committee  occupied  the  Studebaker  Building 
for  about  a  month  at  a  cost  of  §4,500. 

The  four-story  property  at  the  northeast  corner  of  18th  and  Race  streets  had 
been  condemned  by  the  city  for  parkway  purposes,  and  after  looking  at  many 
other  buildings,  this  property  seemed  to  be  the  most  desirable,  as  it  was  near  to 
City  Hall,  faced  the  Parkway,  on  which  the  motor  trucks  could  be  parked,  and 
would  not  cost  the  city  a  penny  for  rental.  It  was  in  a  dilapidated  condition  when 
inspected  by  the  committee,  but  within  two  weeks  was  transformed  into  thoroughly 
comfortable  quarters  for  approximately  350  men. 

75 


During  all  the  time  the  committee  looked  after  the  housing  of  these  men,  it 
was  ably  assisted  by  the  canteen  service  of  the  American  Red  Cross,  of  which  Mrs. 
George  W.  Childs  Drexel  was  chairman,  by  Mrs.  Harry  Michell  and  Mrs.  Zulick, 
and  by  Mrs.  Rhodes,  of  the  Motor  Messengers'  service,  and  her  associates. 

Upon  the  signing  of  the  aixnistice  and  demobilization  many  soldiers  en  route 
to  their  homes  in  various  sections  of  the  country  stopped  here,  and  being  without 
funds,  were  cared  for  by  the  committee.  This  problem  became  so  acute  that 
at  a  meeting  of  the  committee  held  on  November  27,  1918,  a  communica- 
tion was  received  from  the  American  Red  Cross  requesting  permission  to  send 
demobilized  men  to  the  quarters  at  18th  and  Race  streets. 

The  committee  decided  that  to  comply  with  this  request  would  interfere  with 
the  activities  of  the  committee  in  housing  the  personnel  of  motor  truck  trains  by 
overcrowding  or  disorder,  as  these  individual  men  would  not  be  under  the  command 
of  an  ofQcer.  In  order  to  cooperate  with  the  Red  Cross  in  taking  care  of  these  men 
negotiations  were  entered  into  with  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  for  the  use 
of  a  building  owned  by  it  at  1721  Arch  Street.  The  Trustees  of  the  University 
tendered  the  use  of  this  building  free  of  rent  in  lieu  of  the  committee  making  all 
improvements.  The  committee  had  the  house  remodeled,  and  a  boiler  costing 
$4,000  was  installed,  as  well  as  shower  baths,  new  beds,  mattresses,  pillows  and 
individual  lockers. 

The  Director  of  the  Department  of  Public  Safety  detailed  three  patrolmen 
(eight  hour  shifts)  to  police  the  building,  and  the  committee  employed  two  janitors, 
one  for  day  and  the  other  at  night,  as  the  building  was  always  open.  Cards  of 
admission  were  obtained  from  the  American  Red  Cross,  on  which  was  the  name 
and  address  of  the  soldier  seeking  lodging,  and  this  rule  was  strictly  observed  to 
prevent  promiscuous  itinerants  gaining  admission,  which  would  detract  from  the 
worthy  purpose  for  which  the  quarters  were  being  used.  There  were  12,664  sent  to 
1721  Arch  Street  who  made  use  of  the  accommodations  provided.  The  total 
number  of  men  billeted  at  City  Hall,  the  Studebaker  Ruilding  and  at  18th  and 
Race  streets,  amounted  to  20,000.  In  other  words,  the  committee  provided  for 
about  .■JS.OOO. 

Sub-Committee  on  Hospitals 

The  subcommittee  on  hospitals,  immediately  after  its  appointment,  received 
apphcations  for  medical  attention  from  the  dependents  of  those  in  the  service. 
The  hospitals  in  Philadelphia  cheerfully  complied  with  every  request  for  the  admis- 
sion or  treatment  of  those  afflicted. 

The  district  medical  inspectors  and  police  surgeons  were  frequently  called 
upon  at  all  hours  to  visit  homes  of  those  who  were  ill  and  unable  to  pay  for  medical 
attention. 

Particular  attention  is  called  to  the  number  of  cases  admitted  to  the  Rush 
Hospital,  mainly  through  the  kindly  influence  of  the  secretary  of  the  committee, 
Charles  R.  Hall.  Many  of  those  admitted  to  this  hospital  were  in  the  last  stages 
of  tuberculosis  and  every  comfort  and  attention  was  given  them  during  their  illness. 
Several  were  greatly  improved  during  their  stay  and  were  vhen  sent  to  the  con- 
valescent or  outdoor  hospital  at  IMalvern  and  discharged  when  permanent  im- 
provement was  shown. 

Preparatory  to  the  campaign  for  the  Liberty  Loan  in  the  latter  part  of  1918, 

76 


a  number  of  soldiers  wounded  overseas  were  brought  from  Camp  Dix  to  Phila- 
delphia to  aid  in  floating  the  Loan,  and  were  quartered  in  City  Hall.  About  this 
time  the  epidemic  of  influenza  struck  Philadelphia,  and  several  of  these  men  suc- 
cumbed. 

Sergeant  Blake,  in  charge  of  these  wounded  soldiers,  was  taken  ill,  and  after 
considerable  trouble  to  have  him  placed  in  a  hospital.  Mother  Ines,  of  the  Miseri- 
cordia  Hospital,  made  room  for  him  and  he  was  admitted.  Everything  was  done 
to  save  his  life,  but  without  success. 

Preparations  were  in  progress  for  the  opening  of  the  Philopatrian  Institute 
as  an  emergency  hospital,  and  when  it  was  found  that  sixteen  of  the  soldiers  quar- 
tered in  City  Hall  were  suffering  from  the  "flu,"  a  hurried  consultation  was  held 
by  the  chairman  of  the  committee,  Mr.  Hetzell,  Doctors  John  M.  Fisher  and  Henry 
A.  Strecker,  and  the  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph,  and  the  institute  immediately  trans- 
formed into  Emergency  Hospital  No.  3,  where  these  sixteen  men  were  taken. 

Sub-Committee  on  Burials 

This  subconnnittee  on  burials  took  charge  of  a  number  of  requests  for  assis- 
tance in  the  burial  of  soldiers  or  for  their  immediate  next  of  kin. 

In  all  cases  of  death,  where  financial  assistance  was  requested  and  given,  the 
committee  kept  the  fact  from  the  general  public  so  that  the  families  of  the  deceased 
would  not  be  branded  as  recipients  of  charity.  Proper  vouchers  and  bills  were 
filed  in  the  office  of  the  City  ControUer  covering  the  expenses. 

When  a  soldier  was  buried,  the  funeral  was  military  in  character,  and  through 
the  courtesy  of  the  commanding  officers  at  the  various  military  and  naval  depots 
in  Philadelphia,  firing  squads  and  bugle  corps  were  furnished  whenever  requested. 

No  words  can  express  the  appreciation  shown  by  the  families  of  the  deceased 
for  the  service  rendered  by  the  committee  to  those  who  had  lost  their  loved  ones, 
and  while  the  number  of  applications  was  but  smaU  in  comparison  to  the  thousands 
who  entered  the  service,  the  committee  fulfilled,  in  every  detail,  the  object  of  its 
appointment. 

The  committee  gave  personal  attention  to  the  shipment  to  their  homes  of  the 
bodies  of  several  soldiers  who  died  during  the  influenza  epidemic  and  helped  to 
defray  the  expenses  in  aU  such  cases. 


77 


EARLY  PREPAREDNESS  ME\SURES 


THE  STUDENT  MILITARY  TRAINING  CAMPS 
Known  as  the  "Plattsburg"  Camps 

j^^^^HESE  camps,  which  proved  to  be  so  efficient  an  element  in 
preparedness  for  national  defense,  were  initiated  by  a  letter 
addressed  under  date  of  May  10,  1913,  by  Major-General 
Leonard  Wood,  then  chief  of  staff.  United  States  Army,  to 
the  university  and  college  presidents  of  the  country,  stating 
that  the  Secretary  of  War  had  decided  to  hold  two  exper- 
imental military  camps  of  instruction  for  students  of 
educational  institutions,  during  the  then  coming  summer 
vacation  period,  and  that  if  these  camps  should  prove  to 
be  a  success,  the  intention  was  to  hold  them  annually  in 
each  of  the  four  military  sections  or  divisions  of  the  country. 

Camps  were  established  that  summer  at  Gettysburg,  Pa.,  and  at  the 
Presidio  of  Monterey,  Cal.  One  hundred  and  fifty-nine  students  attended  the 
Gettysburg  camp  from  sixty-one  institutions  located  in  different  parts  of  the 
country.  Of  these,  twenty-five  were  from  Pennsylvania,  and  of  the  twenty-five 
six  were  from  Philadcljjhia.  all  from  the  I'niversity  of  Pennsylvania.    The  attend- 


Presiitenl  Henry  S.  Drinker,  Major  General  Leonard  Wood  and  officers,  al  Plall.ihurg.  1916. 

78 


ance  from  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  was  distributed  as  follows:  High  School, 
Hanover,  1;  Lafayette  College,  Easton,  1;  Lehigh  Liniversity,  Bethlehem,  8; 
Pennsylvania  College,  Gettysburg,  2;  Pennsylvania  Military  College,  Chester,!; 
Pennsylvania  State  College,  2;  Philadelphia  Trades  School,  1;  L^niversity  of  Penn- 
sylvania, 6 ;  Washington  and  Jefferson  College,  3 ;  a  total  of  twenty-five. 

Sixty-three  students  attended  the  Monterey  Camp,  from  twenty-nine  institu- 
tions.     Of  these  none  were   from  Pennsylvania. 

These  first  camps  in  the  summer  of  1913  were  succeeded  in  the  summer  of 
1914  by  similar  camps  at  Burlington,  Vt.,  Asheville,  N.  C,  Ludington,  Mich.,  and 
Monterey,  Cal.,  with  a  total  attendance  of  667,  of  whom  thirty-four  were  from 
Pennsylvania  and  nine  from  Philadelpliia. 

In  1915  a  movement  to  establish  similar  summer  military  training  camps  for 
business  and  professional  men  materialized.  Camps  for  students  were  held  with 
an  attendance  of  615  at  Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  212  at  the  Presidio  of  San  Francisco, 
Cal.,  95  at  American  Lake,  State  of  Washington,  and  144  at  Ludington,  Mich. 
Camps  for  business  men  were  held  with  attendance  of  1,189  at  the  first  camp  and 
564  at  the  second  camp  at  Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  and  of  72  at  San  Francisco.  At 
Fort  Sheridan,  111.,  a  camp  composed  of  both  students  and  business  men  was 
held,  numbering  in  all  515,  the  total  for  1915  in  all  camps  summing  up  to  3,406. 

In  1916  camps  for  students  were  held  with  attendance  of  3,316  at  Plattsburg; 
1,166  at  Fort  Terry,  New  York  (for  boys),  and  125  at  American  Lake;  for  business 
men,  at  Plattsburg,  with  attendance  of  1,387  at  the  first  camp  and  3,281  at  the 
second.  Following  these,  camps  composed  of  both  students  and  business  men  were 
held  at  Plattsburg,  attendance  at  the  first  camp  being  3,214  and  at  the  second 
1,000;  also  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Georgia,  first  camp  335,  second  camp  221;  at  Mon- 
terey, California,  1,094;  at  Fort  Douglas,  LItah,  579,  and  at  Fort  Sam  Houston, 
Texas,  421 — a  total  attendance  at  all  camps  for  1916  of  16,639.  The  total  attend- 
ance in  the  four  years  at  all  camps  from  the  miUtary  departments  of  the  country 
was  as  follows: 

Eastern  Department,  16,917;  Western  Department,  2,325;  Central  Depart- 
ment, 771;   Southern  Department,  421.     Total,  20,434. 

The  exact  number  of  Pennsylvanians  and  of  Philadelphians  attending  the 
summer  camps  of  1915  and  1916  is  not  available. 

The  students  attending  the  Gettysburg  Camp  in  1913,  at  a  meeting  held 
one  evening  at  Hummelstown  on  their  hike  to  the  practice  range  at  Mount  Gretna, 
organized  the  Society  of  the  National  Reserve  Corps  of  the  United  States,  and 
elected  as  president  of  the  corps  Henry  S.  Drinker,  president  of  Lehigh  LTniversity, 
Pa.  Following  the  close  of  the  camp.  President  Drinker  and  General  Wood  after 
conference,  sent  out  letters  to  presidents  of  institutions  who  had  shown  active 
interest  in  the  estabfishment  of  the  camps,  suggesting  the  formation  of  an  advisory 
committee  of  university  and  coUege  presidents  on  the  camps,  and  such  a  com- 
mittee was  formed  in  the  autumn  of  1913,  composed  of  John  G.  Hibben,  Princeton, 
Chairman  of  the  Committee;  A.  Lawrence  Lowell,  Harvard;  Arthur  T.  Hadley, 
Yale;  John  H.  Finley,  College  of  the  City  of  New  York  (later  Commissioner  of 
Education,  New  York  State) ;  H.  B.  Hutchins,  University  of  Michigan  (now  re- 
tired); George  H.  Denny,  University  of  Alabama;  E.  W.  Nichols,  Superintendent 
Virginia  Military  Institute;  B.  I.  Wheeler,  University  of  Cahfornia  (now  retired); 
Henry  S.  Drinker,  Lehigh  University,  Pa.,  Secretary  of  the  Committee. 

79 


President  Hibben  and  President  Drinker  have  continued  to  hold  the  office  of 
chairman  and  secretary  of  the  committee  to  the  present  time,  1920.  Superintendent 
Nichols  retired  from  membership  in  the  committee  in  the  autumn  of  1916,  and 
the  committee  since  its  formation  in  1913  has  been  enlarged  by  the  addition,  as 
members,  of  the  following:  President  M.  L.  Burton,  University  of  Michigan; 
President  J.  Livingston  Farrand,  University  of  Colorado;  President  H.  A.  Garfield, 
Williams  College;  President  A.  C.  Humphreys,  Stevens  Institute  of  Technology 
President  E.  J.  James,  University  of  Illinois  (now  retired  and  succeeded  by  Presi- 
dent David  Kinley);  Chancellor  J.  H.  Kirkland.  Vanderbilt  University;  President 
J.  G.  Schurman,  Cornell  University;  Rt.  Rev.  Thos.  J.  Shahan,  Rector,  CathoHc 
University  of  America;  President  Henry  Suzzalo,  University  of  the  State  of 
Washington;  President  W.  0.  Thompson,  Ohio  State  University. 

The  men  attending  the  first  business  men's  camps  in  1915  formed  organiza- 
tions for  promoting  the  training  camps  movement,  and  in  January,  1916,  at  a 
joint  meeting  held  in  New  York  City  the  students  and  business  men's  organiza- 
tions consolidated,  forming  the  present  Military  Training  Camps  Association  of 
the  United  States,  and  elected  Henry  S.  Drinker,  president  of  Lehigh  University, 
Pa.,  chairman  of  the  governing  committee.  This  association  was  reorganized  in 
May,  1920,  the  new  constitution  providing  for  a  president,  a  vice-president  from 
each  continental  military  department  of  the  United  States,  a  secretary  and  treasurer 
and  governing  committee.  Dr.  Drinker,  expressing  a  wish  to  retire  from  active 
executive  duty,  was  elected  honorary  president,  and  GrenviUe  Clark,  of  New  York, 
who  had  been  the  active  genius  in  the  organization  of  the  business  men's  camps  in 
1915,  was  elected  president,  and  Captain  Arthur  F.  Cosby  was  reelected  executive 
secretary  with  offices  at  19  West  43d  Street,  New  York  City. 

The  association  in  November,  1916,  adopted  the  following  resolution: 
"Resolved,  That  the  object  and  policy  of  this  association  is  to  bring  about  a 
system  of  universal  obligatory  miUtary  training  and  service  for  the  young  men 
of  the  United  States,  under  exclusive  federal  control,  and  that  this  purpose  be 
publicly  announced  and  followed  as  the  poUcy  of  the  association." 

On  the  entering  of  the  United  States  into  the  World  War,  in  the  spring  of  1917, 
the  Mihtary  Training  Camps  Association  at  once  tendered  to  the  government  the 
service  of  its  entire  organization  and  offices  throughout  the  country  to  aid  in  the 
enrolment  of  officers  for  war  service.  It  is  estimated  that  the  graduates  of  the 
training  camps  of  1913,  1914,  1915  and  1916  furnished  about  16,000  much  needed 
officers  for  active  service  in  the  World  War.  The  officers'  camps  established  in 
1917  by  the  Government  at  Plattsburg.  Niagara  Falls  and  other  points  in  that 
year  took  the  place  of  the  training  camps  held  in  the  summers  of  1913,  1914,  1915 
and  1916,  and  following  the  close  of  the  war,  the  Government  has  substituted  the 
summer  training  camps  for  students  enrolled  in  the  R.  0.  T.  C.  (Reserve  Officers' 
Training  Corps)  for  those  of  previous  years.  Today,  1920,  units  of  the  R.  O.  T.  C. 
are  estabUshed  in  many  of  the  universities  and  colleges  of  the  United  States, 
directed  by  army  officers  detailed  by  the  War  Department  for  this  especial  service, 
and  it  is  a  notable  fact  that  this  is  the  only  efficient,  practical  miUtary  preparedness 
movement  (outside  of  the  National  Guards  organizations  in  the  different  States) 
in  existence,  and  it  is  a  cfirect  result  and  outgrowth  of  the  movement  initiated  by 
General  Wood  in  1913,  and  which  had  its  main  start  at  Gettysburg  in  Pennsylvania. 

80 


d 


THE  PHILADELPHIA  MILITARY  TRAINING  CORPS* 

The  Philadelphia  Military  Training  Corps  had  its  inception  in  the  summer  of 
1915,  when  it  came  into  existence  through  the  untiring  energy  of  Major  A.  J. 
Drexel  Biddle. 

The  late  President  Roosevelt  was  an  enthusiastic  supporter  of  Major  Riddle's 
plan  for  military  training,  and  Judge  J.  Willis  Martin  was  a  most  active  worker  in 
developing  the  Corps. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  in  passing  that  the  Philadelphia  Military  Training 
Corps  movement  was  preceded  by  the  definite  preliminary  work  of  the  Drexel 
Biddle  Bible  Classes.  Major  General  Leonard  Wood  addressed  a  meeting  of  the 
classes,  and,  by  courtesy  of  the  War  Department,  a  non-commissioned  officer  took 
charge  of  the  instruction  and  drills. 

On  October  1,  1915,  Major  Biddle  estabhshed  an  encampment  at  Lansdowne, 
Pa.,  which  he  placed  under  command  of  Colonel  J.  Campbell  Gilmore.  Through 
the  cordial  cooperation  of  Major  (ieneral  George  Barnett,  Commandant  of  the 
United  States  Marine  Corps,  non-commissioned  officers  of  the  United  States  Marine 
Corps  were  detailed  as  instructors.     Sixteen  students  joined  the  camp. 


Courtesy  of  Pi-anK    \V.    I'.iilikr,    ^tjiiley    C 


of    AnitTica. 
The  first  of  Die  'lOO  ( '.omiiiiiiies. 


The  support  of  a  number  of  prominent  citizens  of  Philadelphia,  who  convened 
at  a  meeting  in  liie  home  of  Alexander  Van  Rensselaer,  made  it  possible  to  pay  for 
the  maintenance  of  150  men  at  this  first  camp. 

After  the  close  of  the  camp  the  recruits  formed  a  military  organization,  known 
as  the  Drexel  Biddle  Military  Training  Corps,  and  various  societies  and  business 
firms  formed  military  bodies  in  association  therewith.  These  groups  became 
known  as  the  Drexel  Biddle  Citizens'  Army,  and  were  driUed  during  the  winter 
season  at  the  various  drill  halls  through  the  kindness  of  Major  Logan  Feland, 
U.  S.  M.  C.  (now  Brigadier  General,  who  was  in  command  of  one  of  the  marine 
regiments  on  the  battle  front),  and  under  his  direction  officers  and  non-com- 
missioned officers  of  the  LTnited  States  ]\larine  Corps  volunteered  their  services 
as  instructors  in  the  Officers'  School,  which  was  established  for  higher  training 
and  at  the  drills. 

Thirty-two  hundred  (3,200)  men  had  become  well  instructed  in  the  Citizens' 
Army  when,  in  .Vpril,  1916,  A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle  opened  the  campaign  for  prepared- 
ness in  Philadelphia.  During  the  progress  of  this  campaign  the  Citizens'  Army 
grew  to  many  thousands  and,  under  the  chairmanship  of  WiUiam  R.  Nicholson, 
the  campaign  met  with  success. 

*Suinniarized  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Philadelphia  War  History  Committee. 

81 


Mrs.  George  W.  Childs  Drexel  was  Chairman  of  the  Women's  Division,  while 
Mrs.  Charles  W.  Urquhart  was  Acting  Chairman.  Although  Mrs.  A.  J.  Drexel 
Biddle  was  not  an  officer  of  the  Division,  her  quiet  and  effective  work  and 
generous  contributions  aided  materially  in  its  success. 

During  the  progress  of  the  campaign  a  parade  of  the  Drexel  Biddle  Citizens' 
Army  was  held  in  Broad  Street,  culminating  with  a  mass  meeting  at  the  Metro- 
pohtan  Opera  House,  which  was  addressed  by  the  Governor  of  Massachusetts,  the 
Mayor  of  Boston  and  Major  Biddle.  The  Hon.  George  S.  Graham  was  Chairman 
of  this  meeting. 

Following  the  campaign  a  corporation  was  formed  to  continue  the  work,  and 
William  R.  Nicholson  became  President  and  Major  Biddle  \  ice-President  and 
Treasurer. 

A  deep  debt  of  gratitude  is  owed  to  the  patriotism  of  the  several  thousand 
citizens  of  Philadelphia  who  generously  contributed  their  time  and  means  to 
the  cause  of  the  Corps. 

During  the  spring  and  summer  of  1916.  12.000  men  were  enrolled  in  the  Drexel 
Biddle  Citizens'  Army.  As  a  result  of  this  preliminary  work  and  the  organization 
of  the  Philadelphia  Military  Training  Corps  a  bill  was  introduced  in  Congress  by 
Representative  Butler,  authorizing  the  smn  of  .?31,000  to  be  used  by  the  Marine 
Corps  in  the  establishment  of  a  camp  for  the  training  of  citizen  soldiers. 

Through  the  continued  patriotic  leadership  and  help  of  Major  General 
George  Barnett,  and  by  his  authority.  General  Feland,  U.  S.  M.  C.  (then  Major), 
assumed  command  of  Camp  Drexel,  so  named  in  recognition  of  the  patriotic 
service  and  untiring  devotion  to  her  country  of  Mrs.  George  W.  Childs  Drexel. 

The  camp  was  opened  at  Lansdowne,  Pa.,  during  July  and  August,  1916. 
Previous  to  the  opening  of  the  camp  several  hundred  men  who  had  received  instruc- 
tion entered  the  various  branches  of  the  service,  including  the  National  Guard  of 
Pennsylvania,  the  Army,  the  Navy  and  United  States  Marine  Corps.  At  the  end 
of  the  camp  179  men  signed  to  enter  the  new  branch  of  the  service  recently  author- 
ized by  act  of  Congress,  known  as  the  Marine  Corps  Reserves. 

At  the  outbreak  of  trouble  with  Mexico  more  than  100  of  the  men  joined  the 
National  Guard.  The  Philadelphia  Military  Training  Corps  was  signally  honored 
by  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  by  being  chosen  as  escort  to  the  National  Guard  on  the 
retiu-n  of  two  of  its  regiments  from  the  Mexican  border. 

Besides  the  work  at  the  camp.  Major  Biddle  drilled  the  employes  of  a  large 
number  of  banks,  trust  companies  and  commercial  houses  in  Philadelphia.  The 
Land  Title  &  Trust  Company,  of  which  Colonel  Nicholson  is  President,  furnished 
more  men  to  the  government  than  any  other  bank  or  trust  company  in  Pennsyl- 
vania. Several  particularly  large  groups  of  men  who  regularly  drilled  were  the 
employes  of  the  Pennsylvania  Company,  Central  National  Bank,  Gu-ard  Trust 
Company,  Autocar  Company,  Packard  Automobile  Company  and  the  Goniery- 
Schwartz  Motor  Car  Company.  WilUam  Freihofer  supplied  a  uniformed  regiment 
of  men  from  his  employes.  The  Bailey,  Banks  &  Biddle  Company  furnished 
a  fully  uniformed  company;  Miss  Natahe  Sellers  Baines  recruited  and  uniformed 
a  body  of  200  men  at  Bryn  Mawr,  most  of  whom  later  joined  the  service;  Rev. 
Father  William  J.  Lallou  furnished  a  company  of  men  from  his  church;  Jacob 
D.  Lit,  Isadore  Stern  and  Louis  Gerson  patriotically  recruited  a  regiment  of  fully 
uniformed  men. 


82 


When  Major  Biddle  and  General  Feland  were  called  away  from  Philadelphia, 
the  late  H.  Frederick  Wilson,  Managing  Director  of  the  Drexel  Biddle  Bible  Class 
movement,  took  command  of  the  Military  Training  Corps.  At  Mr.  Wilson's 
death  he  was  succeeded  as  Director  of  the  Corps  by  H.  D.  Jones,  who,  with  Marine 
Gunner  II.  Molloy,  had  charge  of  the  drills. 

At  Lansdowne,  in  Philadelphia  and  vicinity,  some  40,000  men  were  drilled  in 
the  Philadelphia  Military  Training  Corps,  of  which  number  more  than  24,000 
entered  the  Government  service. 

A  particularly  interesting  fact  is  that  several  thousand  of  the  men  entered  the 
service  when  most  needed,  namely,  during  the  few  weeks  directly  after  war  was 
declared  and  before  the  draft  was  instituted. 

The  Directors  of  the  Philadelphia  Military  Training  Corps  were  James  M. 
Anders,  M.  D.,  John  C.  Bell,  Livingston  Ludlow  Biddle,  A.  J.  Drexel  Biddle, 
Col.  Quincy  Adams  Gillmore,  George  Wharton  Pepper,  E.  A.  Van  Valkenburg, 
Richard  L.  Austin,  Wm.  H.  Donner,  Lee  J.  Eastman,  William  Freihofer,  Jacob 
D.  Lit,  Wm.  R.  Nicholson,  Emile  G.  Perrot,  David  B.  Provan. 

MILITARY  TRAINING  IN   LOCAL  SCHOOLS  AND    COLLEGES 

An  effort  was  made  to  secure  a  brief  statement  from  those  institutions  in 
Philadelphia  in  which  a  Students'  Army  Training  Corps  or  some  other  military 
organization  was  established,  and  reports  from  the  following  places  were  received: 

The  University  of  Pennsylvania:  During  the  spring  of  1917  almost  two 
thousand  men  enrolled  in  the  "N^oluntary  Student  Battalion  under  command  of 
Colonel  William  Kelly.  During  the  winter  of  1917-18  a  Reserve  Officers'  Training 
Corps  was  established  under  Major  Charles  T.  Griffith,  U.  S.  A.,  in  which  900 
students  enrolled.  In  the  fall  of  1918  the  University  started  a  four  (4)  year  course 
in  Military  Science  for  students  in  order  that  they  might  be  fitted  to  receive  com- 
missions in  the  Army  and  Navy.  This  course,  which  was  to  include  a  number  of 
carefully  selected  subjects  from  the  College,  Wharton,  and  Towne  Scientific 
Schools,  was  intended  to  prepare  students  for  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Science  in 
Military  Science. 

In  connection  with  the  war-time  work  of  the  LIniversity,  it  is  interesting  to 
note  that  voluntary  enlistments  prior  to  June,  1917,  represented  60  per  cent  of 
the  law  school  students  and  two  fifths  of  the  medical  students. 

The  first  LTnited  States  Ordnance  School  was  established  at  the  University. 
In  the  Engineering  Department  there  were  given  special  courses  preparing  men  for 
the  signal  service,  radio,  etc.  Most  of  the  members  of  the  Aviation  Examining 
Boards  throughout  the  United  States  were  likewise  trained  at  the  Parent  L'nit 
organized  at  the  LIniversity  Hospital,  which  conducted  a  number  of  special  courses 
for  nurses  and  nurses'  aides.  On  July  1 ,  1918,  an  Officer  Material  School  was  estab- 
lished in  the  Engineering  Building  of  the  University  under  the  auspices  of  the  United 
States  Navy,  which  was  being  conducted  for  enlisted  men  in  the  Navy  showing 
special  ability.  Each  course  extended  over  a  period  of  three  months  and  was 
attended  by  a  squad  of  200  sailors,  who  were  quartered  in  the  LIniversity  dormi- 
tories. In  other  class  rooms  of  the  Engineering  liuilding,  a  School  of  Navigation 
was  conducted  under  the  supervision  of  John  F.  Lewis,  Chief  of  Section  2  of  the 
United  States  Shipping  Board's  Recruiting  Service,  and  for  nearly  two  years 
these  rooms  were  heated  and  lighted  without  expense  to  the  Government. 

83 


huluclkm  of  Sliiilcrils  into  llif  S.    I.  T.  ('..  I  iiiivrnily  of  Pi'niisylvdiiid.  October  1.  1918. 

It  is  thus  seen  that  several  thousand  men,  beside  the  regular  University  of 
Pennsylvania  students,  were  being  trained  at  the  University  for  special  branches 
of  the  United  States  service. 

Besides  this,  the  University  organized  among  her  sons  three  ambulance  units, 
a  Base  Hospital,  several  Red  Cross  units,  and  various  detached  units.  Its  hospital 
set  aside  250  of  its  beds  for  the  special  use  of  the  Army  and  Navy.  Many  of  the 
University  laboratories  were  turned  over  to  and  were  being  used  by  the  Government 
and  its  special  experts.     Various  laboratories  in  the  Engineering  Building  had  been 


Final  Revieiv  of  Naral  Unil.  University  of  Pennsylvania,  December  7,  1918. 

84 


turned  over  to  the  United  States  Shipping  Board,  where  it  carried  on  routine  work 
lor  the  Department  of  Concrete  Ship  Construction  of  the  Emergency  Fleet.  The 
various  testing  laboratories  of  the  Engineering  School  also  were  being  used  by  the 
United  States  Signal  Corps  Instruction  Department  in  testing  airplanes,  etc. 

In  all  departments  of  the  University  new  subjects  were  introduced  and  old 
subjects  modified  so  thafthe  regular  students  had  special  opportunities  to  prepare 
for  military,  naval  or  other  governmental  service,  or  for  constructive  work  in  in- 
dustries related  to  the  war  or  government  work.  In  the  professional  schools 
many  such  couxses  were  offered. 

A  report  received  January  15,  1920,  gives  the  total  number  of  10,000  Penn- 
sylvania men,  students,  faculty  and  alunmi,  who  served  during  the  World  War. 
Of  this  number  207  died,  166  were  wounded  and  165  were  decorated. 

Drexel  Institute:  The  induction  of  students  in  the  Students'  Army  Train- 
ing Corps  Unit  at  Drexel  Institute  began  on  October  10,  1918.  First  Lieutenant 
James  P.  Lyons  was  detailed  as  Commanding  Officer  of  the  Unit  on  September  17, 
1918.  On  November  26th,  Second  Lieutenants  Jammer,  Sewell,  Tarbox  and 
Brunner  reported  from  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps,  Training  Camp, 
Plattsburg  Barracks,  New  York.  There  were  247  men  em:olled  in  this  Unit,  five 
of  whom  were  transferred  to  the  Officers'  Training  Camp  for  Infantry,  Camp 
Cordon,  Georgia.  The  Unit  was  demobilized  on  December  18,  1918.  Four  of  the 
Drexel  students  received  second  lieutenants'  commissions  at  the  Plattsburg  Camp. 
These  were:  WiUiam  K.  Woodruff,  WilUam  Adam,  Jr.,  Edward  B.  Focht  and  Eugene 
T.  White. 

Hahnemann  Medical  College:  On  October  1,  1918,  the  Students'  Army 
Training  Corps  of  the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia  came  officially 
into  existence  and  on  December  16th  officially  went  out  of  existence.  Two 
hundred  and  eighteen  men  were  enrolled.  Colonel  Lockwood  was  the  first  com- 
manding officer. 

Two  and  a  half  months  of  Army  life  and  training  was  the  lot  of  the  students; 
that  it  did  them  nmch  good  physically,  there  is  no  doubt;  how  much  medicine  they 
learned  during  that  time  is  a  question. 

Barracks  life  at  the  First  Begiment  Armory  gave  the  students  something  to 
think  about  for  many  a  day.  Their  experiences  were  many  and  varied.  How 
much  studying  they  did  no  one  will  ever  know,  except,  perhaps,  the  students 
themselves;  how  many  pranks  they  played  on  one  another  and  the  officers  they 
surely  know ;  perhaps  the  officers  do  not  know,  and  it  is  just  as  well  that  they  do  not. 

Colonel  Lockwood  was  succeeded  by  Captain  WiUiam  Henry  Frazee.  Captain 
Frazee  was  a  strict  discipHnarian,  which  goes  with  Army  life,  and  it  did  not  take 
him  long  to  set  to  rights  the  relaxation  which  would  naturally  take  place  on  the 
change  of  commanding  officers.  Captain  Frazee  was  fond  of  his  student  body,  and 
did  everything  possible  to  make  barracks  life  jilcasant  for  them.  Several  dances 
were  held  for  the  students  which  were  followed  by  "eats."  Captain  Frazee  always 
seemed  to  know  where  to  get  free  music  and  "feed"  for  these  occasions,  which 
were  always  enjoyable  and  for  which  the  Corps  was  always  doubly  thankful. 

While  Captain  Frazee  was  fond  of  discipline,  he  still  had  a  warm  spot  in  his 
heart  for  those  who  were  in  trouble  and  always  tempered  his  justice  with  mercy. 

Colonel  Lockwood  and  Captain   Frazee  were  fortunate  in  having  an  able 

85 


staff  of  assistants,  who,  like  the  student  body,  at  once  became  devoted  and 
attached  to  them,  and  left  no  stone  unturned  to  make  their  stay  at  Hahnemann 
a  most  pleasant  and  successful  one.  The  staff  consisted  of  Lieutenant  Sanuiel 
J.  Hughes,  Personnel  OfTicer;  Lieutenant  Harold  A.  Donegan,  Adjutant,  and  Lieu- 
tenant M.  Berkman,  Quartermaster. 

Jefferson  Medical  College:  In  the  summer  of  1917,  immediately  after  the 
creation  of  the  Medical  Enlisted  Reserve  Corps  by  the  War  Department  and  the 
United  States  Naval  Reserve  Force  by  the  Navy  Department,  under  Presidential 
authorization,  all  students  and  prospective  students  of  Jefferson  Medical  College 
were  circularized  and  urged  to  join  either  one  or  the  other  of  these  organizations. 
During  the  session  1917-18,  339  of  the  466  students  of  Jefferson  College  were  enhsted 
in  the  Medical  Enlisted  Reserve  Corps  and  thirty-one  in  the  United  States 
Naval  Reserve  Force. 

Following  several  conferences  with  the  War  Department  by  Dr.  Ross  V. 
Patterson,  the  Dean  of  the  College,  a  contract  was  entered  into  on  September  1 6, 
1918,  for  the  establishment  of  the  Jefferson  Medical  College  Unit  of  the  Students' 
Army  Training  Corps.  Acting  under  special  orders  from  the  War  Department. 
W.  D.  Canaday,  Captain.  Infantry,  U.  S.  A.,  who  had  just  successfully  completed 
the  organization  of  the  Students'  Army  Training  Coips  at  Williams  College. 
Williamstown,  Mass.,  reported  at  Jefferson  Medical  College  on  October  21,  1918, 
as  commanding  officer,  and  with  five  lieutenants  began  the  organization  of  the  Unit. 

The  Unit  was  organized  with  extraordinary  rapidity.  The  medical  physical 
examination  was  completed  within  twenty-four  hours.  Almost  the  entire  medical 
personnel  of  the  faculty  and  their  assistants  were  organized  into  an  examining 
body  and  a  systematic  examination  completed  in  a  very  short  time.  The  Jefferson 
Hospital  Medical  Advisory  Board,  which  had  been  organized  for  some  months,  and 


;7:sag 


Photo  by  F.  Guteloinst 


Bayonet  Practice. 
86 


had  examined  several  thousand  referred  draft  board  cases,  acted  in  the  capacity 
of  an  Examining  Board.  Induction  into  miHtary  service,  through  Draft  Board 
No.  4,  with  which  special  arrangements  had  been  made,  was  accomplished  with 
equal  facility.  The  details  necessary  to  the  induction  of  the  students  were 
expeditiously  handled  through  correspondence  and  telegrams  with  their  home 
boards.  This  was  a  task  of  some  magnitude,  as  the  home  geographical  distri- 
bution of  the  student  body  reached  into  some  forty  states.  With  the  exception 
of  two  or  three  cases,  the  whole  matter  was  very  promptly  handled  and  the  induc- 
tion completed  on  November  1,  1918,  when  431  of  the  462  students  in  the  College 
were  inducted  into  service,  398  into  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps,  and  thirty- 
three  into  the  United  States  Naval  Reserve  Force.  Of  the  398  students  in  the 
Students'  Army  Training  Corps,  286  were  transferred  from  the  Medical  Enlisted 
Reserve  Corps. 

The  majority  of  those  not  inducted  into  service  were  citizens  of  foreign  coun- 
tries and  those  physically  unfit  for  military  service. 

The  Inasmuch  Mission  at  1011  Locust  Street,  Philadelphia,  was  requisitioned 
for  service  as  barracks.  A  contract  for  its  lease  from  the  Board  of  Managers  was 
entered  into;  the  building  was  rapidly  emptied,  cleaned  and  made  ready  for  oc- 
cupancy. Cots,  blankets  and  kitchen  supplies  were  contracted  for  and  deUvered. 
The  students  were  rapidly  placed  in  uniforms  and  soon  received  their  entire 
equipment;  and  for  the  first  time  in  the  ninety-four  years  of  its  history,  the 
student  body  of  Jefferson  Medical  College  was  in  the  uniform  of  the  military 
forces  of  the  United  States.  The  Recreation  Board  of  Philadelphia  placed  the 
Starr  Garden  Park,  7th  and  Lombard  streets,  Philadelphia,  at  the  disposal  of 
the  Unit  to  be  used  as  a  drill  ground,  this  being  within  easy  marching  dis- 
tance of  the  College.  Pei-mission  was  also  received  for  the  use  of  the  Third  Regi- 
ment Armory  at  Broad  and  Wharton  streets  for  drill  in  bad  weather.  MiUtary 
drill  was  a  part  of  each  day's  work. 

Before  the  barracks  had  been  made  ready  for  occupancy,  it  became  evident 
to  the  students  and  the  faculty  and  even  to  the  commanding  officer  that  any 
effective  medical  work  would  be  ruined  by  putting  students  together  in  barracks 
under  conditions  entirely  unsuitable  for  study,  and  in  an  atmosphere  which  would 
be  utterly  discouraging  to  scholarly  attainment.  The  Dean  made  another  trip 
to  Washington  and  succeeded  in  getting  approval  of  the  War  Department  for  the 
students  of  this  Unit  to  remain  in  fraternity  houses,  of  which  there  were  eight,  and 
in  the  boarding  houses  in  which  they  had  secured  quarters  before  the  institution 
of  the  Students"  Army  Training  Corps.  They  reported  for  drill  in  the  morning 
at  six  o'clock,  however,  and  were  satisfactorily  messed  at  the  Military  Head- 
quarters on  Locust  Street. 

There  was  general  satisfaction,  reUef  and  much  rejoicing  on  the  part  of  the 
students,  faculty  and  instructors  upon  the  demobiUzation  and  discharge  of  the 
members  of  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps.  So  far  as  medical  schools  were 
concerned,  the  experiment  was  a  failure,  both  from  the  MiUtary  and  Medical 
standpoints.  It  was  proved  that  it  was  quite  as  impossible  to  make  both  physicians 
and  soldiers  of  students  at  the  same  time  as  it  is  to  chase  two  rabbits  at  once. 
The  error  was  a  fundamental  one  of  conception;  impossible  administrative  diffi- 
culties were  imposed  by  the  plan  upon  both  college  and  military  authorities.  The 
mistake  should  never  be  repeated.     It  was  fortunate  that  the  experiment  lasted 

87 


only  for  a  short  time  and  that  the  discharge  of  the  men  on  December  18,  1918, 
gave  them  an  opportunity  for  the  rest  of  the  year  to  do  effective  medical  work. 
There  was  no  doubt  in  the  minds  of  medical  teachers  that  the  plan  was  absolutely 
destructive  of  all  effective  medical  work.  Whether  this  would  have  become  ap- 
parent to  the  War  Department  in  time  to  have  rectified  the  blunder  is  a  matter, 
of  course,  of  speculation. 

St.  Joseph's  College:  The  Student  Army  Training  Corps  was  organized 
at  St.  Joseph's  College,  Philadelphia,  September  26,  1918,  and  the  students  were 
inducted  into  the  United  States  Army  on  October  1st. 

Owing  to  the  signing  of  the  armistice,  demobihzation  was  ordered  on  November 
26th  and  was  completed  on  December  10th. 

The  prevalence  of  the  influenza  made  it  necessary  to  suspend  classes  from 
October  4th  to  21st;  so  that  in  all  less  than  eight  weeks  were  actually  employed 
in  the  normal  activities  of  the  Unit. 

The  primary  purpose  of  the  Student  Army  Training  Corps,  as  stated  by  the 
War  Department,  was  to  utilize  the  executive  and  teaching  personnel  and  the 
physical  equipment  of  the  educational  institutions  to  assist  in  the  training  of  officer 
candidates  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  service. 

As  originally  planned  in  August,  the  collegiate  section  was  open  to  registrants, 
who  were  members  of  some  authorized  college,  university  or  professional  school, 
who  were  between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  twenty-one,  and  who  were  physically 
qualified  for  general  or  limited  service  in  the  Army. 

On  September  5th  a  Ust  of  twenty -three  prescribed  subjects  of  study  was  drawn 
up  by  the  War  Department  for  the  student  soldiers — fourteen  hours  of  class  and 
thirty-eight  hours  of  study  a  week  being  prescribed  for  their  prepcu-ation.  On 
September  18th  these  subjects  were  grouped  into  courses  appropriate  to  various 
branches  of  the  service,  and  from  time  to  time  thereafter  until  the  day  of  demobihza- 
tion detailed  syllabi  were  sent  from  Washington,  setting  forth  more  specifically 
the  grade  and  character  of  the  instruction  to  be  given  in  each  fine  of  work.  To 
meet  these  recurring  suggestions,  many  readjustments  in  the  program  prepared 
by  the  College  became  necessary. 

The  subjects  from  which  the  academic  program  was  to  be  made  up  were  the 
following: 

War  issues  (prescribed  for  all),  military  law  (prescribed  for  all),  English, 
French,  German,  mathematics,  physics,  chemistry,  biology,  geology,  psychology, 
geography,  topography  and  map-making,  meteorology,  astronomy,  hygiene, 
sanitation,  descriptive  geometry,  mechanical  and  freehand  drawing,  surveying, 
economics,  accounting,  history,  international  law  and  government. 

By  a  concession  of  the  faculty,  work  done  by  the  members  of  the  Student 
Army  Training  Corps  in  the  following  subjects  was  credited  towards  the 
requirements  of  the  A.  B.  degree:  War  issues,  mathematics,  physics,  chemistry, 
biology,  astronomy,  surveying. 

The  miUtary  officers  were:  Commanding  Officer,  Lieutenant  J.  P.  Lyons; 
Adjutant  and  Quartermaster,  Lieutenant  L.  E.  Fields;  Supply  and  Personnel 
Officer,  Lieutenant  F.  P.  McCardell ;  Assistant  Officer,  Lieutenant  Kessel ;  Visiting 
Surgeon,  Michael  F.  Gallagher,  M.D.;  Inspecting  Surgeon,  Lieutenant  M.  L. 
Lichtenberg. 

88 


Photo   by   F.    Gutelninst. 

iS.  .1.  T.  C  al  Ihe  PennsylinnKi    \liisimn  mul  ScIidoI  of  Industrial  Arl. 

Temple  University:  In  the  early  fall  of  1918,  Temple  University  estab- 
lished a  Student  Army  Training  Corps.  It  combined  with  its  Units  the  students 
fioiii  the  Pennsylvania  Museum  and  School  of  Industrial  Art.     The  students  at 


Phi.to    by    F     (iutekullal. 


S.  .4.  T.  C.  al  Temple  UniversUy. 
89 


Temple  were  registered  in  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts,  the  Medical  School  and  the 
Dental  School.  There  were  275  men  in  this  unit  and  ninety  men  in  the  Unit  from 
the  Industrial  Art  School.  There  was  an  additional  Unit  of  sixty-eight  Navy  men, 
some  of  these  being  Temple  students,  others  taking  instruction  at  the  Art  School. 

The  Second  Regiment  Armory  k)cated  near  the  University  provided  barracks 
for  a  portion  of  the  men,  other  large  halls  being  secured  in  the  vicinity  for  additional 
barracks  and  a  mess  hall.  The  Samaritan  Hospital  assigned  the  large  solarium 
waids  and  the  roof  garden  ordinarily  used  for  the  children  to  the  Corps  as  an  in- 
firmary. 

Captain  Will  H.  Dietrick  was  appointed  to  the  official  charge  of  the  Unit 
remaining  with  th(>  University  after  the  demobilization  of  tlie  Unit  and  until  it  was 
decided  not  to  continue  the  Reserve  Officers'  Training  Camp  which  succeeded  the 
Student  Army  Training  Corps.  Dr.  James  H.  Dunham,  Ph.D.,  the  dean  of  the 
College  of  Liberal  Arts,  had  charge  of  the  educational  program.  Almost  im- 
mediately after  the  men  went  into  barracks  the  influenza  appeared  among  them 
and  the  entire  University  went  into  quarantine.  Three  members  of  the  Corps 
died  as  the  result  of  the  epidemic,  two  being  medical  students  who  were  serving 
for  the  time  in  the  emergency  hospitals. 

After  the  epidemic  had  passed  the  University  settled  down  to  the  new  con- 
ditions. All  schedules  were  more  or  less  made  to  conform  to  the  regulations  imposed 
by  the  presence  of  an  Army  camp  in  its  midst. 

Professors  and  students  rapidly  readjusted  themselves  to  the  new  conditions. 
The  life  of  the  LTniversity  was  beginning  to  function  smoothly  when  the  order  for 
demobilization  came.  Many  of  the  students  returned  to  the  colleges  from  which 
they  had  come.  The  students  of  Temple  slipped  back  into  their  regular  courses, 
and,  save  for  the  presence  of  the  Captain  and  the  small  group  who  remained  in 
the  Reserve  Officers'  Training  Corps,  the  University  by  the  end  of  the  school  year 
was  in  very  much  the  same  condition  as  it  had  been  at  the  close  of  the  previous  year. 

The  University  was  fortunate  in  the  oflicers  assigned  to  it,  so  that  there  was 
no  friction  between  the  Army  officials  and  those  of  the  University.  All  cooperated 
in  trying  to  work  out  the  most  stupendous  problem  that  has  ever  been  presented 
to  the  universities  of  America. 

PENNSYLVANIA  WOMEN'S  DIVISION   FOR  NATIONAL 
PREPAREDNESS* 

In  the  early  autumn  of  1915,  Mrs.  George  W.  Childs  Drexel  determined  to 
organize  the  women  of  Pennsylvania  to  meet  eventualities.  With  the  war  clouds 
in  Europe  growing  blacker,  Mrs.  Drexel  felt  that  'it  was  only  a  matter  of  time 
before  this  country  would  become  involved  in  the  struggle.  Women,  she  knew, 
would  be  called  upon  to  render  many  and  varied  services,  and  it  was  to  meet  these 
new  and  real  responsibilities  that  she  quickly  developed  her  plan. 

A  meeting  was  held  at  her  town  house  in  September,  1915,  among  those  present 
being:  Miss  Marion  Riddle,  Miss  Sophie  Cadwalader,  Mrs.  J.  Gardner  Cassatt, 
Mrs.  John  W.  Geary,  Mrs.  Rodman  E.  Griscom,  Mrs.  G.  Q.  Horwitz,  Mrs.  Norman 
Jackson,  Mrs.  Thos.  McKean,  Dr.  Clara  Marshall,  Mrs.  J.  Willis  Martin,  Miss 
Mary  Mitchell,  Mrs.  I.  H.  O'Hara,  Mrs.  George  Wharton  Pepper,  Mrs.  Cornelius 

*By  the  Secretary  of  the  Philadelphia  War  History  Committee. 

90 


Stevenson,  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Strawbridge,  Mrs.  Alexander  Van  Rensselaer  and  Mrs. 
Barclay  H.  Warburton. 

At  this  meeting  plans  for  an  organization  were  discussed.  Mrs.  Drexel  was 
elected  President.    The  Vice-Presidents  elected  were  Mrs.  Martin  and  Mrs.  O'Hara. 

The  other  women  present  constituted  the  Executive  Committee. 

After  several  weeks,  Mrs.  Drexel  had  a  series  of  interviews  with  Major  General 
Leonard  Wood  and  saw  Secretary  of  Wai'  Garrison,  both  of  whom  were  much 
impressed  with  the  practical  way  in  which  the  matter  was  presented. 

The  next  meeting,  to  which  representative  women  from  all  the  counties  in  the 
State  were  called,  was  held  on  November,  1915,  at  18th  and  Locust  streets,  when 
Mrs.  Drexel  summarized  her  plans  and  made  her  appeal  as  follows: 

"The  purpose  of  this  Division  is  to  organize  women  throughout  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania  for  preparedness  in  the  event  of  war,  and  to  be  ready  for  work  in 
those  fields  in  which  women  can  most  effectively  aid  at  such  times  or  in  case  of 
State  calamity. 

"The  division  will  be  composed  of  chapters,  each  with  a  minimum  membership 
of  500,  with  a  chairman  for  each  chapter.  These  chairmen,  by  virtue  of  their 
office,  will  compose  the  State  Council.  There  will  also  be  officers  and  an  executive 
committee  with  headquarters  in  Philadelphia." 

About  150  women  were  present  and  they  returned  to  their  several  cities  de- 
termined to  organize  for  work.  The  Stale  Vice-Presidents  were  increased  to 
five,  the  three  additional  officers  being  Mrs.  Sharp,  of  Chambersburg,  Vice-President- 
at-large;  Mrs.  11.  Wells,  of  Wilkes-Barre,  for  the  northeast  section  of  the  State; 
and  Miss  Adams,  of  Kane,  for  the  northwest  section  of  the  State. 

Among  the  original  Chapters  were: 

AUentown — Miss  Helen  F.  MacDonald 
Army     and     Navy — Mrs     Francis     Howard 

Williams 
Bristol— Mrs.  Griffith  H.  Williams 
Bucks  Comity — Mrs.  F.  Leroy 
Coatesville — Mrs.  Addison  A.  Lamb 
Colored— Mrs.  E.  B.  Leaf 
Columbia — Miss  Lillie  S.  Evans 
College  Women — Mrs.  D.  Feidl 
Delaware  Valley — Mrs.  Charles  A.  Parsons 
Doylestown — Miss  Ehzabeth  Ross 
Drexel  Biddle  Bible  Class— Mrs.  A.  J.  Hawk- 

sley 
Franklin — Miss  Gertrude  Adams 
Gettysburg— Mrs.  Walter  H.  O'Neal 
Harrisburg — Mrs.  Charles  Ryder 
Lansdowne — Mrs  E.  Wager-Smith 
Langhome — Mrs.  Tryon 
Lancaster — Miss  Susan  Carpenter  Frazier 
Lebanon — Mrs  Harrison  Souder 


Main  Line — Mrs.  Charlton  Yarnall 
Milton — Mrs.  J.  Hunter  Miller 
Norristown — Mrs.  Martha  C.  Mecunes 
Oil  City — Mrs  Fannie  Gaude 
Old  York  Road— Mrs  Harry  E.  Asbury 
Penna.  Railroad — Mrs.  George  Dallas  Dixon 
Phila.,  General — Mrs.  Henry  B.  Coxe 
Pittsburgh — Mrs.  Harry  Brown 
Pottsville — Miss  Anne  E.  Ridley 
Sewickley — Mrs.  Alexander  LauglJin 
Snyder  County — Mrs.  Schrier 
State  College — Mrs.  E.  E.  Sparks 
Sunbury — Mrs.  H.  J.  Evans 
Urtjuhart — Mrs.  George  W.  Urquhart 
West  Chester — Mrs.  George  W.  Phillips 
West  Philadelphia — Mrs  J.  Hamilton  Small 
Wilkes-Barre — Mrs.  Wells 
Willianisport — Mrs.  La  Rue  Munson 
VVyncote — Mrs.  M.  K.  Neiller 
York  County — Mrs.  J.  C.  Schmidt 


Extension  of  Work 

As  the  Pennsylvania  Women's  Division  for  National  Preparedness  developed 
its  work,  eight  departments  were  established : 

Department  No.  1.  Care  of  Soldiers'  and  Sailors'  Families  and  Care  of  Sufferers 
from  General  Calamity — Mrs.  J.  Gardner  Cassatt,  Director.  In  the  event  of  America 

91 


ongaging  in  war.  soldiers  in  service  would  receive  S15  a  month;  sailors,  $20.  It  was 
obvious  that  this  amount  would  be  insufficient  to  provide  even  necessities  for  the 
families  at  home.  Calamity,  such  as  flood,  earthquake  or  fire  would  produce  con- 
ditions for  the  relief  of  which  this  department  would  work,  but  of  which  no  estimate 
could  be  made  as  to  the  service  required.  The  department  pledged  itself  to  re- 
sponsibility of  the  care  of  soldiers'  and  sailors'  families  and  of  sufferers  from  general 
calamity. 

Department  No.  2.  Nursing — Mrs.  Norman  Jackson,  Director.  Securing 
nurses  for  the  Army. 

Department  No.  3.  Surf/ical  Supplies — Mrs.  Rodman  E.  Griscom,  Director. 
This  department  enrolled  all  who  wished  to  aid  in  the  preparation  of  dressings, 
bandages,  compresses,  etc.,  to  be  used  in  time  of  war  and  calamity. 

Department  No.  4.  Convalescent  Homes  for  Hospilah — Miss  Marion  Biddle, 
Director.  The  object  of  this  department  was  to  enroll  all  who  would  promise  to 
provide  and  support,  whoUy  or  in  part,  a  suitable  building  to  be  used  as  a  hospital 
building  or  convalescent  home  in  the  event  of  war  or  calamity.  Fifty-five 
buildings  were  offered. 

Department  No.  5.  Messenger  and  Communicalion  Service — Miss  Mary 
Mitchell,  Director.  This  department  organized  the  first  service  of  its  kind,  and  all 
members  were  required  to  learn  not  merely  the  running  of  automobiles,  but  also 
their  care  and  the  making  of  at  least  minor  adjustments  and  repairs.  A  large 
number  of  women  were  also  enrolled  who  learned  to  wig-wag. 

Department  No.  6.  First  Aid  and  Assistance  in  Daily  Routine  Work  of  Hos- 
pitals and  Dietetics — Dr.  Clara  Mitchell,  Director. 

Department  No.  7.  Emergency  Commissariat.  (Canteen) — Mrs.  Robert  E. 
Strawbridge,  Mrs.  Thomas  McKean  and  Mrs.  Barclay  H.  Warburton.  Depart- 
ment No.  7  was  the  first  of  its  kind  anywhere,  and  as  a  result  of  the  preliminary 
experiences  the  subsequent  work  of  the  Red  Cross  was  expedited.  Practically 
everj'  troop  train  traveling  through  Philadelphia  from  Mt.  (Iretna  to  the  Border 
was  met.     23,510  men  were  canteened. 

Department  No.  8  A.  Government  Camps — Mrs.  George  Wharton  Pepper, 
Director.  The  object  of  this  section  of  Department  No.  8  was  to  provide  funds  for 
Pennsylvania  men  who  desired  to  prepare  for  miUtary  service  in  the  training 
camps  at  Plattsburg  and  elsewhere;  also,  to  aid  in  securing  the  best  candidates  for 
enrolment. 

Department  No.  8  B.  Clerical  Service — Miss  Sophie  Cadwalader,  Director. 
The  work  of  this  section  comprised  bookkeeping,  typewriting,  card-cataloging,  and 
other  kinds  of  clerical  work  in  the  event  of  war  or  calamity,  when  professional 
workers  would  be  hard  to  obtain.  A  knowledge  of  accounts  was  stressed,  as  well 
as  a  clear  and  legible  handwriting. 

Department  No.  8  C.  Sewing — Mrs.  Alexander  Van  Rensselaer,  Director. 
The  object  of  tliis  section  was  to  enrol  women  to  cut  out  and  sew  upon  garments 
required  by  hospitals  and  convalescent  homes,  in  the  event  of  weu-  or  calamity. 

In  January,  1916,  a  mass  meeting  was  held  in  the  Garrick  Theatre,  at  which 
1,700  women  from  all  counties  in  the  State  were  present,  and  so  great  was  the  de- 
mand for  seats  that  over  six  hundred  were  unable  to  crowd  their  way  into  the 
building. 

The  purpose  of  the  Division  was  explained  by  George  Wharton  Pepper  and 

92 


George  Q.   Horwitz.     Major  General  Leonard   Wood  made   the  main  address. 

State  Headquarters  were  established  in  the  Central  City  Building  and  spe- 
cially trained  women  speakers  toured  the  counties.  The  number  of  chapters 
increased  to  sixty-two,  with  a  membership  of  11,000.  Every  member  was  com- 
pelled to  take  up  one  certain  form  of  preparedness  work  and  to  abide  by  her  choice. 

The  division  purchased  a  portable  dental  equipment  for  use  on  the  Mexican 
Border  in  1916  and  paid  the  salary  of  Dr.  C.  J.  Hollister.  The  sum  of  $25,000 
was  collected  for  equipping  Base  Hospital  No.  10. 

After  America  entered  the  war,  it  was  found  best  to  continue  the  work  under 
the  American  Red  Cross  and  the  division,  as  such,  discontinued  in  April,  1917. 
In  practically  every  case  where  there  had  been  a  chapter  of  the  division,  the  chair- 
man became  the  head  of  the  local  Red  Cross  Chapter. 

LOCAL  BELGIAN  RELIEF  COMMITTEE 

One  of  the  first  efforts — if  not  the  first — for  Belgian  relief  was  organized  by 
Mrs.  Edward  S.  Sayres,  who,  on  September  30,  1914,  called  on  the  Belgian  Consul 
and  offered  the  services  of  the  Flower  Mission,  of  which  she  was  President,  to 
collect  and  ship  food  and  clothing  to  non-combatants  in  Belgium.  Her  offer  was 
accepted  and  on  October  11th  notices  were  read  in  all  Main  Line  churches  that  a 
meeting  would  be  held  the  next  day  at  "Black  Rocks,"  the  residence  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Sayres,  and  that  on  the  14th  contributions  would  be  received  at  the  Bryn 
Mawr  Reading  Room. 

Twenty  persons  attended  the  first  meeting,  which  was  addressed  by  Mr.  Paul 
Hagemans,  the  Consul  General  of  Belgium.  Mrs.  Chai'les  C.  Harrison  was 
appointed  to  carry  on  the  work  in  Philadelphia  and  later  became  Chairman  of  the 
Belgian  Committee  of  the  Emergency  Aid.  On  the  14th,  an  audience  of  150 
contributed  2,091  pieces  of  clothing  and  blankets.  From  October  15th  to  21st  the 
Committee,  assisted  by  Mrs.  Hagemans  and  Miss  Hagemans,  received  8,831  gar- 
ments in  Overbrook.  The  Committee  collected  $1,040.69  and  purchased  new 
garments  and  thirty  barrels  of  flour.  The  10,922  garments  and  other  supplies 
filled  an  entire  freight  car.  The  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  contributed  its 
services  and  shipment  was  made  to  the  Belgian  Consul  at  New  York,  whence  the 
shipment  left  on  the  Rotterdam  addressed  to  The  Netherlands  Committee  for 
Relief  of  Belgian  Refugees.     It  reached  its  destination  on  November  7th. 

On  April  17,  1919,  the  King  of  the  Belgians  conferred  on  Mrs.  Sayres  the 
Medal  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 


9:5 


PHILADELPHIA  AND  THE  28th  DIVISION 
William  Bell  Clark 

fNE-FOURTH  of  the  total  personnel  of  the  National  Guard 
of  Pennsylvania,  when  it  entered  the  Federal  service  to 
win  immortal  honor  in  the  World  War  as  the  28th  Division, 
came  from  Philadelphia.  Hundreds  of  the  lads  who  left  the 
City  of  Philadelphia  in  the  ranks  of  its  (Juard  I  nits  made 
the  supreme  sacrifice  on  the  battlefields  of  France.  Other 
hundreds  will  cai'ry  to  their  graves  the  scars  of  wounds 
sustained  when  Pennsylvania's  Iron  Division  wrote  grim 
history  in  a  foreign  land.  Those  so  fortunate  as  to  have 
escaped  the  casualty  lists  will  have  with  them  to  the  end 
memories  of  the  shorn  wheatfields  by  the  Marne  and  the  Ourcq,  the  ruins  that 
once  was  Fismes,  the  gas-swept  i^lateau  overlooking  the  Aisne,  the  death- 
capped  ridges  beside  the  Aire  and  the  No  Man's  Land  beyond  Thiaucourt.  Thus, 
the  '"red  keystone"  of  the  28th  is  an  insignia  to  which  Philadelphia's  claim  is 
great.     The  history  of  the  Division,  as  it  is  here  unfolded,  is  written,  therefore, 


ECRlgjSTATION  1229  ARCH  ST' 


Courtesy  of  Frank  W.    Buhler,    Stanley   Co.    of   America. 

''The  Call  to  Arms"  by  a  Quartette  from  the  Isf  Regiment^  N.  G.  P. 


Courtesy  of   Frank    W. 


IJuliIer,    Staill.i    Cu.    ut    Aiut-rica, 

Capt.  Ward  Pierson.  Icadimj  his  ('ompany. 


with  the  view,  not  of  slighting  the  State  at  large,  but  to  expand  upon  tlie  part 
played  by  those  who  hailed  from  this  city.  It  is  a  history  of  the  divisional  units; 
a  more  intimate  narrative  of  such  of  those  units  as  were  recruited  in  whole  or 
in  part  from  Pliiladeiphia. 

From  the  Border  to  Hancock 

On  the  day  in  1916  when  President  Wilson  decided  to  chastise  Pancho 
Villa  for  liis  temerity  in  attacking  the  border  town  of  Columbus,  N.  M.,  the 
Pennsylvania  National  Guard  Division  began  its  momentous  history.  It  is  a 
far  cry  from  Texas  in  the  summer  of  1916  to  France  in  the  summer  of  1918,  but 
the  events  which  had  their  inception  with  the  President's  Executive  Order  of  June 

18,  1916,  marched  with  steady  sequence  to  their  culmination  overseas.  The  tour 
of  duty  on  the  Mexican  border  proved  the  preliminary  training  for  the  achieve- 
ments of  Pennsylvania's  Guardsmen  in  the  American  Expeditionary  Force.  Down 
on  the  sand  plains  of  Camp  Stewart,  Texas,  was  begun  the  transition  from  miUtia 
to  a  potent  lighting  division. 

One  day  after  the  President's  call,  the  machinery  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Adjutant  General's  office  began  to  operate.    General  Order  No.  21,  issued  on  June 

19,  1916,  from  Harrisburg,  directed  all  National  Guard  organizations,  with  a  few 
exceptions,  to  report  for  duty  at  their  hf)me  stations  on  Thursday  morning,  June  22d, 
and  to  assemble  at  Mt.  Gretna,  long  the  training  ground  of  the  Guard,  by  June  21th. 
At  that  time  Philadelphia  had  three  full  regiments  of  infantry — the  1st,  2d  and  3d — 
forming  the  1st  Infantry  Brigade;  regimental  headquarters  and  four  companies  of 
the  6th  Infantry;  a  squadron  of  cavahy — First  City,  Second  City,  and  A  and  G 
Troops,  a  company  of  engineers  (B),  and  theTacony  field  hospital  and  ambulance 

95 


company.  To  these  latter,  designated  as  Field  Hospital  No.  2  and  Ambulance 
Company  No.  2,  fell  the  honor  of  being  first  mustered  into  the  Federal  service. 
They  passed  into  the  control  of  the  War  Department  on  June  28th,  four  days 
after  reaching  Mt.  Gretna,  and  were  on  their  way  to  the  border  the  following  day. 
Company  B  of  the  Engineers  was  federalized  on  June  29th;  the  entire  1st  and  2d 
Regiments  of  Infantry  on  June  30th;  1st  Brigade  Headquarters  and  the  3d  Regi- 
ment on  July  1st;  the  four  Cavalry  Troops  on  July  6th,  and  the  Vw\d  and  Staff, 
Band,  Sanitary  Detachment  and  Companies  E,  K,  L,  M  of  the  6th  Infantry  on 
July  7th.  Either  the  day  they  were  mustered  in  or  the  day  following,  the  units 
started  southward  in  troop  trains. 

If  the  Pennsylvania  Guardsmen  dreamed  of  following  Pershing's  Expeditionaiy 
Force  into  the  heart  of  old  Mexico  after  the  wily  Villa,  they  were  doomed  to  dis- 
appointment. Arriving  on  the  border,  they  were  sent  to  Camp  Stewart,  not  far 
from  El  Paso,  Tex.,  where  through  the  long  hot  summer  they  were  drilled,  drilled, 
drilled.  Nor  was  this  all.  The  War  Department  found  the  Pennsylvanians  long 
on  infantry  and  short  on  artillery  and  proceeded  to  remedy  the  defect  by  trans- 
forming two  of  the  infantry  regiments,  the  2d,  of  Phila(leli)hia.  and  the  9th,  of 
Wilkes-Barre  and  the  Luzerne  county  mining  region,  into  artillery.  These,  with 
the  1st  Artillery,  from  Pittsburgh,  Williamsport  and  Phoi-nixville,  were  formed 
into  an  artillery  brigade.  The  2d  Infantry  became  the  2(1  Artillery  and  the  9th 
Infantry  the  3d  Artillery.  The  Philadelphia  artillerymen  were  equipped  with 
4.7  guns  and  became  the  "heavies'"  of  the  brigade. 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W.    Buliler.    Stanley   Co.   of   America. 

National  (Guardsmen  in  Camp  at  ,lcitl;intown, 

96 


The  War  Department  found  also  that  some  of  the  infantry  regiments  and 
the  cavalry  regiment  were  minus  certain  units  called  for  on  the  Army  organization 
plan.  Transfers  effected  in  two  of  these  increased  the  number  of  organizations 
credited  to  this  city.  In  the  6th  Infantry,  a  headquarters  company,  a  supply 
company  and  a  machine  gun  company  were  formed  and  designated  as  Philadelphia 
units,  and,  in  the  1st  Cavalry,  headquarters  and  supply  troops  were  organized  in  a 
similar  manner  and  also  awarded  to  Philadelphia. 

By  early  fall  the  Pennsylvania  (uiard  Division  had  secured  a  splendid  basic 
training.  There  had  been  divisional  maneuvers,  brigade  maneuvers  and  regi- 
mental maneuvers,  target  practice,  bayonet  instruction,  trench  digging  lessons, 
schools  of  instruction  on  general  military  subjects,  lectures  and  so  on  through  a 
crowded  curriculum.  However,  on  September  29th  when  word  came  through 
ordering  the  1st  and  3d  Regiments  home,  it  was  received  with  gladness.  Phila- 
delphia waited  with  open  arms  and  each  organization  upon  its  arrival  was  treated 
to  a  banciuet,  those  to  the  larger  units  being  held  in  the  temporary  Convention 
Hall  at  Broad  Street  and  Allegheny  Avenue,  and  to  the  smaller  ones  in  their  own 
armories  or  headquarters.  The  last  to  get  back  from  the  border  was  the  2d  Artillery, 
which  on  one  of  the  bitterest  days  of  the  winter  of  1916-1917  heralded  its  return 
by  a  regimental  review  wherein  it  displayed  to  a  proud  city  its  new  artillery  equip- 
ment, the  heavy  1.7's  and  their  caissons. 

Philadelphia's  Guardsmen  donned  civilian  clothes  and  began  to  pick  up  the 
threads  broken  the  preceding  summer.  Some  of  them  remained  civilians  for  a 
half  year,  others — those  who  came  up  from  the  south  among  the  last — for  scarcely 
more  than  two  months.  The  rumble  of  the  World  War  was  coming  daily  nearer 
to  the  United  States.  On  February  15,  1917,  Ambassador  Bernstorff  was  given 
his  passports;  on  February  14th  he  sailed  for  home;  on  February  26th  President 
Wilson  asked  Congress  for  authority  to  arm  American  merchant  ships;  on  March 
21st  the  President  smnmoned  Congress  in  extra  session  on  April  2d,  and  on  March 
25th,  twelve  full  days  before  the  declaration  of  a  state  of  war  with  Germany, 
Philadelphia's  1st  and  3d  Infantry  were  called  into  the  Federal  service  once 
more. 

The  Guardsmen  reported  at  theii  respective  armories  for  duty  at  7  a.m. 
March  28th  and  were  mustered  into  the  Federal  service  on  March  30th  and  31st. 
The  1st  Infantry  was  assigned  immediately  to  duty  guarding  bridges,  war  industries 
and  canal  locks  in  the  territory  east  of  the  Susquehanna  River,  with  regimental 
headquarters  in  the  armory  at  Broad  and  Callowhill  streets.  The  3d  was  ordered 
to  the  western  part  of  the  State  on  similar  duty  and  departed  in  troop  trains  on 
April  2d.  By  April  6th,  the  day  the  gauntlet  was  cast  down  to  the  enemy,  both 
organizations  were  on  the  lookout  for  aliens  or  alien  sympathizers  in  the  vicinity 
of  places  of  military  importance  in  the  State. 

The  disposition  of  the  units  of  the  1st  Infantry  was  as  follows:  1st  Battalion 
Headquarters,  Broad  and  Callowhill  streets;  Company  A,  headquarters,  Neshaminy ; 
detachments,  Perkasie,  Yardley  and  Midvale  Steel  Works;  Company  B,  head- 
quarters, Bridgewater;  detachments,  Morrisville  and  Frankford  Junction;  Company 
C,  headquarters,  Schuylkill  Arsenal;  detachment.  Grays  Ferry  Bridge;  Company  D, 
headquarters,  32d  Street  and  Lancaster  Avenue;  detachments,  Girard  Avenue 
bridge  and  Chamounix  Lake,  Fairmount  Park. 

97 


Courtesy   of   Frank    \V.    liuliler,    Stanley    Co.    of    Ai 


Trucks  parked  on  City  Hall  Plaza. 


2d  Battalion  Headquarters,  Coatesville;  Company  E,  Frankford  Arsenal; 
Company  F,  headfjuarters,  Coatesville;  detachments,  Thorndale  and  Downingtown ; 
Company  G,  headquarters,  West  Reading;  detachments, Tuckerton  and  Manayunk; 
Company  H,  headquarters,  Phoenixville;  detachments,  Norristown,  Manayunk 
and  Earnest. 

3d  Battalion  Headquarters,  Columbia;  Company  I,  headquarters,  Rockville; 
detaclunent,  Lemoyne;  Company  K,  headquarters.  Safe  Harbor;  detachments, 
Lemoyne,  Martic  Forge  and  Columbia;  Company  L,  headquarters,  Boone  Station 
near  Darby;  detachments,  Eastwick,  Eddystone  and  Remington  Arms;  Company  M, 
headquaiters,  Lemoyne;  detachments,  Hummelstown,  Columbia  and  Shocks  Mills. 

Headquarters  Company,  Broad  and  Callowhill  streets;  Machine  Gun  Company, 
headquarters.  Broad  and  Callowhill  streets;  detachment,  37th  and  Market  streets; 
Supply  Company,  Broad  and  Callowhill  streets. 

West  of  the  Susquehanna  River,  the  3d  Infantry  was  disposed  as  follows: 
Regimental  Headquarters,  Altoona,  Pa.;  1st  BattaUon  headquarters,  Johnstown; 
Company  A,  Johnstown;  Company  B,  Point  Marion;  Company  C,  Port  Perry; 
Company  D,  Rockwood. 

2d  Battalion  Headquarters,  Huntingdon;  Company  E,  Huntingdon;  Company 
F,  Newport;  Company  G,  Spruce  Creek;  Company  H,  Mifflin. 

3d  Battalion  Headquarters,  1155  Liberty  Avenue,  Pittsburgh;  Companies  I, 
K  and  L,  same  address;  Company  M,  Washington,  Pa. 

Machine  Gun  Company,  1155  Liberty  Avenue,  Pittsburgh;  Supply  Company, 
Altoona,  and  Sanitary  Detachment,  Altoona. 

98 


One  other  Pennsylvania  infantry  regiment,  the  18th,  of  Pittsburgh,  had  also 
been  called  out  at  the  same  time  as  the  1st  and  id,  and  was  on  guard  duty  in  the 
northwestern  quarter  of  the  State,  with  headquarters  at  Ridgeway. 

While  the  other  units  of  the  National  Guard  awaited  the  call  to  Federal  service, 
they  and  the  regiments  already  on  duty  conducted  spirited  recruiting  campaigns. 
The  main  recruiting  stations  of  both  the  1st  and  3d  Regiments  were  in  their  local 
armories,  although  all  of  them  set  up  sub-stations  in  the  various  towns  where  their 
units  were  quartered.  At  the  same  time  the  Adjutant  General  proceeded  to 
organize  additional  units  to  fill  the  complement  of  the  Division.  To  Phila- 
delphia fell  another  company  of  Engineers  (E),  a  Field  Bakery  Company,  Field 
Hospital  No.  .'?,  Truck  Companies  Nos.  3  and  4  of  the  Supply  Train,  the  2d  Com- 
pany of  Military  Police,  and  Truck  Companies  Nos.  10,  11  and  12  of  the  Ammuni- 
tion Train. 

On  June  25,  1917,  Company  B,  of  the  Engineers,  reported  for  duty,  was 
mustered  into  Federal  service  the  following  day  and  shortly  afterwards  was  sent 
to  Camp  Meade,  Admiral,  Md.,  for  construction  work.     Subsequently  it  repaired 


Courtesy   of  Frank    W. 


lUiliIer.    Stanley    Co.    of    America. 

Philadelphia  ArliUeryntcn  al  Jciikiiilown. 


to  Camp  Hancock  for  similar  duty  ahead  of  the  balance  of  the  Division  which, 
within  two  weeks,  was  called  to  the  colors,  each  unit  being  ordered  to  mobilize 
at  its  respective  headquarters  or  armory  on  July  1,5th. 

On  July  16th  the  entire  Philadelphia  Battalion  of  the  6th  Infantry  and 
the  field  and  staff,  headquarters,  supply  and  machine  gun  companies  were 
mustered  in,  as  were  all  members  of  the  Sanitary  Detachment  save  three  who 
reported  on  July  22d.  On  July  17th  the  Artillery  Brigade  Headquarters,  Brigadier 
General  William  G.  Price,  Jr.,  commanding,  was  sworn  in  at  the  headquarters 
in  the  Liberty  Building.  Then  in  sequence  came  Truck  Company  No.  3  on  July 
20th;  the  Field  Bakery  Company  on  July  20th  and  21st;  Field  Hospital  No.  2, 
July  21st;  Ambulance  Company  No.  2,  July  21st  and  22d:  Field  Hospital  No.  3, 
July  22d  and  21th;  Troops  A  and  E  (First  City),  July  23d;  Headquarters  Troop, 
July  21th;  2d  Field  Artillery,  July  20th  to  24th;  Truck  Company  No.  4,  July  24th; 
Troop  G,  July  25th;  Troop  D  (Second  City),  July  26th;  First  Infantry  Brigade 

99 


68924A 


Headquarters,  July  26th;  2cl  Company.  Military  Police,  August  3d;  Truck  Com- 
panies Nos.  10,  11  and  12.  Ammunition  Train,  August  2d;  and  Supply  Troop, 
August  4th. 

On  August  5,  1917,  the  entire  Pennsylvania  National  Guaid  Division,  num- 
bering 841  officers  and  25.234  men,  was  mustered  into  the  National  service  formally. 
The  following  table  shows  the  strength  of  the  Philadelphia  units  on  that  day : 

Officers      Men 

F'irst  Brigade  Headquarters 2  .5 

Artillery  Brigade  Headquarters 3  10 

Field  Bakery 1  62 

1  81 

5  79 

(1  HO 

1  l'» 

I  16 

58 

53 

52 

t  71 

1  158 

2  123 
I         1,232 


\mbulance  Company  No.  2 

Field  Hospital  No.  2 

Field  Hospital  No.  3 

Truck  Company  No.  3,  Supply  Train 

Truck  Company  No.  4,  Supply  Train 

Truck  Company  No.  10.  Vnimunition  Train. 
Truck  Company  No.  11.  .\mmunilion  Train. 
Truck  Company  No.  12.  Ammunition  Train. 

Company  B,  Engineers 

Company  E,  Engineers 

Second  Company,  Military  Police 

Second  Field  Artillery 

Headquarters  Troop.  1st  Cavalry 

Supply  Troop,  1st  Cavalry 

Troop  A,  1st  Cavalry 

Troop  D,  1st  Cavalry 

Troop  E,  1st  Cavalry 

Troop  G,  1st  Cavalry . 


3  94 

3  106 

3  99 

3  128 

1st  Infantry 55  1,977 

3d  Infantry 56  1,680 

Field  and  Staff,  6th  Infantry 9 

Headquarters  Company,  6th  Infantry 1  29 

Supply  Company,  6th  Infantry 2  39 

Machine  Gun  Company,  6th  Infantry 3  62 

Sanitary  Detachment,  6th  Infantry 5  27 

Company  E,  6th  Infantry 3  76 

Company  K,  6th  Infantry 3  81 

Company  L,  6th  Infantry 3  82 

Company  M,  6th  Infantry 3  78 

Total  232        6,821 

During  the  brief  period  between  August  5,  1917,  and  the  concentration  at 
Camp  Hancock,  the  smaller  units,  with  the  exception  of  some  of  the  truck  companies, 
were  held  at  their  local  headquarters.  The  truck  companies  were  either  held  at 
the  1st  Regiment  Armory  or  sent  to  Mt.  Gretna  for  immediate  duty.  In  the  case 
of  the  2d  Artillery,  a  suitable  site  for  a  temporary  camp  was  found  near  Noble, 
Pa.,  on  the  estate  of  John  Wanamaker,  and,  in  honor  of  the  donor,  was  named 
Camp  Wanamaker.  In  mid-August,  the  1st  and  3d  Infantry  were  relieved  of  guard 
duty  and  began  to  concentrate  in  and  near  Philadelphia,  the  1st  securing  a  camp 
site  near  the  Commercial  Museum  and  naming  it  Camp  Brown  after  its  Com- 
mander, Colonel  Millard  D.  Brown.  The  3d  Infantry  left  the  western  part  of 
the  State  on  August  14th,  and  the  following  day  arrived  home,  camping  at  Camp 
A.  Merritt  Taylor,  a  short  distance  beyond  the  69th  Street  Terminal  in  Delaware 
County. 

100 


The  move  south  began  in  September.  The  1st  Infantry  left  Camp  Brown 
by  train  on  September  11th,  arriving  at  Camp  Hancock  on  Friday,  September 
11th;  the  3d  left  on  September  12th,  arriving  September  15th,  and  the  other  units 
in  order  until  by  the  end  of  the  month  the  entire  Division  was  assembled  on  the 
new  grounds  a  short  distance  outside  the  City  of  Augusta,  Ga. 

The  ensuing  nine  months  was  a  heart-breaking  period  for  the  officers  and 
men  of  the  old  Guard.  They  saw  brigadiers,  colonels,  majors  and  captains  skilfully 
eliminated  through  the  action  of  Army  Plucking  Boards.  Even  their  iMajor- 
General,  Charles  M.  Clement,  was  relieved  December  11,  1917,  and  succeeded 
December  15th  by  General  Charles  H.  Muir.  Historic  organizations  were  broken 
up  or  amalgamated  with  other  units.  The  War  Department,  with  wisdom  learned 
abroad,  was  making  some  radical  changes  in  Army  organization,  particularly  with 
reference  to  infantry  regiments.  Under  the  new  plan,  the  strength  of  the  Infantry 
was  increased  from  150  men  to  a  company  to  250  men,  while  machine  gun  bat- 
talions, hitherto  unheard  of  in  the  American  Army,  were  being  established  as 
part  of  the  Divisional  Organization.  All  of  this  reorganization  was  not  carried  on 
without  considerable  trouble.  \  arious  portions  of  the  State,  through  their  repre- 
sentatives in  Congress,  attempted  to  save  their  regiments  whole,  remonstrating 
against  the  destruction  of  former  identities.  In  the  case  of  the  1st  Cavalry,  it 
was  re-assembled,  after  the  first  break  up,  as  the  103d  Cavalry  and  was  finally 
redistributed  to  other  uiuts.  In  the  final  infantry  alignment,  the  western  part 
of  the  State  was  far  more  successful  than  the  eastern  in  saving  its  regiments,  as 
the  10th,  16th  and  18th,  all  from  west  of  the  Susquehanna,  were  kept  intact  as 
the  110th,  111th  and  112th  Infantry  regiments,  respectively. 


Courtesy  of  Prank  W.    Buhler,    Stanky    Co.    ol    Ampnca. 

National  Guardsmen  canipmy  on  the  Wanamaker  Estate,  Jenkinlown. 

101 


International. 


'2fith  Dinisiun  Men  at  Jersey  City. 


mil  Division  Unit 
.109th  Infant ry. 


The  general  order  which  caused  all  of  the  trouble,  and  which,  incidentally, 
established  officially  the  28th  Division,  was  dated  November  15th.  Its  result 
will  be  better  understood  from  the  following  table,  wliich  shows  the  original  guard 
unit,  from  whence  it  hailed,  and  what  became  of  it: 

National  Guard  Unit  Locality 

1st  Infantry Philadelphia 

3d     Infantry     (less    band     and 

several  hundred  men) Philadelphia 110th  Infantry. 

4th  Infantry: 

Machine  Gun  Company,  C 
and  D  Companies,  part  of 
Sanitary    Detachment    and 

Supply   Company Lancaster,  Columbia,  Allentown 109th     Machine    Gun 

Battalion. 
2d  Battalion  and  part  of  Head- 
quarters and  Supply  Com- 
pany  Columbia,    Allentown,    Hamburg,    Sun- 
bury,  Pine  Grove,  Lebanon 107th     Machine    Gun 

Companies  A  and  B,  part  of  Battalion. 

Headquarters,    and    Supply 

Company Reading,  Allentown,  Columbia ]08th     Machine     Gun 

Battalion. 
Detachment        Headquarters, 

Supply  and  B  Company Columbia,  Allentown 53d  Depot  Brigade. 

102 


f)tb  Infantry  (less  band) Philadelphia,  PoUstown,  Chester,  Phoe- 

nixville,        Norristown,     Doylestown, 

Media,  West  Chester 111th  Infantry. 

f!th  Infantry  (less  band) Harrisburg,  York,  Tamaqua,  Chainbers- 

burg,  Mahanoy  City,  Huntingdon, 
Carlisle,  Pottsville,  Bedford,  Lewis- 
town 112th  Infantry. 

Kllli  liifaiilry Greensburg.Monongahela,  New  Brighton, 

Somerset,  Mount  Pleasant,  Indicma, 
Altoona,     Washington,     Waynesburg, 

Blairsville,  Latrobe 110th  Infantry. 

1.3tli  Infiintry  (less  band) StTanton,Wilkes-Barre,EastStroudsburg, 

Honesdale,  Bloomsburg,  Moscow 109tb  Infantry. 

16lh  Infantry Oil    City,   Corry,   Meadville,    Bradford, 

Kane,  Franklin,  Erie,  Ridgeway, 
Warren,     Kittaning,     Butler,     Grove 

City 112th  Infantry. 

18th  Infantry Pittsburgh 111th  Infantry. 

1st  Artillery Pittsburgh,    Willianisport,    PhoenixviUe, 

South  Betlilehem 107th  Field  Artillery. 

2d  Artillery Philadelphia 108th  Field  Artillery. 

3d  Artillery Wilkes-Barre,  Hazleton,  Pittston,  Nanti- 

coke,  Plymouth,  Tunkhannock 109th  Field  Artillery. 

1st  Cavalry: 

Detachments        Headquarters 
Company,  Supply  Company, 

and  Troops  B,  F,  I,  M,  E. .  .Philadelphia,  Tyrone,  New  Castle,  Sun- 
bury,  Lewisburg 103d  Engineers. 

Machine  Gun  Troop Boalsburg 108th    Machine     Gun 

Battalion. 

Detachment  Troop  I Sunbury Division  Headquarters 

Troop. 

Detachments  Troops  F  and  H .  Newcastle  and  Pittsburgh 107th  Field  Artillery. 

Detachments  Troops  D,  K,  I,L, 

M  and  Troops  A,  C,  and  G.  .Philadelphia,    Lock    Haven,    Bellefonte, 

Lewisburg,  Simbury,  Harrisburg 108tb  Field  Artillery. 

Detachments  Troops  I,  K.  L .  .  Simbury,  Lockhaven,  Bellefonte 109th  Field  Artillery. 

Detachments  Troops  E,  B,  M  Philadelphia,  Tyrone,  Lewisburg 103d    Trench    Mortar 

Battery. 

1st  Engineers Philadelphia,  Scranton,  Pottsville 103d  Engineers. 

1st  Battalion  Signal  Corps Pittsburgh 103d  Field  Signal  Bat- 
talion. 

Military  Police Pittsburgh,  Philadelphia 103d  Headquarters  and 

Military  Police. 

Supply  Train Harrisburg,      Lancaster,      Philadelphia, 

Pittsburgh 103d  Supply  Train. 

Ammunition  Train Philadelphia,       Allentown,       Shamokin, 

Harrisburg,    West  Chester,    WiUiams- 

port,  SeUnsgrove 103d  Ammunition 

Train. 

Sanitary  Train Philadelphia,       Pittsburgh,      Lancaster, 

Coraopolis 103d  Sanitary  Train. 

Of  the  remainder,  the  bands  of  the  ,3d,  4th,  6th,  8th  and  L3th  Infantry  were 
detached  entirely  from  the  Division,  and  the  3d  Battalion  of  the  1th  Infantry  had 
months  before  been  sent  to  the  Rainbow  (42d)  Division  as  a  machine  gun  battalion. 

Once  the  changes  had  been  made  and  the  men  settled  down  to  routine,  the 

103 


time  passed  slowly  on  their  hands.  There  were  hikes  and  sham  battles,  bayonet 
practice  and  gas  mask  instructions,  guard  mounts  and  target  shooting,  trench 
digging  and  reviews,  regimental  and  otherwise.  One  of  the  biggest  days  was 
February  22,  1918  (Washington's  Birthday),  when  Secretary  Lansing  reviewed 
the  entire  Division  in  a  morning  parade.  Rumors  of  a  quick  movement  overseas 
began  to  float  around  the  camp  in  January,  1918,  and  persisted  continually  until 
the  orders  finally  came,  but  it  was  late  April  before  the  28th  bade  farewell,  and 
a  hearty  one,  to  Camp  Hancock. 

Overseas  and  the  Marne 

The  28th  Division  might  have  spent  even  a  longer  time  at  Camp  Hancock 
had  it  not  been  for  the  critical  situation  which  arose  on  the  western  front  in  the 
spring  of  1918.  The  (iermans  had  launched  two  big  offensives,  the  one  which 
retook  the  old  Somme  battlefield  and  threatened  to  break  the  British  line  toward 
Amiens,  and  the  other  which  endangered  the  channel  ports  in  northern  France. 
Great  Britain  had  made  frantic  appeal  to  the  United  States  for  an  army  and  it 


l'<nirtesy    A.    I,     S.    C. 


A  Cargo  Ship  hiiill  id  lliiii  Island. 


was  in  part  answer  to  this  appeal  that  sailing  orders  came  to  Hancock.  The 
Division  was  at  full  war  strength  when  the  orders  arrived.  Some  months  before,  a 
draft  of  Pennsylvania  selective  service  men  had  been  received  and  had  been  used 
to  fill  in  what  gaps  existed  on  the  regimental  rosters.  About  a  week  before  de- 
parture another  small  draft  of  men,  from  middle  and  western  states  and  numbering 
about  500,  was  also  added  to  the  Division,  making  the  first  addition  of  non-Pennsyl- 
vanians.  These  men  were  distributed  five  or  six  to  the  line  companies  of  infantry 
and  soon  absorbed. 

The  units  of  the  Division  began  to  leave  Camp  Hancock  by  train  on  April  21st, 
traveUng  to  Camps  Mills,  Upton  and  Merritt.  Of  the  larger  units  containing 
many  Philadelphians,  the  109th  Infantry  departed  from  the  south  on  April  22d; 
the  110th  Infantry  on  April  24th:  the  111th  Infantry  on  April  26th;  the  103d 
Sanitary  Train  on  May  10th  and  the  108th  Field  Artillery  on  May  11th.  By 
May  15th  the  old  training  ground  was  deserted  save  for  the  53d  Depot  Brigade. 

Twelve  British  and  two  American  transports  convoyed  the  Division  overseas. 
Six  ships  were  in  the  first  convoy,  wliich  sailed  from  New  York  on  May  3d,  arriving 
at  Liverpool,  England,  May  16th  and  17th.    They  were  as  follows: 

104 


H.  M.  S.  Cily  of  Calcutta,  107th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  and  1st  BattaUon, 
110th  Infantry ;  H.  M.  S.  Anchises,  108th  Machine  Gun  Battalion;  U.  S.  S.  Corsican, 
2d  Battalion,  110th  Infantry;  H.  M.  S.  Ansonia,  3d  Battalion,  110th  Infantry; 
H.  M.  S.  Denioslhenes,  headquarters  and  auxiliary  units,  110th  Infantry;  H.  M.  S. 
Carmania,  109th  Infantry,  and  Division  Headquarters,  with  Major  General 
Muir  and  staff. 

On  May  5th  the  speedy  H.  M.  S.  Olympic  departed  from  Hoboken  with  the 
5(ith  Infantry  Brigade  Headquarters  and  the  Ulth  Infantry  and  arrived  at  South- 
ampton on  May  12th,  four  days  before  the  slower  convoy,  which  had  sailed  two  days 
before  it.  On  May  7th  H.  M.  S.  Aqaitania.  with  the  103d  Train  Headquarters, 
28th  Division  Military  Police,  109th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  and  112th  Infantry, 
set  sail  and  reached  Liverpool  on  May  14th,  also  ahead  of  the  first  convoy.  Five 
more  ships  sailed  in  convoy  from  New  York  on  May  19th.     They  were: 

H.  M.  S.  Ceramic,  103d  Ammunition  Train;  H.  M.  S.  Briton,  103d  Sanitary 
Train;  H.  M.  S.  Matagama,  103d  Engineers;  U.M.S.  Justicia,  108th  and  109th 
Field  Artillciy:  V.  S.  S.  Saturnia.  107th  Field  Artillery.  These  five  docked  at 
Liverpool  on  May  30th  and  31st.  The  final  ship,  H.  M.  S.  Khiva,  with  the  103d 
Supply  Train,  sailed  from  New  York  on  May  27th  and  arrived  at  Liverpool  on 
June  7th. 

Short  time  was  spent  by  any  unit  on  the  British  Isles.  Two  days  at  "Notty 
Ash,"  a  camp  near  Liverpool,  was  practically  the  longest  stay,  after  which  the  men 
were  loaded  on   trains   for   Dover   and   rushed   from    the   British   port    across 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W.    Euhler. 


Stanley   Co.    of    .\merica. 

National  Guardsmen  off  for  War, 
105 


Workers  at  Eddy  stone  Rifle  Plant. 


the  .English  Channel  to  Calais.  Once  in  France,  rapid  disposition  was 
made  of  each  unit.  For  purposes  of  accustoming  it  to  modern  warfare,  the  infantry 
was  broken  up  in  battalions  and  brigaded  with  the  British  in  the  vicinity  of  Nieles- 
les-Bleqiiin.  This  training  lasted  for  two  weeks;  in  other  words,  until  the  time 
when  the  Germans  launched  their  third  offensive  toward  Montdidier. 

With  the  enemy  surging  Paris-ward  in  mid-June,  the  28th  was  called  hastily 
from  the  British  sector  and  everything,  save  the  artillery  brigade  at  ^  annes, 
assembled  in  the  vicinity  of  Gonesse,  which  hes  northeast  of  Paris  and  along 
highways  radiating  to  either  the  British  or  French  battle  fronts.  While  at  Gonesse, 
the  Division  heard  of  the  fourth  great  German  offensive  of  the  year,  an  offensive 
which,  aiming  at  Soissons  and  Bheims,  was  broken  at  the  latter  place  but  swung 
down  to  the  Marne  in  a  pocket  which  had  its  apex  at  Chateau-Thierry\ 

The  epic  of  the  7th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  of  the  3d  Di\asion  at  the  Chateau- 
Thierry  bridge-head  on  May  31st  and  of  the  Marines  of  the  2d  Division  at  Belleau 
Wood  and  Bouresches  on  June  6th  had  already  gone  down  into  history'  when  in 
late  June  the  28th  Division — the  artillery  brigade  excluded — was  rushed  in  motor 
lorries  to  south  of  the  Marne  with  divisional  headquarters  at  Saulchery,  and 
the  four  infantry  regiments  encamped  eastward  from  that  point  as  far  as 
Montmirail. 

The  first  unit  of  the  Division  to  reach  the  front  line  and  suffer  casualties  was 
Company  E  (from  Philadelphia)  of  the  103d  Engineers,  which,  on  the  evening  of 
June  28th,  lost  eight  men  wounded,  when  a  road  over  which  they  were  passing 

106 


to  tlieir  billots,  a  short  distance  from  Chateau-Thierry,  was  heavily  shelled.  The 
entire  2d  Battalion  of  the  Engineers,  working  under  orders  from  the  .'58th  French 
Corps,  were  engaged  during  the  subsequent  two  days  in  digging  second  line  trenches 
south  of  the  Marne  near  Chateau-Thierry. 

On  the  night  of  June  30th  the  first  infantry  engagement  took  place  with  two 
"model"  platoons  from  the  ]  1 1  tli  Infantry  participating.  It  was  purely  volunteer 
work  on  the  part  of  the  Pennsylvania  doughboys,  who  were  chosen  from  A  and  B 
Companies  of  the  regiment  to  join  with  the  135th  French  Infantry  in  an  attack  on 
Hill  20 1,  lying  north  of  the  Marne  and  east  of  Chateau-Thierry.  Lieutenant  Cedric 
Benz,  of  A  Company,  and  Lieutenant  John  H.  Shenkel,  of  B  Company,  com- 
manded the  two  platoons.  The  attack,  launched  at  night,  was  a  complete  success, 
thirty-eight  prisoners  being  taken,  the  hill  cleaned  of  machine  guns  and  snipers, 
and   all   done  with  slight  casualties  and  so  much  individual  iieroic  work  that  the 


Courttsy    of    Lht 


Hcflniiig    Co. 

U.  S.  S.  "Folger"  showing  anli-Suhmarine  Can  forward . 


French  issued  about  twenty  Croix  de  Guerres  and  were  profuse  in  divisional  and 
corps  commendations  of  the  Americans. 

From  July  1st  to  14th  the  balance  of  the  Division  trained  in  the  region  south 
of  the  Marne,  platoons  from  the  other  three  infantry  regiments  being  sent  occasion- 
ally to  the  front  Une.  To  the  westward,  Companies  A  and  B  of  the  103d  Engineers 
and  Company  C  of  the  109th  Machine  Gun  Battalif)n  took  over  the  defense  of 
the  Charly  bridge-head  on  July  9th,  and  between  then  and  July  15th  were  sub- 
jected to  intensive  shell  fu'e  and  suffered  quite  a  few  casualties. 

A  new  offensive  from  the  Huns  was  momentarily  expected.  Just  where  it 
would  strike  was  a  question  of  doubt  which  all  the  French  and  American  aerial 
observers  could  not  answer.  It  was  figured  that  it  would  either  be  westward  on 
the  front  between  Soissons  and  Chateau-Thierry,  or  southward  on  the  east  and  west 
sides  of  Bheims.  The  French  did  not  expect  a  direct  thrust  across  the  Marne  east 
of  Chateau-Thierry   and  were  confident  that  even  if  it  should  come  there  the 

107 


Transport  "Sihoney,"  haill  at  Cramp's  Shipyard. 

artificial  defenses  of  barbed  wiie  would  stop  the  advance.  Hence  the  Frencii 
line  was  thinnest  along  the  Marne  between  Chateau-Thierry  and  Dormans,  while 
what  reserves  they  had  were  concentrated  back  of  Soissons  and  Rheims. 

The  Hne  of  the  Marne  was  held  from  Chateau-Thierry  to  Dormans  by  the 
3d  American  and  125th  French  Divisions,  the  former  extending  from  Chateau- 
Thierry  to  Crezancy  and  the  latter  from  Crezancy  to  Dormans.  Behind  them, 
on  July  14th,  was  stationed  the  28th  Division,  which  had  been  moving  up  by  easy 
stages  for  three  days.  The  infantry  line  of  the  28th.  in  the  reserve  trenches,  three 
miles  south  of  the  front,  consisted  (from  west  to  east)  of  the  11 2th.  111th.  11 0th 
and  109th  Infantry,  with  the  109th_MachineCun Battalion  in  support  of  the  112th 
and  111th  Infantry  (the  56th  Brigade)  and  the  108th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  in 
support  of  the  110th  and  109th  Infantry  (the  55th  Brigade).  The  1st  Battalion 
of  the  103d  Engineers  was  also  stationed  witli  the  55th  Brigade. 

In  this  position  the  56th  Brigade  lay  behind  the  3d  American  Division  and  the 
55th  Brigade  behind  the  125th  French  Division.  The  Surmelin  River,  which  runs 
northwestward  to  empty  in  the  Marne  near  Mezy,  bisected  the  55th  Brigade,  the 
109th  Infantry  lying  to  the  east  of  the  river  and  the  110th  to  the  west.  The 
Sm-mehn  River  did  more  than  bisect  the  55th  Brigade.  It  marked  the  boundary 
between  two  groups  of  French  armies  with  the  following  confused  result:  The 
56th  Infantry  Brigade  was  in  the  38th  French  Corps  of  the  6th  French  Army, 
supporting  the  3d  American  Division,  of  the  same  Corps,  and  the  55th  Brigade, 


Copyright  by  X.  L.    Stebbins.   Bostun. 

U.  S.  S.  "Wyoming,"  flagship  U.  S.  North  Sea  Fleet,  liaill  at  Cramp's  Shipyard. 

108 


while  supposedly  in  the  5th  French  Corps  instead  of  the  38th  French  Corps,  had  one 
of  its  regiments,  the  110th,  operating  in  38th  Coips  territory,  and  the  other,  the 
109th.  in  5th  Corps  territory. 

This  was  the  general  situation  on  the  night  of  July  11th.  save  that  four  com- 
panies, two  from  the  109th  and  two  from  the  110th.  had  been  detailed  for  purposes 
of  instruction  with  the  125th  French  Division  several  days  before  and  were  still 
in  the  front  line  south  of  the  Alarne.  These  units  were  Company  L,  109th,  Captain 
James  B.  Cousart;  Company  M,  109th.  Captain  Edward  P.  Mackay;  Company  B, 
110th,  Captain  William  Fish,  and  Company  C,  110th,  Captain  W.  Curtis  Truxal. 
The  total  strength  of  the  four  units  was  9  42  officers  and  men,  but.  instead  of  being 
concentrated,  they  were  scattered  along  a  five  mile  front  with  French  units  between 
each.     The  exact  disposition  is  given  as  follows: 

Company  L,  lOOlh — two  platoons  on  the  line  of  obser\ation  along  the  railroad  south  of 
Jaulgonne  with  two  platoons  in  the  edge  of  the  woods  near  the  crest  of  the  hill  to  the  south. 

Company  B.  110th,  had  two  platoons  on  the  line  of  observation  immediately  west  of  the 
river  bridge  south  of  Passy  and  two  platoons  in  the  edge  of  the  woods  about  one  kilometer  to  the 
south. 

Company  C,  110th,  was  disposed  similar  to  Company  B,  but  on  the  right  of  the  river  bridge 
south  of  Passy. 

Company  M.  109th,  likewise  had  two  platoons  along  the  railroad  to  the  east  of  Company  C, 
1  lOlh  Infantry,  and  two  platoons  in  support  in  an  orchard  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  to  the  south 
and  sUghtly  west. 

For  instructifm  purposes  l)nt  one  platoon  of  each  company  had  been  placed 
on  the  line  of  observation,  but  at  the  time  the  situation  is  given  a  relief  was 
taking  place  in  each  company .  the  enemy  barrage  coming  down  at  the  time  both 
the  platoon  relieving  and  the  one  to  be  relieved  were  on  the  line  of  observation. 

The  story  of  the  great  German  barrage  which  broke  out  at  11.55  o'clock  on 
the  night  of  July  14th,  and  which  deluged  not  only  the  front  line  but  the  reserve 
positions  as  well,  is  by  this  time  a  familiar  tale.  In  the  dry  terms  of  the  report, 
the  explanation  of  what  happened  on  the  front  occupied  by  the  fom"  American 
companies  reads: 

On  the  right  of  the  sector  of  the  12.5th  French  Division,  which  extended  to  the  east  of  Cour- 
thiezy,  inclusive,  the  enemy  followed  the  rolling  barrage  and  succeeded  in  penetrating  through 
the  Bois  de  Conde  until  he  reached  the  heights  north  of  St.  .\gnan  at  about  3  p.m.  The  French 
Une  had  gradually  given  ground,  falling  back  to  a  line  which  ran  roughly  from  St.  Agnan  north- 
west through  the  center  of  the  clearing  of  Janvier  Fme.  to  the  Moulin  Ruine,  about  two  and  one- 
half  kilometers  south  of  Varennes. 

But  what  had  happened  to  the  four  companies?     Read  on: 

The  orders  issued  by  the  commanding  general,  12.5th  French  Division,  prior  to  the  attaching 
of  the  four  American  companies  to  his  division  for  instruction  purposes  provided  that  in  case  of 
attack  the  outpost  line  would  fall  back  to  the  line  of  principal  resistance  which  ran  around  the  edge 
of  the  woods  on  the  northern  crest  of  the  hiUs  throughout  the  sector.  In  view  of  the  additional 
strength,  in  case  the  Boche  should  attack  while  the  four  American  companies  were  attached  to 
the  division,  subsequent  orders  were  issued  prior  to  the  date  of  the  Boche  attack,  to  the  effect  that 
the  outpost  line  would  be  held  and  the  Boche  prevented  from  crossing  the  river.  The  orders 
which  the  captains  of  the  four  American  companies  received  were  to  "Resist  to  the  utmost"  in 
case  of  attack.  The  spirit  of  this  order  was  carried  out  by  the  four  American  companies  with 
the  following  results: 

Company  M,  109th  Infantry,  on  the  extreme  right,  fought  its  way  back  through  the  woods, 
eventually  reaching  the  French  line  north  of  Conde-en-Brie  with  about  150  (?)  men.     The  other 

109 


three  companies  held  their  ground,  the  forward  platoons  being  almost  to  a  man  either  killed  or 
captured,  while  the  support  platoons  held  their  ground  till  outflanked  or  surrounded.  But  a 
small  percentage  of  these  three  companies  succeeded  in  reaching  our  lines. 

So  much  for  the  official  report.  Here  are  the  figures  of  one  of  the  bravest 
battles  against  odds  in  the  history  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Force: 

Company  L,  109th:  Killed,  twenty-six;  died  of  wounds,  four  (one  of  these  a  prisoner); 
wounded,  forty-eight;  prisoners,  eighty-nine  (fourteen  of  whom  were  wounded  in  addition  to 
the  one  who  died  of  wounds) ;  escaped,  seventy-six. 

Company  M,  109th:  Killed,  twenty-three;  died  of  wounds,  four  (all  prisoners);  wounded, 
twenty-nine;  prisoners,  one  hundred  and  twenty-one  (including  fourteen  wounded  and  four  who 
died  of  wounds);  escaped,  sixty-six  (including  nine  who  were  on  detached  service  at  the  time). 

Company  B,  110th  Infantry:  Killed,  twenty-eight;  died  of  wounds,  four  (all  prisoners); 
wounded,  forty-one;  prisoners,  fifty-three  (including  nineteen  wounded  and  four  died  of  wounds); 
escaped  one  hundred  and  fifteen. 

Company  C,  110th  Infantry:  Killed,  forty-six;  died  of  wounds,  three  (all  prisoners) ;  wounded, 
nineteen;  prisoners,  one  hundred  and  thirty-one  (including  fifty-one  wounded  and  three  died  of 
wounds);  escaped,  twenty-six. 

Of  the  total  of  942  officers  and  men  with  the  four  companies  on  July  15th,  123 
were  killed  in  action,  fifteen  died  of  wounds,  137  were  wounded,  but  did  not  fall 
into  the  enemy's  hands,  ninety-eight  were  wounded  and  captured  by  the  Germans 
and  28 1  were  captured  although  not  wounded.  Just  283  men  escaped  unscathed. 
In  L  Company,  Captain  Cousart  was  captured,  as  was  Sergeant  (Cadet)  Abraham 
Mildenberg,  wliile  Lieutenants  William  Bateman  and  William  R.  Dyer  were  killed. 
Lieutenant  James  B.  Schoch  and  Lieutenant  Willard  M.  R.  Ciosman  brought  off 
most  of  the  survivors,  the  report  stating:  "About  8  p.m.  (July  15th)  Lieutenant 
Schoch,  of  L  Company,  of  the  109th  Infantry,  and  about  fifty  men  came  straggling 
through  Brigade  P.  C.  looking  for  something  to  eat." 

Captain  Mackay,  of  M  Company,  also  managed  to  escape  with  ten  men,  as  did 
Lieutenant  Thomas  B.  W.  Fales  with  forty,  while  Lieutenants  William  B.  Brown, 
Walter  L.  Swarts  and  Edward  Hitzeroth  were  captured. 

In  B  Company  of  the  110th,  Captain  Fish,  Lieutenant  Claude  Smith,  Lieu- 
tenant Alban  Jones  and  Lieutenant  Gilmore  Hayman  brought  oif  about  123  men, 
while  Lieutenants  James  Gus  Graham,  and  Bert  Guy  were  wounded  and  taken 
prisoners,  the  latter  being  so  badly  injured  that  he  died  shortly  afterwards  in  a 
prison  camp  at  Hindenburg,  L  pper  Silesia. 

Captain  Truxal,  Lieutenants  Wilbur  E.  Schell  and  Robert  J.  Bonner  of  C 
Company,  110th,  were  captured.  Lieutenant  Bonner  being  badly  wounded,  and 
Lieutenant  Samuel  S.  Crouse  was  killed. 

In  addition,  three  officers  from  other  units  on  observation  with  the  French  were 
captured  along  with  about  eight  men  from  the  sanitary  detachments  of  the  two 
regiments.  The  officers  were:  Lieutenants  James  Gee  of  A  Company,  110th; 
Edward  R.  Taylor  of  K  Company,  110th,  and  Herman  Sloan  of  K  Company, 
109th.  Lieutenant  Charles  F.  Linn  of  the  Medical  Detachment  of  the  110th 
managed  to  fight  his  way  back  in  safety,  as  did  Captain  Charles  L.  .McLain  of  F 
Company,  110th,  but  the  latter  was  wounded. 

On  the  left,  the  3d  American  Division  held  intact,  but  the  collapse  of  the 
French  and  the  isolation  and  ultimate  destruction  of  the  four  companies  of  the 
28th  endangered  the  entire  right  flank  of  the  American  forces  and  at  the  same  time 
formed  a  pocket  which  began  at  Mezy  and  continued  westward  to  Dormans.     In 

110 


this  extremity,  the  38th  United  States  Infantry,  the  most  eastern  unit  of  the  3d 
Division,  swung  its  right  wing  down  the  course  of  the  Sumerlin  River  as  far  as 
Coningis,  where  a  portion  of  the  125th  French  Division,  reorganized,  maintained 
a  front  extending  southeasterly  to  Monthurel.  From  Monthurel  due  eastward 
ran  the  line  of  the  109th  Infantry,  thus  suddenly  thrown  from  support  to  a  front 
line  position.  To  the  right  of  the  109th  lay  the  20th  French  Division,  a  shock 
unit  which  had  been  hurried  up  when  the  125th  collapsed.  The  UOth  American 
Infantry,  west  of  the  Sumerlin,  wiiile  exposed  to  the  Hun  bombardment,  was 
protected  by  the  French  line  between  Coningis  and  Monthurel  from  direct  attack. 

The  German  horde  poured  down  through  the  Bois  de  Conde  hours  behind 
schedule,  due  to  the  splendid  resistance  of  the  four  companies,  and  emerged  on  the 
front  of  the  109th  late  in  the  afternoon.  The  2d  BattaUon  of  the  109th,  under 
Major  Ralph  A.  Gregor^%  faced  the  oncomers  and  was  reinforced  at  once  by  the 
1st  Battalion  of  the  103d  Engineers  and  part  of  the  109th  Machine  (iun  Battalion. 
By  a  ruse,  in  wccu'ing  French  uniforms,  the  enemy  appeared  in  the  open  and  the 
Pennsylvania  men,  mistaking  them  for  retiring  poilus,  withheld  fire  until  it  was  too 
late  and  found  themselves  driven  back  by  terrific  machine  gun  fire  from  the  Conde 
woods.  At  7.30  P.M.  the  French  counter-attacked  toward  St.  Agnan,  but  without 
success.  In  the  meanwhile,  on  the  left  of  the  fine,  Captain  WiUiam  C.  Williams, 
of  H  Company,  with  a  small  reconnoitering  party,  crossed  a  plateau  facing  Mont- 
hurel and  was  in  danger  of  being  cut  off.  Bugler  George  L.  Mcllroy  won 
the  Distinguished  Service  Cross  by  daring  the  withering  fire  with  a  message  for 
help,  and  Captain  Williams  secured  the  same  coveted  honor  by  the  manner  in 
which  he  extricated  himself  and  his  men.  The  Distinguished  Service  Cross  fell 
also  to  Captain  Edward  J.  Meehan,  of  D  Company,  whose  unit  had  been  in  an 
advanced  exposed  position,  and  which  he  saved  by  determined  fighting. 

On  July  16th  at  10  a.m.  the  109th  counter-attacked,  using  all  units  save  I 
Company,  which  was  held  in  reserve.  During  the  night,  however,  the  Germans 
had  brought  up  more  machine  guns  and  proceeded  to  enfilade  the  line  from  the 
direction  of  St.  Agnan.  Three  impetuous  assaults  were  halted  by  the  terrific  fire 
and  the  casualties  ran  high.  Captain  Walter  M.  Gearty  and  Lieutenant  Donald 
MacNutt,  of  A  Company,  were  killed,  as  was  Lieutenant  Henry  Q.  Griffin,  of 
C  Company.  Lieutenant  Walter  Fiechter,  of  K  Company  and  Captain  Felix 
Campuzano,  of  B  Company,  were  wounded.  Corporal  J.  J.  Lott,  of  B  Company, 
was  cited  for  bravery  for  the  manner  in  which  he  twice  shpped  forward  and  cut 
barbed  wire  entanglements,  returning  each  time  to  lead  details  through  the  gaps 
and  not  desisting  until  severely  wounded.  Gas  and  shells  had  added  to  the 
casualties  in  both  the  109th  and  110th.  The  Regimental  P.  C.  of  the  109th  near 
Conde-en-Brie  was  struck  and  Rev.  Walter  Murray,  the  Regiment's  Y.  M.  C.  A. 
man,  killed.  The  officers  wounded  included  Captain  Roland  C.  Heisler,  Regimental 
Adjutant;  Captain  James  F.  Cooper,  of  G  Company,  and  Lieutenants  George  Henry 
West,  of  L  Company,  and  John  J.  Owens,  Battalion  Reconnaissance  Officer.  In  the 
110th  a  whole  squad  of  machine  gunners  were  kiUed  when  a  shell  made  a  direct 
hit  on  their  dugout,  and  another  shell  plowed  into  Company  A  while  the  unit  was 
marching  to  position,  killing  four  men  and  so  severely  injuring  two  others  that 
they  died  on  the  way  to  a  hospital. 

In  the  meanwhile,  further  west,  the  2d  Battalion  of  the  111th  Infantry,  under 
Captain  William  Dunlap,  was  sent  forward  on  July  17th  to  relieve  the  hard-pressed 

111 


30th  Infanti-y  of  the  3d  American  Division  in  the  vicinity  of  Crezancy.  On  that 
same  day  the  battalion  counter-attacked  between  Crezancy  and  Fossoy,  driving 
the  Hims,  who  had  gained  the  south  bank  of  the  Marne,  in  disorder  across  the  river. 
On  July  18th,  Lieutenant  John  H.  Burd  Quinn,  of  B  Company,  111th  Infantry, 
was  killed. 

Through  July  17th  the  109th  Infantry  continued  a  holding  position  on  the 
hill  north  of  Conde,  while  the  French  again  attacked  further  east.  The  German 
heavy  guns  from  along  the  Marne  continued  their  bombardment  throughout  July 
17th  and  July  18th,  but  ceased  before  the  end  of  the  latter  day.  In  the  meanwhile 
the  109th  had  been  reUeved  at  2  o'clock  on  the  afternoon  of  July  18th  and  with- 
drawn for  a  much  needed  rest.  The  combined  Franco- American  offensive,  launched 
south  of  Soissons  at  dawn  on  July  18th,  afforded  the  chance  for  the  relief. 

From  July  18th  to  July  20th  the  Germans  continued  to  hold  the  Conde  woods, 
but  their  chief  desire  was  to  get  back  across  the  Marne  to  safety.  For  the  next 
three  days  the  infantry  regiments  of  the  55th  Brigade  rested,  receiving  replacements. 
They  were  particularly  needed  in  the  109th.  The  regiment  was  minus  803  men  on 
July  22d,  the  day  the  replacements  arrived.  These  803  were  accounted  for  then 
as  follows:  Killed,  79;  wounded,  407;  missing,  317.  In  the  110th  Infantry,  where 
the  loss  had  been  entirely  from  shell  fire  and  gas,  save  for  B  and  C  Companies,  the 
casualties  for  the  period  were:  Killed,  57:  wounded,  137;  missing,  226;  total,  120. 

While  the  infantry  rested,  the  engineers  immediately  set  to  work  to  prepare 
for  an  advance.  The  1st  Battalion  repaired  the  roads  at  Moulins,  Courthiezy 
and  Chevaney,  just  south  of  the  Marne,  laboring  between  July  22d  and  25th  under 
terrific  shell  fire.  At  the  same  time  the  2d  Battalion  was  busy  further  west, 
Companies  E  and  F  repairing  roads  from  Aulnois  through  Essomes  and  Chateau- 
Thierry,  and  Company  D  building  a  pile  trestle  bridge  across  the  Marne  at  the 
eastern  end  of  Chateau-Thierry. 

Through  the  Heabt  of  the  Marne  Pocket 

The  56th  Brigade  was  the  first  to  start  north  in  pursuit  of  the  retreating 
Germans.  On  the  afternoon  of  July  21st  the  111th  and  112th  Infantry,  passing 
through  Chateau-Thierry,  crossed  the  Marne  on  pontoon  bridges  and  on  July  23d, 
with  the  112th  in  advance,  both  regiments  proceeded  toward  Grande  Rue  Fme., 
where  orders  were  received  from  Brigadier  General  William  Weigel,  of  the  56th 
Brigade,  placing  the  111th  Infantry  at  the  disposal  of  the  26th  (New  England 
National  Guard)  Division.  The  order  was  carried  out  by  9  a.m.  July  23d  and 
the  regiment  went  into  camp  in  the  woods  to  the  cast  and  west  of  the  farm.  At 
3  A.M.  on  July  24th  the  2d  and  3d  Battalions  of  the  11 1th  reheved  the  101st  and 
102d  Infantry  and  prepared  for  an  attack  the  same  day  at  dawn. 

At  6.45  A.  M.  both  battalions  surged  forward,  but  encountered  no  opposition. 
In  the  meanwhile  General  Weigel  had  taken  over  command  of  the  sector  from  the 
26th  Division  and  the  56th  went  forward  again  as  a  brigade,  the  111th  on  the 
right  and  the  112th,  under  Colonel  George  C.  Rickards,  on  the  left.  General 
Weigel  named  La  Croix  Rouge  Ferme  as  the  brigade  objective.  The  advance 
continued,  subjected  to  machine  gun  fire  on  the  left,  until  about  4  p.m.,  when,  in 
attacking  through  the  Forest  de  Fere,  a  scalding  machine  gun  fire  was  met.  The 
far  end  of  the  tilth's  fine,  and  the  112th  were  "hung  up"  and  four  companies  of 
the  111th — E,  H,  I  and  K — with  Colonel  Shannon  in  the  center,  pushed  ahead  in 

112 


the  form  of  a  "V"  and  were  almost  surrounded.  The  men  of  the  regiment  call  it 
their  "Lost  Battalion,"  as  the  four  companies  were  isolated  for  two  hours  until  the 
left  and  right  wings  were  enabled  to  close  up  the  gap.  As  darkness  approached  and 
the  enemy's  resistance  redoubled,  it  was  decided  to  hold  the  ground  so  far  gained 
and  dig  in  for  the  night.  Company  K  was  placed  in  the  front  Une  and  the  balance 
of  the  troops  echeloned  to  the  rear.  All  night  and  through  the  following  morning 
the  Germans  shelled  the  position,  but  without  dislodging  the  defenders,  and  on 
the  evening  of  July  25th  the  sector  was  taken  over  by  the  167th  Infantry  and  the 
111th  returned  to  Courpoil  and  Trugny  woods  for  a  much  needed  rest.  The 
111th  remained  in  Trugny  woods  until  July  28th,  when  it  was  moved  to  Vente 
Jean  de  Guillame  and  held  in  reserve  until  August  .3d. 

On  July  27th  the  55th  Brigade,  the  110th  Infantry  leading,  crossed  the  Marne 
near  Mezy  and  pushed  forward  to  the  Foret  de  Fere  in  support  of  the  .39th  French 
Division.  Ahead  of  the  109th  and  110th  lay  the  Ourcq  country  with  the  front 
line,  from  left  to  right,  consisting  of  the  I2d  (Bainbow)  Division,  the  39th  French 
Division  and  the  3d  American  Division.  That  same  night  the  110th  Infantry 
moved  ahead  to  reUeve  the  156th  French  Infantry,  effecting  the  reUef  by  daybreak, 
when  the  Pennsylvania  regiment  was  ensconced  with  the  3d  Battalion  to  the  north 
and  west  of  Courmont,  the  2d  Battalion  on  the  edge  of  the  village  and  the  1st 
Battalion  in  reserve  in  a  woods  two  kilometers  further  west.  The  110th  faced  one 
of  the  strongest  positions  prepared  by  the  enemy  in  its  retreat — a  hill  known  as 
both  188  and  212,  depending  upon  what  elevation  different  maps  happened  to 
give  it.  The  crest  of  the  hill  was  covered  by  the  Grimpettes  woods  and  in  this 
fastness  the  II  un  had  assembled  one  of  the  choicest  arrays  of  machine  guns  flanked 
by  light  artillery  and  protected  by  skilfully  prepared  trenches.  Along  the  south 
slope  of  the  hill  flowed  the  Ourcq  Biver,  a  stream  at  that  season  about  ten  feet 
wide.  The  side  of  the  hill  up  which  the  110th  was  to  go  was  practically  bare  of 
vegetation,  the  only  protection  being  a  partially  sunken  road  about  midway  up 
the  slope. 

Before  the  first  attack  could  be  launched,  the  Begimental  Headquarters  at 
Fresnes  was  struck  by  a  sheU  which  killed  Lieutenant  Colonel  Wallace  W.  Fetzer 
and  five  orderlies.  This  was  on  the  morning  of  July  28th.  On  the  afternoon  of 
the  same  day  the  2d  Battalion  started  for  the  hill.  The  Ourcq  was  crossed  in 
small  combat  groups  and,  reforming  on  the  northern  side,  the  battalion  started 
up,  despite  a  total  absence  of  artiUery  support.  The  enemy  waited  until  the 
advancing  doughboys  were  about  300  yards  away  and  then  opened  up  with  rifle 
and  maciiine  gun  fire.  The  effect  was  deadly.  The  battalion  halted  and  then 
the  men  attempted  to  work  their  way  foi-ward  on  their  stomachs.  But  the  lire 
was  too  severe.  After  exhausting  every  effort  to  get  closer  to  the  German  lines, 
the  battalion  was  forced  finally  to  withdraw.  Three  officers  were  wounded  in  the 
course  of  the  afternoon,  they  being  Lieutenants  Bobert  G.  Frasier,  Bobert  B. 
Herbert  and  Frederick  T.  Yeager. 

On  the  morning  of  July  29th  a  combined  attack  was  attempted  upon  the 
Grimpettes  woods  and  Hill  230,  directly  north  of  it.  The  3d  Battalion  attempted 
to  storm  the  latter  position,  but  was  stopped  by  intensive  fire  from  the  summit, 
and  the  2d  Battalion  fared  no  better  in  front  of  Hill  212.  Companies  G  and  E  had 
led  off,  the  former  to  the  west  and  the  latter  to  the  east  of  the  line.  Each  forced 
its  way  upward  valiantly.  Company  G  managing  to  get  within  100  yards  of  the 

113 


woods  before  being  held  up  and  Company  E  penetrating  the  timber  for  a  short 
distance.  Neither  could  hold  the  positions  gained,  however,  and  by  9  a.m.  were 
back  along  the  Oiucq  where  they  had  started.  The  two  attacks  had  cost  the 
regiment  dearly  in  both  officers  and  men.  In  E  Company,  Captain  James  E. 
Zundell  was  so  badly  wounded  that  he  died  the  following  day.  and  Lieutenant 
Wilhcun  C.  Stevenson  was  instantly  killed.  Lieutenant  Earl  R.  Churchill  of  F 
Company  was  shot  to  death  by  machine  gun  bullets.  Lieutenant  George  T. 
Rodgers  was  killed  while  observing  with  the  37  mm.  platoon  of  Headquarters 
Company.  Lieutenant  John  W.  Day  of  the  Machine  Gun  Company  was  so  badly 
wounded  by  a  high  explosive  shell  that  he  died  of  his  injuries  on  September  7th, 
and  two  officers  of  K  Company.  Lieutenants  Richard  Stockton  Bullitt  and  Walter 
B.  Riggle,  were  killed  by  machine  gun  bullets  along  with  thirty-nine  men  from  their 
company.  Among  the  wounded  for  that  day  were  Lieutenant  Frederick  R. 
Bridges,  Company  H:  Lieutenant  Joseph  R.  Chambers,  Company  A;  Captain 
Wade  T.  Kline,  Company  I;  Lieutenant  Owen  F.  McDonnell,  Company  D;  Lieu- 
tenant George  W.  R.  MEo-tin,  Company  A  (who  remained  on  duty  and  was  wounded 
again  the  following  day) ;  Lieutenant  Walter  S.  Peterson,  Company  C ;  and  Lieu- 
tenant George  L.  Roat,  Company  A. 

In  the  meanwhile,  on  July  29th,  the  109th  Infantry  had  been  swinging  to  a 
support  position  to  the  left  rear  of  the  1 10th.  The  .3d  Battalion  was  in  the  lead  and 
was  advancing  during  the  morning  hours  under  both  machine  gun  and  shell  fire 
which  was  sweeping  down  the  Ourcq  valley  from  Sergy  and  further  north.  M 
Company,  under  Lieutenant  Edward  B.  Goward,  advanced  to  flank  a  machine 
gun  which  was  menacing  the  balance  of  the  battahon,  and  to  do  so  had  to  cross 
the  Ourcq.  The  platoon  in  the  lead  came  into  the  radius  of  other  rapid- 
fire  weapons  and  Lieutenant  Goward  was  mortally  wounded.  First  Sergeant 
Howard  L.  Barnes  went  to  his  assistance  and  was  hkewise  wounded.  At  this 
instant.  Lieutenant  Thomas  B.  W.  Fales,  the  officer  who  had  brought  the  remnant 
of  M  Company  back  from  the  Marne  and  had  been  out  on  a  patrol,  returned  to  find 
the  men  becoming  demoralized.  Lieutenant  Fales  went  to  the  assistance  of 
Sergeant  Barnes  and  then  kept  on  to  Lieutenant  Goward,  but  was  so  seriously 
wounded  before  reaching  the  latter  that  he  died  the  following  day.  Despite  this 
setback  the  109th  reached  a  narrow  gauge  railroad  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Oiu'cq  and  dug  in  on  the  night  of  July  29th,  maintaining  the  position  despite  a  hail 
of  shrapnel  and  high  explosives. 

At  2.30  o'clock  on  the  afternoon  of  July  30th  the  110th  made  its  final  atlack 
on  Hill  212.  The  regiment  was  given  artillery  support  at  last  and,  following  a 
heavy  barrage,  went  forward  with  the  entire  3d  BattcJion  and  Company  D  of 
the  1st  Battalion  in  the  lead,  and  the  2d  Battahon  in  support.  Before  the  attack 
started  the  Regimental  Headquarters  at  Courmont  had  again  been  hit  by  a  shell 
and  seventeen  men,  including  two  captive  German  officers  who  were  being  inter- 
rogated, were  killed.  Despite  this  the  plan  as  laid  down  was  carried  out.  The 
victorious  110th,  losing  officers  and  men  in  large  numbers,  but  undeterred,  pressed 
forward  into  the  woods  and  over  the  summit  of  the  hill,  clearing  it  of  the  enemy 
and  taking  hundreds  of  prisoners.  When  the  fighting  was  over  the  bodies  of  400 
Germans  were  counted  on  the  ground.  Four  officers  were  killed  in  the  attack 
and  twenty-one  wounded,  the  dead  being  Lieutenant  Thomas  Massey  of  G  Com- 
pany; Lieutenant  Wilbur  Small  of  D  Company;  Lieutenant  Nelson  Perrine  of 

114 


Headquarters  Company  and  Lieutenant  Arthur  Walters,  who  had  reported  for 
duty  the  same  day  and  was  in  Regimental  Headquarters  when  the  shell  struck  it. 
Among  the  wounded  officers  were  Lieutenant  Marshall  S.  Barron,  I\I  Company; 
Lieutenant  Walter  S.  Bates,  F  Company;  Lieutenant  Henry  H.  Bonsall,  Head- 
quarters Company;  Lieutenant  Andrew  Boyes,  H  Company;  Lieutenant  Philip 
M.  Darby,  I  Company;  Lieutenant  Harry  M.  Foos,  Headquarters  Company; 
Lieutenant  David  Garrison,  K  Company;  Lieutenant  Wlman  C.  Hendler,  K  Com- 
pany; Captain  John  D.  Hitchman,  Regimental  Adjutant;  Lieutenant  William  0. 
Holmes,  I  Company;  Lieutenant  Joseph  E.  Kerst,  A  Company;  Major  Edward 
Martin,  Acting  Regimental  Commander;  Lieutenant  William  E.  Myers,  D  Com- 
pany; Lieutenant  William  E.  Pierce,  Brigade  Adjutant;  Lieutenant  R.  B.  Purman, 
K  Company;  Lieutenant  Charles  C.  Schrandt,  E  Company;  Lieutenant  Franklyn  E. 
Waite,  K  Company;  Lieutenant  Homer  E.  Wellman,  L  Company,  and  Lieutenant 
John  W.  Woodend,  L  Company. 

While  the  110th  was  winning  the  Grimpettes  woods,  the  109th,  on  the  left, 
was  giving  sterling  support.  The  109th  crossed  the  Ourcq,  the  2d  Battalion  leading, 
and  stormed  the  woods  in  front  of  Cierges.  On  this  day  Sergeant  John  Winthrop 
(later  killed  in  action)  won  special  commendation  for  the  way  in  which  he  took 
command  of  Company  G  when  all  of  its  officers  had  been  wounded.  Distinguished 
Service  Cross  winners  of  that  day  were  Major  Martin  of  the  110th;  Captain  John 
J.  Kennedy  of  the  110th;  Major  Thomas  B.  Anderson  (deceased),  110th;  Lieu- 
tenant Ullman  C.  Hendler,  Company  K,  110th  and  Lieutenant  Blake  Lightner, 
110th. 

On  the  night  of  July  30th  the  110th  was  relieved,  the  109th  taking  over  its  posi- 
tion on  the  crest  of  Hill  212,  and  on  August  1st  the  109th  in  turn  was  relieved.  Both 
regiments  moved  southward  to  the  woods  southwest  of  Le  Channel  and  there 
on  the  night  of  August  1st  a  German  bombing  plane  located  the  camp  of  the 
110th  and  dropped  six  bombs,  killing  twenty- two  and  wounding  eighty  men.  In 
the  period  from  July  28th  to  the  air  raid  the  110th  lost  ten  officers  and  220  men 
killed,  31  officers  and  960  men  wounded  and  one  officer  and  39  men  missing.  In 
the  same  period  the  109th  lost  three  officers  and  fifteen  men  killed;  seven  officers 
and  391  men  wounded  and  154  men  missing.  Both  regiments  had  also  changed 
commanding  officers.  Colonel  Brown,  of  the  109th  being  succeeded  by  Colonel 
Henr>'  W.  Coulter,  and  Colonel  Kemp,  of  the  110th,  by  Major  Martin,  the  changes 
being  effected  by  order  of  Brigadier  General  Darragh,  commanding  the  55th 
Brigade,  on  the  afternoon  of  July  29th. 

FiSMES  .\J\D  Beyond  the  Vesle 

Between  the  1st  and  4th  of  August  the  Germans  conducted  a  rapid  but 
successful  retreat  from  Cierges  and  Serg>'  to  Fismes,  on  the  Vesle,  being  closely 
pursued  by  the  32d  American  Division  which  had  just  swung  into  the  fight.  On 
the  night  of  August  3d  the  32d  had  thrown  reconnoitering  parties  into  Fismes,  but 
these  were  driven  out  the  following  morning  and  it  was  not  until  nightfall  of 
August  4th  that  the  town  was  finally  won.  On  the  afternoon  of  August  3d,  with 
the  56th  Brigade  leading,  the  28th  Division  started  northward  to  the  support  of 
the  32d,  the  road  lying  through  the  Bois  Meuniere,  Cierges,  Sergy,  Chamery, 
Coulemges,  Cohan  and  Dravegny  to  St.  Giles,  just  south  of  Fismes. 

On  the  night  of  August  6th  the  2d  and  3d  Battalions  of  the  112th  Infantry 

115 


relieved  the  32d  Division  and  occupied  the  woods  lying  directly  south  of  the  town 
of  Fismes.  The  space  between  the  woods  and  the  town,  known  as  "Death  Valley," 
was  constantly  swept  by  shell  fire  and,  like  the  town  itself,  almost  untenable.  The 
two  battalions  consoUdated  their  positions  in  the  night  of  August  6th,  and  the 
morning  of  the  7th.  supported  by  the  fire  of  the  109th  Machine  Gun  Battalion, 
succeeded  in  crossing  the  \  esle  west  of  Fismes.  On  the  next  day  the  2d  Battalion 
of  the  112th  fought  its  way  across  the  river  into  Fismette,  a  small  suburb  separated 
from  Fismes  proper  by  the  75-foot  width  of  the  \'esle  and  connected  by  a  three- 
arch  stone  bridge,  the  northern  third  of  which  had  been  blown  away  by  shell  fire. 

In  the  meanwhile  the  103d  Engineers  had  not  only  repaired  the  road  south 
of  Fismes,  but  had  built  the  bridge  west  of  Fismes  over  which  the  112th  had  won 
its  way  and  had  also  bridged  the  Ardre  River,  a  small  stream  running  north- 
westward into  the  Vesle  and  which  had  to  be  crossed  to  enter  Fismes.  It  was 
in  this  work  that  Lieutenant  Hariy  C.  Hill,  of  Company  A.  was  severely  wounded 
on  August  7th,  while  directing  the  erection  of  wire  entanglements  and  groups  of 
combat  trenches  south  of  Fismes. 

The  112th  was  being  hard  pressed  in  the  hamlet  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Vesle  and,  on  August  8th,  the  1st  Battalion  of  the  111th  and  the  one-pounder 
platoon  of  Headquarters  Company  were  sent  forward  to  assist.  The  battalion 
reached  Fismes  early  in  the  morning  but  was  unable  to  cross  the  river  during, 
daylight  hours  of  August  9th.  two  officers.  Lieutenants  Anthony  Wausnock, 
Company  A,  and  James  B.  Wharton,  Company  C,  and  about  twenty  men  being 
wounded.  After  darkness  on  August  9th,  the  battalion  crossed  on  the  shattered 
bridge  and  at  1  a.m.  on  the  10th  attacked  northward  upon  the  hillside  beyond 
Fismette  in  an  effort  to  enlarge  the  holdings  on  the  north  bank.  It  was  a  daring 
effort,  but  enemy  machine  guns  were  too  numerous  for  the  small  force.  Within 
a  few  hours  the  battalion  had  lost  some  of  its  finest  officers  and  men  including, 
Captain  Edmund  W.  Lynch  and  Lieutenant  Frank  M.  Glendenning,  killed,  and 
Captain  James  A.  Williams  and  Lieutenants  Robert  B.  Woodbury,  Frank  C. 
Homer,  Myer  Kostenbaum,  Harry  J.  Keller  and  Walter  Ettinger,  wounded.  The 
2d  Battalion  of  the  regiment  had  started  on  August  9th  to  the  support  of  the  1st 
and  on  August  10th  the  111th  took  over  the  entire  sector  from  the  112th.  Shortly 
after  midnight  on  the  morning  of  August  11th.  the  3d  Battalion  tried  to  throw 
part  of  its  force  into  Fismette  to  the  support  of  the  other  two  battalions.  A 
deadly  German  barrage  stopped  the  effort  after  a  few  men  had  crossed  the  river, 
and  these  latter  remained  with  the  2d  Battalion  until  August  13th,  when  the 
regiment  was  reUeved  by  the  109th  Infantry. 

The  job  of  keeping  open  the  fines  of  communication  between  the 
Vesle  and  Divisional  Headquarters  in  Dravegny,  devolved  upon  the  103d  Engineers, 
and  resulted  in  severe  casualties.  On  August  9th,  Captain  John  H.  Ballamy, 
topographical  officer,  was  kiUed  while  acting  as  liaison  officer  for  the  Regimental 
Commander  south  of  Fismes.  Two  days  later  Lieutenant  Harry  D.  Thrasher, 
camouflage  officer,  was  killed  near  Resson  Farm  while  directing  the  camouflage 
of  a  battery  position,  and  on  August  17th  Lieutenant  Colonel  Frank  J.  Duffy 
was  struck  and  instantly  kiUed  when  a  shrapnel  burst  overhead  as  he  was  entering 
his  side  car  at  Courville.  His  driver  died  at  the  same  time.  AU  the  engineering 
companies  were  suffering  heavily,  as  were  the  men  of  the  103d  Sanitary,  Supply 
and  Ammunition  Trains. 

116 


For  the  ainhulance  section  of  the  Sanitary  Train,  the  evacuation  ol'  the 
wounded  from  Fismette  and  Fismes  was  carried  on  under  extraordinary  difficulties. 
On  August  10th  the  110th  Ambulance  Comiiany  (formerly  Ambulance  Company 
No.  2  N.  G.  P.)  which,  by  the  way,  had  been  the  only  ambulance  company 
available  for  duty  at  Conde-en-Brie  in  mid-July  and  had  evacuated  all  of  the 
wounded  on  supply  trucks  fiUed  with  straw,  had  five  of  its  ambulances  caught  in 
Fismes  under  a  terrific  barrage.  All  live  machines  got  through  safely,  one  with 
its  top  blown  away,  the  success  of  the  achievement  being  due  to  the  heroism  of 
Captain  George  E.  McGinnis.  Wagoner  Orignes  P.  Biemuller.  Private  James  R. 
Brown,  Private  James  T.  O'Neill  and  Wagoner  Harry  E.  Roach,  who  were 
awarded  Distinguished  Service  Crosses. 

The  55th  Infantry  Brigade  came  up  from  the  vicinity  of  St.  Giles  on  August  12th, 
the  110th  Infantry  relieving  a  French  regiment  to  the  right  of  Fismes  on  that  night, 
and  the  109th  taking  over  the  defenses  of  Fismes  and  Fismette  on  August  13th. 
The  109th  at  first  sent  only  a  single  company — I — into  Fismette,  but  two  days 
later  reinforced  it  with  two  platoons  from  M  Company.  During  its  tenure  of  the 
town — until  the  night  of  August  19th — the  slender  force,  aided  by  the  fire  of  the 
108th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  and  Company  K  of  the  109th  in  Fismes,  broke 
up  all  contemplated  counter-attacks  and  enlarged  its  holdings.  The  footliold  in 
Fismette  was  the  only  place  in  the  sector  where  the  division  was  across  the  Vesle. 
The  line  of  the  llOlh.  from  Fismes  eastward  and  to  the  north  of  Coinville,  was 
200  meters  south  of  the  ^  esle,  the  enemy  having  a  fortified  railroad  embankment 


IO:i(I  Trench  Morlar  Bakery  arririny  at  New  York. 
117 


between  the  110th  and  the  river.  From  August  12th  to  August  18th  the  1st 
Battalion  of  the  110th  held  the  line  of  resistance,  two  medical  officers.  Captains 
Fred  B.  Shaffer  and  Walter  J.  Shidler,  being  wounded  during  the  period.  On 
August  18th  the  3d  Battalion  reUeved  the  1st  in  the  front  line  and,  on  the  following 
day,  the  109th  was  reheved  in  Fismes  and  Fismette  by  the  2d  Battalion  of  the 
112th  Infantry.  Until  August  25th  the  110th  was  content  with  a  holding  position 
south  of  the  Vesle,  the  period  being  filled  with  night  raids,  in  one  of  which  Lieu- 
tenant Augustus  Aspenwall,  of  B  Company,  was  kiUed.  Other  casualties  of  the 
period  included  Lieutenant  Edward  W.  Fuge,  of  A  Company,  killed  August  19th, 
and  Lieutenants  WiUiam  V.  Harvey,  and  Cyrus  L.  Horner  of  the  Machine  Gun 
Company,  wounded  August  24th. 

A  determined  effort  was  made  before  dawn  on  August  25th  to  drive  the  enemy 
back  across  the  Vesle,  the  3d  Battalion  of  the  110th  attacking  in  a  three- wave 
formation  wliich  smashed  forward  to  the  objective,  but  was  unable  to  hold  it 
because  of  the  overwhelming  fire  from  the  heights  beyond.  Companies  I  and  L 
were  enfiladed  also  by  machine  gun  fire  and  were  forced  to  withdraw  before  M 
Company,  which,  under  Captain  Edward  J.  Stackpole,  Jr.,  held  its  position  until 
9.30  A.M.,  when  it  also  withdrew,  the  Captain  wounded,  and  another  officer,  Lieu- 
tenant Leonard  Jackson,  killed.  The  battalion  lost  more  than  one  hundred  men 
in  the  attack. 

Emboldened  by  the  success  in  driving  back  the  110th,  the  Germans,  on  the 


Courtesy  of  Prank  W.   Buhler,    Stanley   Co.    of    America. 

G.  A .  R.  Veterans  reviewing  World  War  Troops. 
118 


morning  of  the  following  day,  descended  upon  the  112th  in  Fismette,  preceding 
the  attack  with  a  barrage  which  isolated  Companies  G  and  H  in  the  town  on  the 
north  bank.  There  is  a  story  that  a  German,  attired  in  an  American  uniform, 
ran  through  Fismette  in  advance  of  the  attack,  seeking  to  demoralize  the  defenders. 
If  the  story  is  true,  the  ruse  was  not  successful,  as  G  and  H  Companies  started  to 
retire  in  good  order.  The  barrage,  however,  which  prevented  reinforcements  being 
sent  them,  resulted  in  a  total  of  111  casualties  out  of  260  men  engaged,  the  majority 
being  taken  prisoner.  Captain  Edward  Schmelzer  and  Lieutenants  Milford  W. 
Fredenburg  and  Alfred  Young  were  among  the  prisoners,  while  Lieutenant  Joseph 
A.  Landry  was  killed.  One  officer,  Lieutenant  Benjamin  E.  Turner,  and  ten  men 
were  the  last  to  evacuate  the  town,  reaching  Fismes  shortly  after  dawn  of 
that  day. 

On  the  night  of  August  11th  the  53d  Artillery  Brigade,  which  had  completed 
its  training  at  Vannes,  began  to  reach  the  lines  of  the  division  south  of  the  Vesle, 
the  107th  and  109th  regiments  equipped  with  French  75's  and  the  108th  with  155 
howitzers.  Batteries  from  all  three  swung  into  position  along  the  front  south  of 
Fismes  and  \  illette,  reUeving  French  artillery  units,  and  soon  making  life  unbearable 
for  the  enemy  to  the  north.  All  through  the  last  half  of  August  the  53d  Artillery 
Brigade  tuned  up  with  preUminary  practice  on  the  enemy  in  the  highlands  between 
the  Vesle  and  the  Aisne.  Casualties  were  frequent,  principally  from  gas,  but 
valuable  coordination  with  the  tried  and  true  infantry  units  was  established  and 
the  precision  of  the  brigade's  barrages  soon  won  it  the  confidence  of  the  remainder 
of  the  Division.  The  fu-st  fatahty  occurred  on  August  18th  at  Arcis-le-Ponsart, 
when  Lieutenant  Henr^^  Howard  Houston,  2d,  Aide  to  General  Price,  the  Brigade 
Commander,  was  killed  by  a  high  explosive  shell. 

As  August  waned  the  pressure  of  the  FrEmco-American  forces  north  of  Soissons 
began  to  be  felt  in  the  vicinity  of  Fismes.  The  enemy  appeared  restless  and  it  was 
decided  to  drive  them  before  they  again  became  stabiUzed.  The  first  step  in  this, 
the  triumph  of  the  Oise-Aisne  offensive,  fell  to  the  111th  Infantry.  On  the  night 
of  August  31st  it  had  gone  forward  to  the  relief  of  the  112th  in  Fismes  and  for  a 
short  distance  to  the  right  of  the  town.  On  the  afternoon  of  September  4th  the 
3d  BattaUon  launched  a  sudden  attack  in  cooperation  with  the  77th  Division  on  the 
left  and  the  110th  Infantry  on  the  right.  The  attack  went  home,  the  3d  Battalion 
retaking  Fismette  and  driving  the  defenders  pell-mell  up  the  hills  to  the  northward. 
Further  east,  the  2d  Battalion  of  the  110th  on  the  same  day  successfully  crossed 
the  Vesle  and  took  Baslieux,  a  town  some  distance  up  the  hill  to  the  north  of  the 
river.  On  September  5th  the  3d  Battalion  of  the  llOlh  leap-frogged  the  2d,  and 
advanced  further  up  the  heights,  but  with  the  loss  of  Major  Thomas  B.  Anderson, 
killed,  and  Captain  Stackpole  and  Lieutenants  John  L.  Bobinson  and  James  T. 
Taylor,  wounded.  That  night  Major  General  Muir  discovered  a  gap  between 
his  Division  and  the  French  units  to  the  east  and  withdrew  the  111th  Infantry  from 
Fismes,  marching  it  across  the  front  to  position  on  the  right  of  the  divisional  line 
in  the  vicinity  of  Courlandon.  The  77th  Division,  on  the  left,  took  over  the 
Fismes  area  thus  vacated. 

The  stage  was  set  for  the  final  act.  The  division  was  ready  to  attack,  three 
regiments  abreast,  with  the  llOth  on  the  left,  the  109th  in  the  center  and  the  111th 
on  the  right,  the  112th  being  divisional  reserve.  At  1.25  o'clock,  preceded  by  a 
twenty-five  minute  barrage,  the  three  regiments  started  forward  on  what  was 

119 


/  Sled  Co. 


one  of  the  most  desperate  battles  of  the  war.  From  Fismette  through 
BasUeux  to  Courlandon  the  air  was  heavy  with  gas  wave  after  gas  wave,  which 
the  Germans  rolled  down  the  slope.  In  the  face  of  this,  and  of  a  tremendous 
concentration  of  machine  gun  and  artillery  fire,  the  three  regiments  pushed  for- 
ward at  the  rate  of  100  yards  every  two  minutes  until  by  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
they  had  advanced  approximately  three  kilometers  north  of  the  Vesle,  and  patrols 
from  the  109th  and  110th  had  fought  their  way  into  the  little  town  of  Glennes, 
on  the  very  smnmit  of  the  plateau  between  the  \es\e  and  the  Aisne.  The  attack 
had  been  driven  home  to  complete  success;  the  Germans  were  driven  back  to  the 
Chemin  des  Dames,  north  of  the  Aisne;  but  the  result  was  not  achieved  without 
terrific  losses.  In  the  109th,  Colonel  Samuel  V.  Ham,  who  had  succeeded 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Coulter,  the  latter  being  wounded  September  4th,  was  him- 
self desperately  injured  and  gained  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross  for  his  intrepid 
conduct.  With  Colonel  Ham  evacuated,  Major  Martin  of  the  110th  was  detached 
to  take  hold  of  the  109th,  and  shortly  after  he  left  his  original  regiment,  Colonel 
Frank  Tompkins,  its  Commander,  was  desperately  gassed,  the  command  devolving 
upon  Captain  John  Aiken,  who  was  also  gassed  the  same  day. 

The  109th's  casualties  included  Captain  F.  D.  Wolfe  of  D  Company  and 
Lieutenants  John  Litschert  of  H  Company,  Earl  R.  Davis  of  F  Company  and 
Hazzard  Melloy  of  I  Company,  killed,  and  the  following  officers  wounded:  Captain 
John  M.  Gentner,  C  Company;  Captain  Edward  J.  Meehan,  D  Company;  Lieu- 
tenants William  S.  Cripps,  Harold  A.  Falu-  and  G.  Wingfield  PhilUps,  G  Company; 
Alfred  H.  Loney,  C  Company;  William  T.  Gammons,  B  Company;  H.  B.  Van 
Ostenbrugge,  K  Company,  and  William  C.  Ross  and  Alexander  H.  Latta,  Head- 
quarters Company. 

120 


In  the  110th,  Lieutenant.  Jacob  Feldman  of  D  Company  was  killed  and 
Lieutenant  William  F.  Caldwell  so  badly  wounded  that  he  died  on  October  9th. 
Among  those  wounded  or  gassed  on  September  6th  and  the  next  day,  while  the 
regiment  was  in  a  holding  position  on  the  heights,  were  Captain  William  E.  Pierce, 
Regimental  Adjutant;  Captain  John  R.  Dunkel,  Company  G;  Captain  William  M. 
Sylvis,  Medical  Detachment;  and  Lieutenants  Stewart  M.  Alexander,  Head- 
quarters Company;  John  F.  Allison,  Machine  Gun  Company;  Charles  F.  Linn 
and  Alvah  L.  Parsons,  Medical  Detachment;  William  W.  Moyer,  Dental  Corps; 
Robert  E.  Perkins,  Company  D;  Charles  H.  Quarles,  Company  F;  William  Spirko, 
Company  E.  and  Cliauncey  T.  Young,  Headquarters  Company.  Lieutenant  Young, 
who  was  a  Sergeant  during  the  engagement,  remained  on  duty  although  badly 
gassed,  was  promoted  for  gallantry  in  action,  but  died  from  the  effect  of  the  gassing 
before  his  commission  reached  him. 

In  the  Ultli  Infantry.  Captain  Louis  Fielding  of  E  Company  was  killed  and 
Lieutenants  Carroll  Missimer  and  Joseph  B.  Roulston  were  wounded. 

There  were  numerous  instances  of  extraordinary  heroism  on  the  part  of  men 
of  both  the  infantry  and  artillery  regiments.  One  of  the  citations  went  to  Captain 
(then  Lieutenant)  Hubert  W.  Dutton  of  D  Company,  109th  Infantry,  who  single- 
handed  charged  a  German  machine  gun  nest,  killed  the  officer  commanding,  captured 
the  crew  of  fourteen  men  and  1.000  rounds  of  ammunition  and  turned  the  gun 
on  its  former  owners,  keeping  it  in  action  for  five  hom's  subsequently.  Another 
Distinguished  Service  Cross  man  was  Lieutenant  Allan  S.  Dayton  of  Battery  C, 
107th  Field  Artillei-j-,  who  led  an  infantry  patrol  out  ahead  of  the  line  to  adjust 
artillery  fire  on  machine  guns,  held  his  advanced  post  for  a  half  hour  until  telephonic 
communication  had  been  established  with  his  regiment  and  then  helped  to  carry 
a  wounded  officer  back  of  the  lines. 

The  Germans  tried  several  counter-attacks  on  the  night  of  September  6th, 
but  all  of  them  were  repulsed  by  the  triumphant  28th,  which  held  its  position 
for  the  next  twenty-four  hours  and  was  relieved  on  September  8th  by  a  French 
division.  This  operation  marked  the  conclusion  of  the  28th's  participation  as  part 
of  a  French  Corps.  It  brought  the  following  citation,  signed  by  Generals  Matter 
and  Pougin,  of  the  French  Army: 

From  the  beginning  of  the  attacli  the  American  detachments  were  signalized  Ijy  their 
ardor,  bra\  ery  and  enthusiasm.  In  spite  of  the  firing  of  the  enemy's  heavy  and  light  machine 
guns,  trench  mortars  and  the  work  of  riflemen  hidden  in  trees,  these  men  threw  themselves  bravely 
on  their  adversaries.  Fierce  hand-to-hand  fighting  resulted  and  the  combat  was  most  \  iolent — 
the  men  never  ceased  fighting  during  all  the  operation,  fighting  in  a  way  to  arouse  the  enthusiasm 
and  admiration  of  the  French  commanders  and  men  of  the  French  Army. 

Another  citation,  from  General  L.  de  Mondesir,  reads: 

American  comrades!  I  am  grateful  to  you  for  the  blood  so  generously  spilletl  on  the  soil 
of  my  country.  I  am  proud  to  have  commantied  you  during  such  days  and  to  have  fought  with 
you  for  the  deliverance  of  the  world. 

The  Argonne 

Following  its  relief  on  September  8th,  the  28th  Division  was  marched  eleven 
kilometers  south  from  the  front  to  a  point  well  below  the  \  esle,  and  from  there 
to  Epernay.  There  they  were  given  two  days  of  rest.  The  next  move  was  on 
September  13th  to  Nettancourt.     The  Division  was  ordered  out  on  the  night  of 

121 


September  17th,  and  proceeded  by  stiff  night  marches  northward  toward  the 
Argonne,  where,  on  September  20th,  it  took  over  the  sector  in  front  of  the 
Argonne  Forest  and  across  the  Aire  Valley,  leaving  a  thin  screen  of  French 
troops  on  the  outpost  line. 

The  first  great  American  offensive  was  about  to  be  launched  with  the  28th 
Division  covering  1,000  yards  front,  extending  from  Boureuilles  on  the  east  to  Cote 
28.5  on  the  west,  with  its  right  held  by  the  110th  Infantry  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Aire  and  its  left,  with  the  112th  in  fine,  extending  deep  into  the  thick  woodlands 
of  the  Argonne.  The  109th  Infantry  was  in  the  center  of  the  front  line  and  the 
111th  in  divisional  reserve.  Little  need  be  said  of  the  great  five  and  a  half  hours' 
artiller>^  barrage  which  covered  the  broad  Meuse-Argonne  front  in  the  wee  small 
hours  of  the  morning  of  September  26th.  It  is  too  old  a  story  to  retell.  The 
position  of  the  28th  on  the  morning  of  September  26th  lay  between  the  77th 
(New  York  National  Army)  Division  on  the  left  and  the  35th  (Kansas  and  Missouri 
National  Guard)  Division  on  the  right.  Contact  with  the  77th  was  established 
in  the  Argonne  and  the  Aire  River  separated  the  most  eastern  regiment  of  the  28th 
from  the  most  western  one  of  the  35th. 

It  was  a  dense  foggy  morning,  which  a  preceding  smoke  screen  served  to  render 
more  opaque,  through  which  the  28th  advanced  in  the  opening  hours  of  the  drive. 
Fortunately,  the  75"s  of  the  107th  and  109th  and  the  155's  of  the  108th  had  thrown 
the  Huns  out  of  their  front  line  trenches,  so  there  was  little  machine  gun  or  sniper 
fire  to  hinder  the  men  in  moving  forward.  As  it  was,  numerous  small  groups 
became  hopelessly  lost  in  the  clouded  atmosphere  and  several  times  it  was  neces- 
sary to  halt  and  reform.  The  ground  in  front  of  the  109th  and  110th  was  open 
but  extremely  hilly,  ridge  after  ridge  running  in  parallel  from  east  to  west,  while 
in  front  of  the  112th  was  the  thick  woodlands  of  the  Argonne.  As  a  result,  the 
two  regiments  of  the  55th  Brigade  were  able  to  make  more  rapid  progress  than 
the  112th.  and  before  the  first  day  had  ended  two  battalions  of  the  111th  had  been 
called  from  reserve  to  fill  the  gap.  Despite  the  handicap  of  the  country  over 
which  it  fought,  the  112th  made  much  more  rapid  progress  than  the  77th  Division 
on  its  left  flank.  On  the  right,  the  110th  Infantry  stormed  the  town  of  \  arennes 
at  the  point  of  the  bayonet  in  the  late  afternoon  of  September  26th,  while  the 
109th,  in  the  center,  pushed  forward  abreast  of  it,  engaging  in  spirited  contest 
with  machine  gunners  and  snipers,  and  eventually  mopping  up  the  suburbs  of 
Varennes  at  the  same  time  that  the  110th  was  taking  the  portion  of  the  town 
west  of  the  Aire.  The  55th  Brigade  dug  in  just  beyond  Varennes  for  the  night, 
while  the  56th  continued  its  fight  through  the  woods  a  kilometer  or  so  behind. 
Captain  John  E.  Boyle  of  the  Machine  Gun  Company,  110th  Infantn,,  was  wounded 
this  day,  as  were  three  Lieutenants  from  the  109th:  Edward  W.  Sterhng,  E  Com- 
pany; Daniel  P.  LafFerty,  F  Company,  and  Charles  IVIcFadden,  3d,  M  Company. 

The  next  day,  September  27th,  the  advance,  with  the  German  resistance 
stiffening,  reached  and  passed  Montblainville,  a  strongly  fortified  hamlet  lying 
north  of  Varennes  and  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Aire.  In  the  UOth  Infantry 
Lieutenants  William  S.  Bonsai,  C  Company;  Stephen  W.  Dickey,  C  Company, 
and  Elmer  S.  Ecay,  L  Company,  were  killed.  The  wounded  of  the  regiment 
included  Lieutenant  Frederick  G.  Bell,  F  Company;  Lieutenant  Thomas  L.  Cort, 
E  Company;  Captain  Wilham  Fish,  B  Company  (who  remained  on  duty);  Lieu- 
tenant Harry  J.  Flyrm,  A  Company;  Lieutenant  Arthur  J.  Schratweiser,  Head- 

122 


quarters  Company,  and  Lieutenant  Harry  J.  Traphoner,  G  Company.  In  the 
109th,  Captain  John  J.  Owens,  of  I  Company,  and  Captain  Roland  C.  Heisler, 
Regimental  Adjutant,  were  wounded  or  gassed. 

On  the  morning  of  September  28th  the  55th  Brigade  launched  forward  along 
the  Aire  and  stormed  into  Apremont,  while  the  56th  Brigade,  still  finding  the 
woodland  hard  going,  was  brought  to  bay  before  Le  Chene  Tondu,  a  hill  lying  just 
west  of  Apremont.  The  fighting  of  the  day  was  terrific.  Lieutenant  Albert  J. 
Oronsteen  of  Company  G,  110th,  was  killed,  and  three  Lieutenants,  Samuel 
Hazlehurst,  Company  L;  Joseph  S.  Ferguson,  Company  H  and  Clarence  Laird, 
Company  L,  were  so  badly  wounded  that  they  died  a  few  days  later.  In  addition 
the  following  were  wounded:  Lieutenant  Harry  M.  Foos,  Machine  Gun  Company; 
Lieutenant  Daniel  Fox,  Company  G;  Captain  Albert  0.  King,  Headquarters 
Company;  Lieutenant  George  W.  Kuhnbaum,  Company  E;  Lieutenant  Frank  L. 
Lynch,  Company  B;  Captain  Charles  L.  McLain,  Company  F;  Lieutenant  Arthur 
Robinson,  Company  G;  Lieutenant  Winthrop  E.  Sullivan,  Company  B,  and 
Lieutenant  Frederick  T.  Yeager,  Company  H.  In  the  109th  Infantry,  Lieutenant 
James  A.  Bonsack,  Jr.,  Company  A,  was  kiUed,  and  the  following  wounded: 
Lieutenant  Harry  A  Fryckberg,  Company  E;  Lieutenant  Herman  Goldstein, 
Company  I;  Lieutenant  Harry  R.  Sage,  Adjutant,  1st  Battalion. 

Apremont  had  been  originally  set  by  General  Headquarters  as  the  objective 
of  a  two  day  advance.  The  brains  which  mapped  out  the  campaign,  however, 
had  failed  to  take  into  consideration  the  nature  of  the  terrain  lying  between  the 
town  and  Boureuilles.  That  the  28th  Division  accomplished  the  task  set  for  it  in 
three  days  was  remarkable.  It  had  only  done  so  at  a  terrific  cost  of  men.  Regi- 
ments were  down  to  half  their  original  strength,  and  the  men  surviving  were  in 
a  bad  state  from  constant  exposure  and  extraordinary  physical  exertion.  Never- 
theless, the  high  command  decided  on  another  stroke  being  necessary  before 
relieving  the  Division.  This  stroke  was  needed  because  of  the  slow  progress  of 
the  77th  Division  on  the  left.  Before  it  could  be  launched,  however,  it  was  neces- 
sary for  the  55th  Brigade  to  consolidate  its  positions  in  Apremont  and  ward  off 
German  counter-attacks,  which  came  with  frequency  during  September  30th  and 
October  1st.  It  was  in  one  of  these  on  October  1st  that  the  gallant  remnant  of 
the  110th  and  a  few  companies  of  the  109th  withstood  the  assault  of  far  superior 
numbers,  and  Brigadier  General  Dennis  E.  Nolan  of  the  55th  Brigade  won  the 
Distinguished  Service  Cross  by  fighting  in  the  ranks  with  the  doughboys.  The 
Distinguished  Sei-vice  Cross  went  also  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Joseph  H.  Thompson 
of  the  110th  Infantry  and  Lieutenant  Andrew  B.  Lynch  of  the  same  regiment,  who 
performed  meritorious  service  in  repulsing  the  counter-attack.  Lieutenant  LesUe 
W.  Horn  of  D  Company,  110th,  and  Lieutenant  Charles  R.  Rowan  of  G  Company 
were  both  so  severely  wounded  that  they  died  within  a  few  hours.  On  September 
29th  Lieutenant  John  V.  Merrick,  Company  D.  and  Lieutenant  Chester  A. 
Stover,  Company  M,  were  wounded  and  Lieutenant  Guyon  J.  Wierman,  Company 
D,  was  taken  prisoner. 

About  the  same  time  that  the  counter-attacks  were  being  repulsed  by  the 
55th  Brigade,  the  56th  Brigade  was  attempting,  but  vainly  at  first,  to  take  Le 
Chene  Tondu.  So  strongly  fortified  were  the  Germans  that  the  position  seemed 
impregnable  to  an  unsupported  infantry  attack.  The  53d  Artillery  Brigade  was 
rendering  all  the  assistance  possible,  the  109th  ArtiUery,  in  Apremont,  having 

123 


already  been  badly  gassed  and  shelled.  On  October  4th,  Colonel  Asher  Miner 
of  the  109th  Artillery  was  badly  wounded. 

Such,  then,  was  the  situation  when  on  October  6th  the  103d  Trench  Mortar 
Battery,  its  men  exhausted  after  days  of  toil  over  the  nniddy  road  and  harassed 
by  constant  shell  fire,  reached  the  56  th  Brigade  line  and  fur  tiie  first  time  put  their 
wicked  mortars  into  action.  On  that  day  the  103d  Trench  Mortar  Battery 
justified  itself  completely.  Its  shells,  deluging  the  ridge  and  the  trenches  beyond, 
literally  blew  the  Germans  out  of  the  way  so  that  the  111th  on  the  right  and  the 
112th  on  the  left  were  finally  able  to  push  forward  and  take  with  sUght  loss  the 
position  which  had  cost  them  dearly  enough  during  the  preceding  week. 

The  77th  Division  on  the  left  was  getting  into  more  and  more  trouble,  its 
"Lost  Battalion"  having  suddenly  sprung  into  history,  and  it  was  to  save  this 
battalion  and  also  to  clear  the  path  for  the  farther  advance  of  the  New  York 
Division  that  the  final  phase  of  the  28tli"s  participation  in  the  Meuse-Argonne 
offensive  began.  It  was  the  morning  of  October  7th.  Ahead  lay  the  town  of 
Chatel  Chehery,  with  Hill  223  on  the  right  fiank  and  Hill  2 1 1  on  the  left.  The 
original  plan  was  for  the  327th  Infantry,  of  tlie  82d  Division,  to  the  right  of  the 
28th,  to  take  Hill  223  while  the  55th  Brigade  captured  the  town  of  Chatel  Chehery 
and  the  56th  Brigade  stormed  Hill  241.  Under  this  arrangement,  the  advance 
of  the  55th  and  56th  Brigades  began  on  the  morning  of  October  7th,  and  by  10 
o'clock  the  109th  and  110th  were  into  and  through  Chatel  Chehery,  driving  the 
Huns  from  house  to  house  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet,  while  the  112th  Infantry 
was  advancing  upon  HiU  244  and  the  11 1th  Infantry  was  suppt)rting  both  brigades. 
However,  the  327th  Infantry  was  held  up  south  of  Hill  223  and  the  Germans, 
in  force  on  this  eminence,  were  delivering  a  severe  enfilading  fire  upon  the 
occupants  of  Chatel  Chehery.  In  this  emergency  the  2d  Battalion  of  the  109th 
Infantry  was  sent  to  clean  up  Hill  223  and  succeeded  after  a  brief  struggle.  The 
112th  also  made  history  by  the  way  in  which  it  succeeded  in  storming  Hill  214. 
By  nightfall  of  October  7th  the  Division,  or  what  was  left  of  it,  had  cleared  the 
entire  region  of  the  enemy,  thrusting  a  menacing  salient  into  the  Argonne  which 
had  the  immediate  result  desired — the  rajiid  evacuation  of  that  territory  by  the 
(iermans,  who  had  been  holding  up  the  77th  Division  and  surrounding  the  "Lost 
Battalion."     One  day  later,  October  9th,  the  entire  28th  Division  was  relieved 


_r^Hf^|   i^ 


Foiirleen-inch  Naval  Gun,  Railway  Mount,  in  action.     Biiitt  tiy  The  Baldirin  Loconioiiiv  Works. 

124 


by  the  82d,  the  men  being  marched  back  through  Apremont  to  Varennes  and 
there  loaded  on  motor  trucks  and  taken  southeastward. 

The  Artillery  in  Belgium 

A  few  days  later  General  Headquarters  was  asked  by  the  British  for  a  good 
artillery  brigade  to  act  in  conjunction  with  one  of  the  American  divisions  in  Belgium. 
Two  artillery  brigades,  the  identities  of  which  are  not  given,  had  failed  the  91st 
American  Division  on  the  Ypres  front  and,  according  to  reports,  had  deUvered 
barrages  which  fell  short  and  endangered  the  advancing  infantry.  General  Head- 
quarters responded  by  detaching  the  53d  Artillery  Brigade  from  the  28th  Division 
and  entraining  it  on  October  18th  at  St.  Menehould  for  a  two-day  ride  half-way 
across  France  to  Calais  and  Dunkirk.  As  the  operations  of  the  artillery  brigade 
from  then  until  the  end  of  the  war  were  entirely  apart  from  the  movements  of  the 
balance  of  the  Division,  it  will  be  best  to  take  each  up  separately. 

With  the  brigade  of  artillery  went  the  horse  battalion  of  the  103d  Ammunition 
Train  and  all  of  the  units,  after  detraining,  moved  into  Ypres  for  the  night  of 
October  20th.  They  started  forward  the  next  morning  and  on  October  29th  went 
into  action  in  the  vicinity  of  Boschmolens.  Between  October  29th  and  November 
11th  the  brigade  was  almost  constantly  in  action.  Its  record  shows  a  string  of 
Belgian  War  Crosses  awarded  to  the  men  of  the  various  units  for  individual 
bravery,  and  a  brigade  citation,  which  went  to  Sergeant  Major  Howard  Taylor, 
of  the  horse  battalion  of  the  Ammunition  Train  for  the  way  in  which  he 
reorganized  two  sections  of  E  Company,  which  had  been  demoralized  and 
damaged  by  Hun  air  raiders  during  the  night  of  October  30th  between  Boschmolens 
and  Oygen.  On  Armistice  Day  the  artillery  brigade  had  reached  Audenarde, 
but  did  no  actual  firing  after  November  10th.  From  Audenarde  it  marched 
through  a  number  of  Belgian  towns  and,  after  a  month  spent  in  the  north,  en- 
trained for  Le  Mans,  in  the  embarkation  area,  where  the  rest  of  the  Division  joined 
it  in  April. 


125 


THE  WORK  OF  THE  DRAFT  BOARDS* 


f^^%5^0  group  of  men  rendered  a  more  arduous,  patriotic  service 
in  Philadelphia  than  the  members  of  the  fifty-one  Local 
and  two  District  Draft  Boards  and  those  who  cooperated 
with  the  Boards  in  the  capacity  of  Legal  and  Medical 
Advisers.  It  is  unfortunate  that  no  resume  has  been  made 
of  their  activities,  and  the  following  summary  is  too  frag- 
mentary to  do  them  justice.  However,  they  have  the 
personal  conviction  that,  called  upon  to  aid  in  enrolling 
the  young  manhood  of  the  City  for  the  Army  and  Navy, 
they  served  disinterestedly  and  with  signal  success. 
The  Selective  Service  Law  was  enacted  by  Congress  on  May  18,  1917,  and 

June  5,  1917,  was  fixed  by  the  President  as  the  day  on  which  aU  males,  between 

the  ages  of  twenty-one  and  thirty  years,  inclusive,  were  required  to  register. 

Within  that  short  period  of  time,  a  great  administrative  machine  was  set  up. 

Following  the  initial  registration  many  other  problems  were  met  and  overcome,  and 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W.    Buliler.    Stanley   Co.    of    America. 

Fathers  and  Sons  checking  up  the  draft  numbers. 


*Suniinarized  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Philadelphia  War  History  Committee  from  the  records 
of  Major  William  G.  Murdock  and  the  reports  of  the  Provost  Marshal-General. 

126 


Courtesy   of  Frank   W,    Tluhler.    Stanley   Co.    of   America. 

Drafted  Men  esrnrtefl  hy  hand. 

'  'on  July  30, 1917,  the  Army  assimilated  the  first  man  selected  under  the  operations 
of  the  Act,  and  by  September  1,  1917,  the  date  by  which  the  Act  had  originally 
been  called  upon  to  produce  the  first  30  per  cent  of  the  initial  Draft,  the  Selective  Ser- 
vice System  stood  ready  to  dehver  to  thenationalCantonments  180, OOOselectedmen." 

All  work  in  connection  with  the  various  Drafts  was  done  under  the  direction  of 
Major  General  Enoch  H.  Crowder.  the  Provost  Marshal-General. 

Major  William  G.  Murdock,  U.  S.  A.,  was  appointed  the  Draft  Executive  and 
Disbursing  Officer  for  Pennsylvania.  Upon  the  recommendation  of  Mayor  Smith, 
the  members  of  the  Registration  (later  Draft)  Boards,  and  of  the  Legal  and  Medical 
Advisory  Boards,  were  appointed  by  Governor  Brumbaugh.  Major  Frank  C. 
Hammond,  M.  C,  was  appointed  as  Medical  Aide  in  the  late  summer  of  1918. 

The  area  assigned  to  the  Boards  followed,  generally,  the  Ward  lines  and,  as 
far  as  possible,  the  Election  officials  assisted  in  the  registrations.  Each  Local 
Board  had  a  Legal  Advisory  Board  and,  in  Philadelphia,  there  were  fifteen  Medical 
Advisory  Boards.  Local  Boards  had  original  jurisdiction  in  all  claims,  except 
Industrial  and  Agricultural,  in  which  the  District  Boards  had  original  jurisdiction. 
Members  of  the  Local  Draft  Boards  were  paid  $4.00  per  day,  under  the  First  Draft 
regulations.  When  the  "Questionnaire  System "  was  adopted,  and  until  September 
1,  1918,  they  were  paid  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  "Questionnaires"  filled  out. 
Finally,  they  were  allowed  a  dollar  an  hour  with  a  maximum  fee  of  lendollarsperday. 

The  first  registration  day  was  June  5,  1917,  for  all  males  within  the  ages  of 
twenty-one  and  thirty  years,  inclusive. 

The  second  registration  day  was  exactly  one  year  later,  June  5,  1918.  At  this 
time  all  males  who  since  June  5,  1917,  had  become  twenty-one  years  of  age  were 
required  to  register. 

127 


The  third  registration  day  was  on  August  24,  1918,  and  was  similar  in  purpose 
to  the  second  registration  day. 

The  fourth  and  final  registration  day  was  on  September  12,  1918.  All  males 
between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five  years,  inclusive,  who  had  not  previously 
registered,  were  enrolled  by  the  Draft  Boards. 

The  following  table  gives  the  total  number  of  actual  registrants  and  the  total 
number  of  inductions  in  Philadelphia: 

Number 


of  Actual 

Number 

Number 

Registrants, 

of  Actual 

of  .\ctual 

June  5th 

Registrants, 

Total  Number 

Total  Number 

Local 

Registrants, 

and  August 

September 

of  Actual 

of 

Boards 

June  5,  1917 

21,  1918 

12,  1918 

Registrants 
11,518 

Inductions 

1 

5,077 

446 

5,995 

1,668 

2 

4,438 

358 

5,324 

10,120 

1,868 

3 

2,873 

233 

3,475 

6,581 

684 

4 

5,006 

436 

/      Combined 
\     with  No.  6 

}              5,442 

1,153 

5 

3,267 

223 

4,609 

8,099 

774 

6 

5,161 

462 

14,852 

20,475 

2,017 

7 

3,219 

250 

5,230 

8,699 

1,120 

8 

4,961 

372 

7,328 

12,661 

1,298 

9 

4,680 

384 

6,277 

11,341 

1,552 

10 

3,114 

285 

4,244 

7,643 

723 

11 

2,865 

264 

3,403 

6,532 

638 

12 

4,414 

413 

6,082 

10,909 

1,377 

13 

5,228 

526 

6,936 

12,690 

1,614 

14 

3,488 

270 

4,429 

8,187 

996 

15 

1,587 

107 

2,553 

4,247 

581 

16 

2,949 

257 

3,863 

7,069 

858 

17 

2  022 

173 

3,039 

5,234 

688 

18 

3J69 

318 

4,960 

9,047 

1,176 

19 

2,743 

242 

3,830 

6,815 

902 

20 

2,699 

273 

3,815 

6,787 

763 

21 

4,740 

459 

5,969 

11,168 

1,585 

22 

6,495 

626 

8,276 

15,397 

1,951 

23 

2,167 

197 

3,027 

5,391 

548 

24 

1,908 

184 

2,681 

4,773 

671 

2.5 

2,749 

256 

3,899 

6,904 

907 

26 

2,981 

284 

3,979 

.7,244 

938 

27 

3,817 

326 

5,243 

9,386 

1,558 

28 

2,632 

265 

3,413 

6,310 

939 

29 

3,836 

386 

5,545 

9,767 

1,161 

30 

2  9'^2 

275 

4,106 

7,303 

732 

31 

3J64 

285 

4,016 

7,465 

837 

32 

2,748 

236 

4,603 

7,587 

910 

33 

3,389 

282 

4,963 

8,634 

970 

34 

2,668 

212 

3,945 

6,825 

740 

35 

5,458 

528 

7,332 

13,318 

2,106 

36 

2,019 

199 

2,853 

5,071 

684 

37 

5,399 

382 

6,756 

12,537 

1,386 

38 

2,139 

161 

2,653 

4,953 

555 

39 

3,222 

264 

3,823 

7,309 

906 

40 

4,785 

393 

5,594 

10,772 

1,615 

41 

3,323 

282 

4,981 

8,586 

845 

42 

3,115 

360 

4,982 

8,457 

791 

43 

4,433 

365 

7,183 

11,981 

142 

44 

2,931 

237 

4,071 

7,239 

787 

45 

2,364 

215 

3,155 

5,734 

777 

46 

4,307 

424 

5,979 

10,710 

1,281 

47 

4,129 

312 

4,820 

9,261 

1,080 

48 

3,162 

202 

5,018 

8,382 

863 

49 

3,125 

236 

5,457 

8.818 

683 

50 

2,792 

271 

4,087 

7.150 

973 

51 

2,606 

230 

3,191 

6,027 

756 

Totals 

179,085 

15,626 

245,844 
128 

440,555 

53,127 

DRAFT  BOARDS 

(August  1,  1918.) 
Eastern  Judicial  District 

District  Board  for  Division  No.  1 

(Local  Boards  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  22,  23.  27,  35,  39,  40,  41,  42,  48.  19,  51.) 

John  Cadwalader,  Chairman  Julius  Lamor 

Dr.  Charles  H.  Willits,  Secretary  Samuel  S.  Fels 

Sanmel  T.  Bodine  Edward  C.  Carson.  Chief  Clerk 

District  Board  for  Division  No.  2* 

(Local  Boards  9,  10.  11.  12,  13,  14,  15,  16,  17,  18.  19,  20,  21,  24,  25,  26,  28,  29,  30,  31,  32, 
33,  34,  36,  37,  38,  43,  U,  45,  46,  47,  50.) 

Waller  VVillard,  Chairman  Alexander  Lawrence,  Jr. 

James  C.  McDonald  Charles  H.  Laflerty 

Bronte  Greenwood,  Jr.,  Chief  Clerk 

LOCAL  BOARDS  AND  LEGAL  ADVISORY  BOARDS 

Division  No.  1 — James  .\.  Roberts,  Chairman;  Dr.  Morris  Cornfield,  J.  Harry  Evans,  J.  W. 
Scott,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Morris  J.  Speiser,  Chairman;  David  Phillips,  Herbert 
Salus. 

Division  No.  2— Wliitmore  C.  Chambers,  Chairman;  Henry  C.  Rohlfing,  Dr.  Michael  L. 
Levitt,  Jos.  M.  Fruchter.  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Edwin  Jaquett  Sellers,  Chairman; 
VViUiam  J.  Smyth,  John  J.  Sullivan. 

Division  No.  3 — Augustus  \V.  Murphy,  Chairman;  Dr.  John  H.  Remig,  Eugene  McCarron, 
Matthew  Rogers,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Harry  Mesirev,  Chairman;  Arthur  Hagen 
Miller,  Thomas  F.  McNichol. 

Division  No.  1— Norton  O.  Harris,  Chairman;  Albert  Niedelman,  Dr.  Samuel  F.  Levin, 
Abraham  Cohen,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Dwight  M.  Lowry.  Chairman;  Theo  J. 
Grayson,  Meyer  Sack.  (Later  aboHshed.  Local  Board  No.  6  given  jurisdiction  over  former 
registrants  and  territory.) 

Division  No.  5 — John  P.  Connors,  Chairman;  Daniel  J.  Connelly,  Dr.  Wm.  Macintosh, 
Miss  Helen  Harrigan,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  John  Weaver,  Chairman;  Thos.  A. 
Meagher,  John  P.  Connelly. 

Division  No.  6 — George  \\  .  Ijjng,  Chairman;  John  C.  Hinckley,  R.  Francis  Taylor,  Graham 
C.  Woodward,  Clinton  Rogers  Woodruff,  H.  \V.  Reilly,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board: 
Robert  Levin,  Chairman;  Thomas  Reath,  I.  Smith  Raspin. 

Division  No.  7 — William  Campbell  Posey,  Chairman;  Edwin  C.  Atkinson,  John  H.  Egan, 
Alexander  C.  Finley,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Thomas  W.  Barlow,  Chairman;  Albert 
B.  Weimer,  Stanley  Folz. 

Division  No.  8 — Edward  F.  Swift,  Chairman;  John  L.  llazelton.  Dr.  W'ilUam  S.  Hoffman, 
Harry  H.  Hornstine,  M.  D.,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  William  F.  Rorke,  Chairman; 
William  T.  Connor,  Emanuel  Furth. 

Division  No.  9 — Clarence  L.  Harper,  Chairman;  Daniel  Gimbel,  Dr.  John  Wanamaker,  3d, 
Albert  C.  Rommel,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Robert  W.  Skinner,  Jr.,  Chairman; 
WiUiam  M.  Boenning,  Alfred  M.  Mohr. 

Division  No.  10 — Rev.  A.  D.  Geist,  Chairman;  Joseph  Rosenbuth.  Legal  Advisory  Roard: 
J.  Frederick  Martin,  Chairman;  Clinton  O.  Mayer,  Samuel  Wolf. 

Division  No.  11— John  Baker  Tuttle,  Chairman;  Harry  E.  Walter,  Dr.  Robert  McCreighf, 
Barbara  Berryman,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Frederick  J.  Knauss,  Cheurman;  Chas. 
H.  Edmunds. 


*NoTE. — One  District  Board  was  later  established  in  Philadelphia,  known  as  the 
District  Board  for  the  City  of  Philadelphia.  Membership  consisted  of  members  of  former 
District  Board  No.  1. 

129 


Division  No.  12 — Thos.  B.  Harbison,  Chairman;  Harrison  Duffleld,  M.  D.,  Dr.  Robert 
Judge,  A.  W.  Dougherty,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory'  Board:  David  Lavis,  Chairman;  Isaac 
Yocum,  Isaac  Hassler. 

Division  No.  13 — Frank  Buck,  Chairman;  Philip  E.  Wright,  Dr.  Samuel  J.  Ottinger,  Howard 
P.  E.  Ruimer,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Max  Aron,  Chairman;  CUnton  A.  Sowers, 
Thomas  Fahy. 

Division  No.  14 — Dr.  John  S.  Woodruff,  Chairman;  Dr.  David  D.  Custer,  Arthur  R. 
Littlewood,  Raymond  V.  John,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  AKred  R.  Haig,  Chairman; 
Frederick  A.  Soberheimer,  Raymond  V.  John. 

Division  No.  15 — Jos.  M.  Jennings,  Chairman;  George  B.  Linnard,  Dr.  Biddle  R.  Marsden, 
Robert  E.  Hirleman,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Elles  Ames  Ballad,  Chairman;  John 
A.  Brown,  John  B.  Colahan,  3d. 

Division  No.  16 — John  J.  Courtney,  Chairman;  Dr.  John  R.  Minehart,  Robert  T.  Mitchell, 
Joseph  A.  Bowes,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Edward  Hopkinson,  Jr.,  Chairman; 
Shippen  Lewis,  Charles  Hunsicker. 

Division  No.  17 — William  Blackwood,  Chairman;  James  B.  King,  Dr.  Chas.  A.  Currie, 
Thomas  M.  Gallegher,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  R.  W.  Archbald,  Jr.,  Francis  Chap- 
man, Francis  R.  Bracken. 

Division  No.  18 — Henry  K.  Fries,  Chairman;  James  T.  Nulty,  Dr.  George  C.  Hanna,  John 
T.  Nulty,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Henry  S.  Borneman,  Chairman;  William  H. 
Peace,  R.  O.  Moon. 

Division  No.  19 — Stacy  H.  White,  Chairman;  Allen  ^L  Eberheart,  Dr.  A.  Wiese  Hammer. 
Legal  Advisory  Board:  William  B.  Linn,  Chairman;  J.  Washington  Logue,  Ernest  L.  Tustin. 

Division  No.  20 — Theodore  J.  Lewis,  Chairman;  Dr.  T.  J.  d'Apery,  Ross  E.  Williams,  W.  H. 
Norris,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Roard:  Joseph  R.  Wilson.  Chairman;  T.  Henry  Walnut, 
David  J.  Srnythe. 


1 


As  il  appeared,  July  20.1917^ 
onlhearasionofllie 

riRST 

NATIONAL: 

DPATT 


Courtesy   of   Frmik    W.    liiihler,    Stanley    Co     of    America. 

This  lioii'l  is  now  in  Independence  Hall. 

130 


Division  No.  21 — Eugene  Ziegler,  Chairman;  William  H.  Zeigler,  Joseph  M.  Smith,  Daniel 
McCormick,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Everett  K.  Schofield,  Chairman;  Horace 
Stern,  James  H.  Wolfe. 

Division  No.  22 — ^Joseph  W.  Gardiner,  Chairman;  Willard  E.  Barcus,  John  H.  Bailey,  H. 
Walford  Gardiner,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  C.  Berkeley  Taylor,  Chairman;  John 
Cadwalader,  Jr.,  Charles  S.  Wesley. 

Division  No.  23 — Francis  H.  Shields,  Chairman;  Dr.  John  D.  Ward,  Frank  W.  Sheafer, 
Max  Gordon,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  John  Stokes  Adams,  Chairman;  Francis 
H.  Bohlen,  B.  Gordon  Bromley. 

Division  No.  21 — Andrew  C.  Keeley,  Chairman;  Dr.  Deacon  Steinmetz,  Albert  D.  Kohler, 
Arthur  R.  King,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Chester  N.  Farr,  Chairman;  Layton  M. 
Schoch,  James  C.  Jones. 

Division  No.  25 — Dr.  Arthur  D.  Kurtz,  Chairman;  Dr.  Augustus  H.  Clagett,  Harry  A. 
Ade,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  W.  S.  B.  Ferguson.  Chairman;  A.  W.  Sansom,  Albert 
W.  Shields. 

Division  No.  26 — William  Abrahams,  (^.hairman;  G.  Ayres  Swayze,  Dr.  Chas.  E.  Bricker, 
George  H.  Rettner,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Max  Hertzberg,  Chairman;  John 
Dickey,  Leo.  MacFarland. 

Division  No.  27 — Lawrence  Farrell.  Chairman;  William  P.  Tinney.  Dr.  Alfred  C.  Marshall. 
Francis  A.  Cotney,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advi.sory  Board:  John  C.  Hinkley,  Chairman;  Murdoch 
Kendrick,  Charles  Sinkler. 

Division  No.  28 — H.  Watson  Barras,  Chairman;  Dr.  George  Sinnamon,  Frank  H.  Longshore, 
Chief  Clerk.    Legal  Advisory  Board:   A.  H.  Wintersteem,  Frank  M.  Riter,  Sanuiel  B.  Scott. 

Division  No.  29 — Lorenzo  Smith,  Chairman;  Dr.  James  A.  Brady,  Dr.  William  T.  Ellis, 
Paul  W.  Smith,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Frederick  J.  Geiger,  Julius  C.  Levi,  Joseph 
P.  McCullen. 

Division  No.  30— Dr.  H.  B.  Keech,  Chairman;  Dr.  J.  P.  Emich,  Edw.  H.  Weber,  L.  W. 
Keech,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Russell  Duane,  Chairman;  John  M.  Scott,  Francis 
S.  Mcllhenny. 

Division  No.  31 — John  W.  Mortimer,  Chairman;  Edwin  L.  Hoffman,  Dr.  Edw.  C.  Kottcamp, 
Edw.  C.  Kottcamp,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  C.  W.  Van  Artsdalen,  Chairman; 
Samuel  W.  Cooper,  Frederick  C.  Newbourg,  Jr. 

Division  No.  32 — W.  R.  Nicholson,  Chairman;  John  P.  Dwyer,  Dr.  Frank  B.  Hancock. 
Marie  Gibbs,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Robert  A.  Beggs,  Jr.,  Chairman;  Harold  B. 
Beitler,  C.  Oscar  Beasley. 

Division  No.  33— Chas.  E.  Gill.  Chairman;  Dr.  R.  H.  McCarty,  Jr.,  David  A.  Kerr,  Chief 
Clerk.    Legal  Advisory  Board:  Albert  P.  Gerhard,  Chairman;  Sydney  Young,  Chas.  S.  Wood. 

Division  No.  31 — Caspar  M.  Titus,  Chairman;  Richard  S.  Wilson,  Dr.  George  F.  Enoch, 
Horace  Stoy,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Thomas  Kilby  Smith,  (chairman;  Frederick 
Beyer,  Geo.  W.  Harkins,  Jr. 

Division  No.  35 — David  C.  Patcbell,  Chairman;  Dr.  A.  F.  Allman,  Thomas  McCaffrey, 
Chief  Clerk.    Legal  Advisory  Board:  Horace  Rumsey,  Chairman;  Edw.  Wells. 

Division  No.  36 — Dr.  John  A.  Bogar,  Chairman;  Richard  V.  Farley,  Dr.  Phil  Kurtz,  John 
A.  Nagle,  Jr.,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Joseph  G.  Magee,  Chairman;  David  Mandell, 
Jr.,  Ormond  Rambo. 

Division  No.  37 — Allan  Sutherland,  Chairman;  Charles  D.  Knauer,  Dr.  Robert  D.  Snively, 
Howard  Eccles,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Reynolds  D.  Brown,  Joseph  A.  Culbert, 
Andrew  R.  McCown. 

Division  No.  38 — Charles  S.  Osmond,  Chairman;  E.  C.  Delahunty,  Dr.  D.  J.  Boon,  J.  Fred 
Lieberman,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Franz  Ehrlich,  Jr.,  Chairman;  J.  Rodman 
Paul,  WiUiam  N.  Trinkle. 

Division  No.  ■i'i — John  L.  Murphy.  Chairman;  Alfred  Heymann,  Dr.  Sanmel  Gordon, 
Marie  F.  Murphy,  Chief  Clerk:  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Carroll  R.  Williams,  Chairman;  Cornelius 
Haggarty,  Jr.,  Frank  R.  Savidge. 

Division  No.  40— Samuel  J.  Buck,  Chairman;  H.  D.  Prettyman,  Dr.  Joseph  A.  Rainville, 
M.  Richardson,  Chief  Clerk.    Legal  Advisory  Board:  J.  B.  Colohan,  Chairman;  Frank  R.  Savidge. 

131 


Division  No.  41 — T.  P.  Sheneman,  Chairman;  Septimus  Hatfield.  Dr.  H.  L.  Lutz.  Sarah  W. 
North,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board;  Francis  G.  Gallagher,  Frank  \.  Harrigan,  Joseph 
W.  Kentworthy. 

Division  No.  12 — Samuel  Crothers.  Chairman;  S.  Lord  Gilberson,  Dr.  W.  Warren  Weaver, 
A.  Bulnier,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Grover  C.  Ladner,  Jr.,  Chairman;  Joseph 
Conwell,  Francis  H.  Thole. 

Division  No.  4.3 — William  H.  Margerison,  Chairman;  Frank  Tooiney,  Dr.  William  Harmer 
Good,  Edward  L.  D.  Roach,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board;  Edward  M.  Abbott.  Chairman; 
John  A.  Boyle,  Thomas  Kitchen. 

Division  No.  44 — D.  Frank  Black,  Chairman;  Alexander  D.  Robinson,  Dr.  Max  F.  Herrman, 
I.  Hinkle,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board;  Michael  J.  McEnery,  Chairman;  Bertram  D 
Rearick,  Edmund  Bayley  Seymour,  Jr. 

Division  No.  45 — Harry  A.  Fricke,  Chairman;  Chas.  ]\L  Johnson,  Dr.  H.  K.  Roessler,  John 
J.  Klang,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Robert  P.  Schick,  Chairman;  Wm.  W.  Smithers, 
Augustus  B.  Stoughton. 

Division  No.  16 — David  J.  Fowler,  Chairman;  Dr.  A.  F.  Targette.  John  J.  Bradley.  Rose- 
mary D.  Bradley,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  .\dvisory  Board;  H.  B.  Gill,  Chairman;  Howard  Lewis, 
David  Bortin. 

Division  No.  47 — John  J.  Keenan,  Chairman;  George  J.  Steinmeyer,  Dr.  Wilbert  J.  \\  olf, 
John  J.  Keenan,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Harry  Felix,  Chairman;  Wm.  Potter  Davis, 
H.  MacGregor  iNIicheson. 

Division  No.  48 — Rev.  Win.  M.  Sullivan,  Chairman;  Rev.  P.  E.  Osgood,  Dr.  \.  F.  Snively, 
Michael  L  Silver,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  .\dvisory  Board:  Forrest  N.  Magee.  Chairman:  Charles 
C.  Earickson,  Roy  M.  Boyd. 

Division  No.  49 — Rev.  M.  J.  Crane,  Chairman;  Rev.  Gearge  M.  Brudhead,  Dr.  George  A. 
Knowles,  James  F.  McCabe,  Sr.,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Arthur  S.  Arnold,  Chair- 
man; Stevens  Heckscher,  Frank  H.  Benham. 

Division  No.  50 — Edward  C.  Shinidheiser,  Chairman;  Isaac  H.  Silverman,  Dr.  Leon  F. 
Luburg,  Hubert  J.  Dever,  Chief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board;  David  N.  Fell.  Jr.,  Chairman; 
James  A.  Flaherty. 

Division  No.  51 — William  F.  Gushing,  Chairman;  John  I.  Somers,  Dr.  Winlield  H.  Boeh- 
ringer,  John  F.  Duffy,  Jr.,  Cliief  Clerk.  Legal  Advisory  Board:  Francis  M.  McAdams,  Chairman; 
Francis  J.  Maneely,  Joseph  W.  Shannon. 

MEDICAL  ADVISORY  BOARDS  OF  PHILADELPHIA 

Episcop.^l  Hospital — Doctors  H.  C.  Deaver,  A.  A.  Stevens,  C.  Y.  White,  Thomas  R. 
Neilson,  Elliston  J.  Morris,  Francis  W.  Sickler,  G.  Oram  Ring,  G.  Morris  Goldberg,  A.  B.  Gill, 
Chas.  C.  Biedert,  William  T.  \  an  Pelt,  Frederick  Krauss,  Clarence  \V.  Schaelfer,  Thomas  G. 
Aller,  Thomas  R.  Curris. 

Germantown  Hospital — Doctors  A.  D.  Whiting,  Howard  A.  Geisler,  Thomas  A.  Cope, 
Elbert  O.  Day,  Henry  N.  ThisseU,  Mahlon  R,  Raby. 

Hahnemann  Hospit.^^l — Doctors  William  B.  Van  Lennep,  Herbert  L.  Northrop,  John  A. 
Brooke,  Wilham  C.  Hunsicker,  Clarence  Bartlett,  G.  Harlan  Wells,  W.  Lawrence  Hicks,  Ralph 
Bernstein,  Samuel  W.  Sappington,  Frank  O.  Nagle,  Fred  W.  Smith,  Joseph  V.  F.  Clay,  Clarence 
V.  Clenmier. 

Jefferson  Hospital — Doctors  Frederick  J.  Kalteyer,  F.  T.  Stewart,  E.  D.  Funk,  H.  F. 
HonseU,  F.  X.  Dercum,  S.  MacCuen  Smith,  Ross  V.  Patterson,  Chevaher  Jackson,  H.  W.  Stel- 
wagon,  H.  A.  Wilson,  Joseph  Head,  H.  K.  Mohler,  Edward  J.  Klopp,  D.  L.  Despard,  Fielding 
O.  Lewis,  A.  Spencer  Kaufman.  Marion  Hearn,  Sherman  F.  Gilpin,  R.  Douglas  Scott,  W.  H. 
Kinney,  F.  R.  Widdowson,  Alfretl  Heineberg,  George  F.  Phelps,  Arthur  C.  Sender,  Maurice 
Brown,  A.  J.  Davidson,  H.  W.  Banks,  Charles  R.  Heed,  J.  Scott  Fritch,  W  illiani  P.  Hearn,  S.  Sohs 
Cohen,  Strieker  Coles,  Martin  Emil  Rehfuss,  \\  .  F.  Manges. 

Jewish  Hospital — Doctors  Bernard  Kohn,  William  H.  Teller,  Leon  Jonas,  S.  Sohs  Cohen, 
Joseph  B.  Potsdamer,  Edwin  A.  Heller,  George  P.  Katzenstein,  IVL  J.  Karpeles,  Milton  K.  Meyers, 
J.  C.  Knipe,  Aaron  Brav,  Sidney  Feldstein,  Herman  B.  Cohen,  H.  W.  Banks. 

132 


Lankenau  Hospital — Doctors  Henry  F.  I'm^i'.  John  U.  Deaver,  Stanley  lleiniann,  Allx-rt 
Ci.  Miller,  Joseph  I.  Smith,  Charles  Judson,  Rex  Hobensack,  Henry  Mercher,  Henry  Bartle, 
Bernard  Mencke,  H.  C.  Masland,  William  C.  Sharkey,  Edward  A.  Shumway,  Ellwood  Matlack. 

ISIethodist  Episcopal  Hospital — Doctors  D.  L.  Despard,  Richard  C.  Norris,  Wm.  R. 
Nicholson,  .Mfred  Hand,  Jr.,  E.  Paul  ReifF,  Jos.  M.  Enders,  H.  J.  Hartz,  Delno  E.  Kirshner.  Ed. 
V.  Clark,  C.  P.  Clark.  H.  U.  North,  Israel  Carp,  L.  J.  Hammond,  Jos.  M.  Spellissy,  J.  Hendrie 
Lloyd,  Jesse  H.  Allen,  \\  alter  Roberts,  J.  B.  Turner,  Morris  Markowitz,  Thos.  \V.  Tait,  Chas. 
S.  Hearn,  Thos.  J.  Byrne,  A.  R.  Renninger.  Wm.  N.  Watson,  O.  A.  Zimmerman,  Jos.  M.  McCarron, 
Henry  Morris. 

Orthopoedic  Hospital — Doctors  Morris  J.  Lewis,  G.  G.  Davis,  Charles  W.  Burr,  Louis  H. 
Mutschler,  E.  P.  Corson  White,  Hunter  W.  Scarlett,  Walter  E.  Rahte.  Frederick  Fraley. 

Presbyterian  Hospital — Doctors  H.   R.   Wharton,   F^rancis  Allen,   William  E.   Hughes, 

D.  McVey  Brown,  McCluney  Radcliffe,  James  Thorington,  J.  Aiman,  W.  A.  Allwood,  S.  H.  Home. 

Red  Cross  General  Hospital  No.  1  (Medico-Chirursical  Hospital  Staff) — Doctors  James 
M.  Anders,  Albert  E.  Roussel,  Arthur  C.  Morgan,  H,  Leon  Jameson.  Ernest  La  Place,  James  P. 
Mann,  E.  B.  Gleason,  L.  Webster  Fox,  George  E.  Pfahler,  Charles  S.  Potts,  T.  H.  Weisenberg, 
Robert  F.  Ridpath.  J.  Hamilton  Small,  George  H.  Meeker.  Herbert  J.  Smith,  Warren  C.  Ratroff, 
H.  M.  Christian,  W  illiam  J.  McKinley,  O.  F.  Mershon,  Wm.  M.  Menah,  F.  A.  Mantz,  H.  S. 
Snydemen. 

S.a^maritan  Hospital — Doctors  William  Egbert  Robertson,  Harry  A.  Duncan,  A.  E.  Oliensis. 
Herbert  P.  Fisher,  E.  H.  Mcllvain.  L.  C.  Peter,  G.  A.  Lawrence,  Wm.  A.  Hitschler,  Harry  Off, 
S.  D.  Ingham,  Harry  Hudson. 

St.  Agnes  Hospital — Doctors  Joseph  Walsh,  Charles  J.  Hoban,  John  A.  O'Connell,  Paul 
B.  Cassidy,  George  P.  Midler,  John  M.  Fisher,  John  A.  Rrophy,  Warren  R.  Davis,  Frederick  C. 
Narr,  Alfred  S.  Doyle,  W.  H.  .MacKinney,  W.  H.  Haines,  Benjamin  L.  Gordon,  William  J.  Ryan, 
Leon  Brinkman,  Henry  S.  \Meder,  Charles  S.  Wachs,  John  G.  Penza,  Charles  F.  Bailey,  \\'.  C. 
Posey,  Milton  K.  Meyers. 

St.  Mary's  Hospital — Doctors  Ellwood  R.  Kirby,  William  A.  Hamilton,  \\  illiam  T.  Demp- 
sey,  Louis  Love,  William  P.  Grady,  Louis  J.  Burns,  WiUiam  T.  Rees,  Eugene  Lindauer. 

St.  Timothy's  Hospital — Doctors  M.  Howard  FusseU,  George  D.  Fussell,  Linton  Turner, 
Otto  Rath,  Edward  Eichman,  ^^'illiara  Devitt,  James  A.  Kelly,  A.  Hewson,  Margaret  Duff,  David 
J.  Roon,  R.  L.  Entwistle,  Lawrence  L.  Simcox,  J.  A.  Maloney,  Carl  WiUiams,  F'rederick  Fraley. 

University  of  Pennsylvania  Hospital — Doctors  H.  Maxwell  Langdon,  Edward  Martin,. 
.\lfred  Stengel,  William  G.  Spiller,  Allen  J.  Smith,  A.  C.  Wood,  Perry  Pepper,  Charles  Turner, 
B.  A.  Thomas,  Charles  P.  Grayson,  Grier  Miller,  Fred  D.  Weidman,  H.  K.  Pancoast. 

GOVERNMENT  APPEAL  AGENTS  IN  PHILADELPHIA 

Harry  B.  Gondolfo,  Samuel  P.  Cohen,  Francis  Lytleton  Maguire,  Frederick  Forced,  Robert 

E.  Hagan,  Charles  K.  Bartlett,  James  C.  Corry,  W  illiam  T.  Connor,  J.  Joseph  Stratton,  Lewis 
A.  Feldman,  Francis  V.  Godfrey,  Agnew  MacRride,  Roy  M.  Livingstone,  W  illis  B.  Heidinger, 
Paul  Reilly,  James  F.  Friel,  Rayard  Henry,  Robert  T.  Conson,  H.  S.  J.  Sickle,  Lawrence  C.  Hick- 
man, Joseph  .Smith,  Frank  R.  Stockley,  James  M.  Dohan,  Harry  S.  Platowsky,  W.  R.  S.  Ferguson, 
Frederick  G.  Dussoulas,  Robert  B.  Fletcher,  Samson  McDowell,  P.  H.  Lynch,  Vivian  F^rank 
Gable,  E.  P.  Gallagher,  Joseph  P.  McCullen,  Edward  Harshaw,  Herbert  U.  Porter,  John  Baxter, 
Samuel  J.  Ephraim,  Horace  H.  Dawson,  John  Lamon,  Sanuiel  Kratzok,  D.  J.  Callaghan,  Jacob 
Mathay,  Francis  H.  Thole,  Edwin  M.  Abbott,  John  W.  De  F>ehn,  Thos.  Bluett,  J.  Fred  Jenkinson, 
Harry  C.  Most,  Arthur  S.  .\rn(ild,  W  alter  N.  Keating,  Charles  Edwin  F'ox,  Harry  M.  Berkowitz. 


1,'!3 


PHILADELPHIA  AND  THE  79th  DIVISION 

Prepared  under  the  Direction  of  Colonel  J.  Frank  Barber, 
ChairiiiaiL   Historical   Connnittee.    T'JtIi    Division   Association 


PHE  largest  group  of  Phila(lf'l[)hia  mon  inducted  into  the 
National  Army  through  Selective  Service  formed  the  major 
part  of  the  79th  Division  and  served  with  that  organization 
during  the  World  War.  Originally  the  personnel  of  the 
79th  was  to  have  been  drawn  in  entirety  from  the  thirty- 
seven  eastern  counties  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  State  of 
Maryland  and  the  District  of  Columbia.  While  this  plan 
had  to  be  abandoned,  large  drafts  of  the  original  Pennsyl- 
vanians  being  forwarded  to  other  divisions  after  some 
months  training  with  the  79th,  there  yet  remained  a  sub- 
stantial Pennsylvania  and  Maryland  majority  in  each  divisional  unit.  The  bal- 
ance consisted  of  Selective  Service  men  from  New  York,  Rhode  Island,  Connecticut, 
West  Virginia,  District  of  Columbia  and  Ohio.  In  the  beginning  there 
had  been  an  efl'ort  to  organize  battalions  and  regiments  along  geographical  lines, 
with  the  result  that  Philadelphians  were  assembled  in  certain  groups.  The  ratio 
of  depletion  in  these  groups  was  the  same  as  in  all  others,  so  that  "all  Philadel- 
phia" units  ceased  to  exist  but  a  Philadelphia  majority  remained. 

The  officer  personnel,  on  the  other  hand,  underwent  slight  changes  and,  having 
been  chiefly  drawn  from  Pennsylvania  (Reserve  Officers  from  the  First  Officers' 
Training  Camp  at  Fort  Niagara),  remained  thus  throughout.  Philadelphia  was 
very  largely  represented  among  the  officers,  whether  it  was  a  unit  of  Pennsyl- 
vanians  or  of  Marylanders. 

Thus,  with  Philadelphians  in  all  units,  an  account  of  this  city's  men  in  the 
Division  can  be  presented  properly  only  through  a  summarized  history  of  the  Divi- 
sion in  its  entirety.  Such  then  is  the  purpose  of  this  chapter  and  if  emphasis  is 
laid  upon  Philadelphians,  it  must  be  remembered  that  this  volume  is  primarily 
for  Philadelphia  readers. 

Camp  Meade  to  Embarkation 

The  79th  Division  was  one  of  the  sixteen  National  Army  divisions  author- 
ized under  the  Act  of  May  18,  1917,  but  the  establishment  of  a  cantonment  con- 
sumed so  much  time  that  it  was  not  until  late  August,  of  the  same  year,  that  actual 
creation  began. 

It  was  a  long  cry  indeed  from  June  5th — National  Registration  Day — to  late 
August,  when  the  local  Draft  Boards  were  ready  with  the  first  "calls"  for  the  new 
National  Army,  but  if  the  personnel  was  to  be  slow  of  assembling,  the  preliminary 
measures  were  not  neglected.  The  First  Officers"  Training  Camp  at  Fort  Niagara 
was  preparing  more  than  1,100  candidates  for  commissions;  barracks,  mess 
halls,  etc.,  were  springing  up  like  mushrooms  at  Admiral,  Md.,  the  site  selected 
and  designated  as  Camp  Meade — named  for  that  gallant  Pennsylvanian  who 
turned  back  the  Southern  host  at  Gettysburg. 

134 


Courtesy   of  Frank   \V.    Buhler,    Sianles   Co.    oi   America 


On  the  way  lo  Camp. 


Major  General  (then  Biigadiei  General)  Joseph  E.  Kiihn  airivcd  al  (^anip 
Meade  as  Division  Commander  on  August  25th.  Four  days  later  came  1,100  gradu- 
ates of  Fort  \iagara,  commissioned  as  lieutenants,  captains  and  majors  after 
thi-ee  months  of  intensive  training.  On  August  29th  also  600  men  from  the  Regu- 
lar Army  were  assigned  as  drill-masters  and  "non-coms"  and  the  reguleir  officers  to 
command  the  various  regiments  arrived.  By  mid-September  the  skeleton  frame- 
work of  the  Division  was  ready  for  the  enlisted  personnel.  Construction  on  the 
cantonment  was  being  pushed  rapidly,  in  the  effort  to  complete  its  housing 
capacity  for  10.000  men  as  fast  as  they  should  arrive  from  the  different  Draft 
Boards. 

The  first  Draft  Contingent  arrived  on  September  19th,  and  the  concentration 
of  Selective  Service  men  upon  the  camp  cuntinued  for  eleven  days,  during  which 
time  the  local  Draft  Boards  of  Philadelphia  alone  sent  45  per  cent  of  tlie  first 
draft  call  of  14,245  men.  The  first  Draft  Contingent  to  reach  the  camp  on 
September  19th.  and  which  was  greeted  personally  by  General  Kulm.  consisted 
of  369  men  from  three  \^  est  Philadelphia  local  boai'ds. 

Philadelphia  completed  sending  the  first  call  of  14,245  men  on  February  27, 
1918.  the  departure  having  been  divided  as  follows:  45  per  cent  by  September  23d. 
5  per  cent  by  October  6th,  35  per  cent  by  November  4th,  and  15  per  cent  by 
February  27th. 

Following  the  plan  to  orgam'ze  along  geographical  lines,  the  bulk  of  the  Phila- 

133 


Courtesy  of  Frank   W,    Buhler,    Stanley   Co,    of    America. 

Suiitli  Phihidclpliia  Speeds  ils  Dm  (led  Men, 


Courtesy  of  Prank  W.    Eiihler.    Stanley    Co.    of    America. 

After  the  cheers  had  ceased. 
136 


(Vuirti'sy   of   Fia 


lU    \\'.    lluhler.    Stanley    Co.    of    Anierka. 

Inxpccliiijt  of  Dniflcd  Men. 


delphians  were  assigned  to  the  312th  Artillery  and  the  315th  Infantry.  This 
latter  unit  from  then  un  became  known  as  "Philadelphia's  Own."  Many  from 
this  city  also  went  to  the  3I4th  Infantry,  the  301th  Engineers,  the  30  Ith  Trench 
Mortar  Battery,  and  the  312th  Field  Artillery.  Others  were  scattered  through 
practically  all  organizations.  The  accompanying  table  shows  the  j)redominating 
personnel  along  geographical  lines: 

Unit  From 

79th  Headquarters  Troop Area  at  large 

3 1 0th  Machine  (inn  Battalion tiastern  Pennsylvania 

313th  Infantry Baltimore  and  vicinity 

31 1th  Infantry PennsyKania  anthracite  re(;ion 

31  Ith  Machine  Gun  Battalion Eastern  Pennsylvania 

313th  Infantry Philadelphia 

316th  Infantry Rural  Eastern  Pennsyhania 

312th  Madiine  Gun  Battalion District  of  Columbia 

301th  Engineers Phila<lelphia  and  Central  Pennsylvania 

310th  Artillery Eastern  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland 

311th  Artillery Pennsylvania  anthracite  region 

312th  Artillery Philadelphia 

301th  Train  Headquarters Eastern  Pennsylvania 

30  Ith  Supply  Train Maryland  and  Eastern  Pennsylvania 

30 Uh  Sanitary  Train Eastern  Pennsylvania 

301th  Ammunition  Train Maryland  and  Eastern  Pennsyhania 

304th  Field  Signal  Battalion Area  at  large 

30  Ith  Trench  Mortar  Battery Philadelpliia  and  vicinity 

79th  Mihtary  Police Eastern  Pennsylvania 

The  total  personnel  of  the  Division  in  October,  1917,  had  reached  about  20,000 
men,  but  instead  of  the  remaining  7,000  being  assigned,  the  War  Department  began 

137 


the  first  of  a  long  series  of  drafts  whicli  took  from  tlie  Division  some  of  its  best  men. 
Between  Octol:)er,  1917,  and  June,  1018,  these  drafts  pared  down  tlie  divisional 
strength  to  12,000  men,  despite  the  fact  that  thousands  were  coming  in  monthly. 
In  fact,  in  that  period  some  80,000  men  were  trained  at  Camp  Meade  and  75  per 
cent  of  them  transferred  elsewhere.  From  Philadelphia  a  second  Draft  Contingent 
for  Meade  began  to  arrive  on  April  2,  1918,  and  on  April  27th  began  a  five-day 
movement  of  several  thousand  men.  On  May  26th,  1,200  men  were  sent  to  the 
camp  from  this  city,  and  these  formed  part  of  the  final  assignment  which  brought 
so  many  from  other  states  to  the  Division. 

Thj£  long  training  period  at  Camp  Meade  was  featured  by  one  big  event  when, 
on  April  6,  1918,  the  first  anniversary  of  America's  entry  into  the  war,  the  Division 
hiked  to  Baltimore  and  held  a  grand  review  in  that  city  before  President  Wilson. 
The  showing  of  the  Division  was  remarkable,  especially  in  view  of  the  fact  that 
many  of  the  men  had  quit  civiUan  fife  not  more  than  a  month  before. 

Within  three  months  after  the  review  at  Baltimore  the  Division  was  considered 
ready  for  overseas.  The  great  July  movement  of  troops  was  under  way,  a  move- 
ment which  eclipsed  all  world  records  in  transportation  overseas,  and  the  79th  was 
dispatched  as  one  of  the  first  to  start  for  France  in  that  period.  On  June  30th, 
General  Kuhn  and  his  staff  sailed  from  New  York  on  the  U.  S.  S.  Calamares. 
On  July  6th  the  various  organizations  began  to  leave  Camp  Meade  by  troop  train. 
On  July  8th  the  Leviathan  (formerly  the  Hamburg-American  liner  Vaterland) 
sailed  from  Hoboken  with  the  Division  Headquarters,  Headquarters  Troop,  310th 
Machine  Gun  Battalion,  157th  Infantry  Brigade  complete  (313th  and  314th 
Infantry  and  311th  Machine  Gun  Battalion),  and  the  301th  Field  Signal  Battalion 
—-more  than  12,000  men.  The  balance  of  the  Division — artillery  brigade  excepted 
— sailed  in  a  convoy  of  five  transports  on  July  9th.  These  vessels,  the  Agamemnon, 
America,  La  France,  Ml.  Vernon  and  Orizaba,  carried  the  158  th  Infantry  Brigade 
complete  (315th  and  316th  Infantry,  and  312th  Machine  Gun  Battalion),  the  304th 
Engineers,  and  the  Supply,  Sanitary  and  Divisional  trains.  The  154th  Artillery 
Brigade  and  the  Anununition  Train  sailed  from  Philadelphia  on  July  14th,  the 
transports  CcU^rying  them  being  the  Haverford,  North  Land,  Saxonia,  Mesaba, 
Nevasa  and  Morvada. 

Training  in  France 

On  July  15th,  the  day  that  Ludendorff  launched  the  fifth  and  final  German 
offensive  on  the  Bheims-Chateau-Thierry  front,  the  Leviathan  steamed  into  Brest 
with  the  first  12,000  men  of  the  Division.  On  Jul>  18th,  the  first  day  of  Foch's 
Franco-American  counter-offensive  between  Soissons  and  Chateau-Thierry,  the 
second  convoy  of  transports  with  the  balance  of  the  infantry  and  divisional  troops 
reached  the  same  port.  On  the  last  day  of  the  month,  the  artillery  brigade  landed 
in  England,  and  on  August  6th  the  310th  and  311th  regiments  crossed  the  Channel 
to  Cherbourg  and  the  312tb  to  Le  Havre.     The  entire  Division  was  in  France. 

The  154th  Artillery  Brigade  did  not  join  the  balance  of  the  Division.  Imme- 
diately after  its  arrival  in  France  it  was  sent  to  the  artiUery  training  area  in  the 
vicinity  of  Montmorrillon.  The  brigade  trained  hard  through  August,  Septem- 
ber, and  part  of  October,  being  ready  to  go  into  the  Une  on  October  16th.  But  it  was 
not  to  be.  Just  as  lack  of  equipment  had  compelled  it  to  train  with  wooden 
dummy  guns  at  Camp  Meade,  so  lack  of  equipment  kept  it  impotent  in  its  training 

138 


area  until  after  the  armistice.  It  was  a  terrible  disappointment  to  the  gallant 
artillerymen.  Thr()Ufi:h  no  fault  (if  their  own  they  were  barred  from  firing  a  single 
gun  at  the  enemy,  and  nothing  which  can  be  said  in  compliment  can  assuage  the 
bitterness  which  swept  over  officers  and  men  when  thus  deprived  of  what  had  been 
their  goal  and  ambition  through  months  of  training. 

The  balance  of  the  Division,  upon  arrival  at  Brest,  had  been  assigned  to  the 
Twelfth  Training  Area  around  Chatillon-sur-Seine.  Only  the  157th  Infantry 
Brigade  had  reached  the  s[)ot,  however,  when  the  order  was  countermanded  and 
the  Division  ordered  to  the  Tenth  Training  Area  in  the  vicinity  of  Prauthoy  and 
Champlitte.  The  last  unit  of  the  Division  (the  artillery  brigade  is  excluded  here- 
after in  referring  to  the  Division)  reached  Prauthoy  on  July  29th. 

August  and  the  first  week  of  September  was  a  hectic  period  of  intensive  train- 
ing. A  French  Mission  was  assigned  to  the  Division,  and  officers  and  men  learned 
more  about  war  and  its  methods  than  they  had  in  a  much  longer  time  at  Camp 
Meade.  Combat  lessons  were  the  chief  items  on  a  crowded  curriculum,  and  officers 
and  men  absorbed  everything  with  avidity.  While  in  this  area  the  influenza 
epidemic  made  its  appearance  and  many  men,  suffering  from  the  disease,  had  to 
be  evacuated. 

On  September  7th  the  Division  was  ordered  to  entrain  the  following  day  for 
the  Robert  Espagne  Area,  east  of  Bar-le-Duc,  and  to  report  to  the  2d  French  Army 
for  tactical  control  and  administration.  F'or  three  days,  mostly  through  rain  and 
nmd,  the  Division,  alternating  with  rail  and  truck  train,  moved  upon  its  new  area, 
and  on  September  12th  was  ordered  to  take  over  the  Avocourt-Malancourt  Sector 
(known  as  Sector  304j,  which  lay  due  south  of  Montfaucon.  The  rehef  was 
completed  during  the  night  of  September  15-16th,  the  157th  Brigade  taking  over 
the  left  brigade  sector  and  the  158th  Brigade  the  right  brigade  sector.  The  front 
at  that  time  was  about  six  and  one-half  kilometers  in  width  and  extended  from 
one  kilometer  west  of  Avocourt  to  a  point  500  meters  southeast  of  Haucourt. 

The  first  encounters  with  the  enemy  occurred  during  the  period  between 
September  16th  and  22d.  Both  were  trench  raids  undertaken  by  the  (iermans  and 
repulsed  by  elements  of  the  31.3th  Infantry.  The  first  was  a  minor  affair,  which 
cost  the  Germans  the  life  of  a  young  guard  officer  whose  body  was  found  in  front 
of  the  trenches  the  following  morning.  The  second  raid  was  undertaken  by  picked 
■■  Sturm"  troops,  and  fofiowed  a  severe  artillery  bombardment  and  a  box  barrage. 
It  was  the  first  real  trial  for  the  Americans  and  the  men  held  splendidly,  inflicting 
severe  losses  upon  the  enemy,  although  losing  three  men  killed,  nine  wounded 
and  one  taken  prisoner. 

FVom  September  22d  to  the  night  of  September  25th  the  stage  was  set  for  the 
first  great  American  offensive,  afterwards  to  go  down  int(j  history  as  the  first  phase 
of  the  Meuse-Argonne  battle.  The  original  six  and  one-half  kilometer  front  of 
the  79th  was  contracted  to  two  and  one-half  kilometers.  The  whole  American 
front  for  the  first  great  offensive  is  familiar  to  all.  It  covered  forty  kilometers 
(twenty-five  miles),  extending  from  the  western  boundary  of  the  Argonne  Forest 
on  the  left  to  the  Meuse  River  on  the  right,  with  the  line  in  between  held  by  nine 
divisions.  The  1st  Corps,  with  the  77th,  28th  and  35th  divisions  in  line  from  left 
to  right,  was  stationed  on  the  western  flank;  the  3d  Corps,  with  the  Ith,  80th  and 
33d  divisions  from  left  to  right  on  the  eastern  flank,  and  the  5th  Corps  in  the 
center.     The  79th  Division  was  the  easternmost  of  the  three  divisions  of  the  5th 

139 


MV^^'^fc 


I'liuitesy  of  the   Evening  Rulletin. 


79II1  Dii'isiun  Men  Dockinij  at  Philadelphia. 


Corps.  It  held  liaison  with  the  llh  Division  of  the  3d  Corps  on  the  right  and 
with  the  37th  Division  of  the  5th  Corps  on  the  left.  Beyond  the  37th,  on  the 
west  lay  the  91st  Division,  the  left  of  which  reached  the  line  of  the  1st  Corps. 

On  the  night  of  September  25th,  the  79th  began  preparations  for  the  ofTensive. 
The  157th  Brigade,  commanded  by  Brigadier  General  William  J.  Nicholson,  and 
consisting  of  the  313th  Infantry  (Colonel  Claude  B.  Sweezy)  and  the  31Jth  Infan- 
try (Colonel  William  M.  Oury),  had  taken  over  the  front  line,  with  the  158th 
Brigade  in  support.  The  158th  Brigade  consisted  of  the  315th  Infantry  (Colonel 
Alden  C.  Knowles),  and  the  316th  Infantry  (Colonel  Oscar  J.  Charles).  The 
Division  was  formed  for  an  attack  on  a  brigade  front,  the  313th  on  the  left  and  the 
314th  on  the  right.  Behind  the  313th  lay  the  316th,  and  hohiiid  the  3Hth  the 
315th.  Each  regiment  was  prepared  to  attack  with  two  liattalions.  holding  one 
battalion  in  brigade  reserve.  The  lessons  at  Meade  and  Prauthoy  were  about  to 
be  demonstrated  in  cold  reality. 


The  Meuse-Argonne  via  Montfaucon 

The  opening  blast  of  the  Franco-American  artillery  on  the  morning  of  Sep- 
tember 26th  heralded  a  bombardment  never  before  equalled  in  warfare.  Some 
3,000  guns  of  every  caliber  spoke  incessantly  on  that  forty -kilometer  front,  thun- 
dering away  minute  after  minute,  hour  after  hour,  upon  the  fust,  second  and  third 
positions  of  the  enemy  until,  at  5  o'clock,  a  thick  smoke  screen  was  rolled 
forward  from  the  American  front,  followed  by  a  box  barrage  of  75's,  under  whose 

140 


arcing  fire  at  5:30  o'clock  (H  hour)  the  First  American  Arm;y  "went  over  the 
top,"  a  bkirred  glimpse  of  drab  in  the  haze  of  early  dawn. 

The  day's  objective  for  the  79th  Division  was  Montfaucon,  a  towering  peak 
nearly  six  kilometers  within  the  German  line,  but  the  American  high  command 
had  set  a  schedule  beyond  human  possibihties,  as  subsequent  events  showed. 
The  American  plan  for  the  whole  offensive  was  for  the  line  to  go  forward  to  the 
first  objectives  and  then  keep  on,  breaking  the  Kriemhilde  Stellung  line  and 
routing  the  enemy  before  it  could  recover  from  the  shock.  Montfaucon,  how- 
ever, proved  the  stumbling  block  in  this  plan.  It  had  been  held  by  the  Germans 
since  191 1,  and  had  been  rendered  almost  impregnable  by  long  series  of  concrete 
emplacements,  barbed  wire  entanglements,  and  every  other  defensive  measure 
which  the  ingenuity  of  the  Boche  could  conceive.  Added  to  this,  it  was  com- 
manded by  an  enfilading  fire  from  the  heights  east  of  the  Meuse,  and  the  whole 
country  approaching  it  was  infested  by  machine  gun  nests  and  snipers. 

The  79th  made  a  desperate  effort  that  day  to  reach  the  giant  hill.  That 
the  attempt  was  a  failure  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  Army  Stall  had  planned 
something  beyond  the  possibility  of  human  accomplishment  in  the  short  space  of 
time  allotted. 

Getting  away  at  5:.''.0  o'clock,  the  .ILlth  and  ."51 1th  Infantry  met  their  first 
setbacks  when  they  reached  the  barbed  wire  entanglement  in  front  of  the  deserted 
German  front  line  trenches  and  found  that  the  wire-cutters  had  partially  failed 
to  clear  the  path.  For  twenty-five  minutes  the  advance  was  held  up  until  the  wire 
was  snipped  away.  Striking  forward  again,  the  31,3th,  on  the  left,  immediately 
ran  into  the  Bois  de  Malancourt,  where  it  met  its  first  serious  resistance.  Yard 
after  yard  was  gained  but  with  severe  losses.  Every  tree  seemed  to  harbor  a  sniper, 
every  clump  of  bushes  a  machine  gun  nest.  Occasionally  there  were  open  spaces, 
but  these  were  swept  by  enfilading  fire  and  proved  veritable  death  traps. 

Casualties  among  officers  and  men  ran  high.  By  the  time  the  regiment  had 
gained  the  western  end  of  the  Bois  de  Cuisy,  where  it  was  necessary  to  halt  and  re- 
form, the  losses  had  reached  serious  proportions.  Major  Benjamin  Franklin 
Pepper,  of  the  2d  Battalion,  was  killed  by  a  sniper's  bullet.  Major  Langley,  of  the 
3d  Battalion,  was  seriously  wounded.  Officers  and  men  of  the  shock  companies  in 
the  advance  were  dropping  everywhere.  It  was  in  this  first  stage  that  Captain  Harry 
IngersoU  of  H  Company;  Lieutenant  F.  Stuart  Patterson,  Battalion  Adjutant;  and 
Lieutenant  Thomas  D.  Vandiver,  of  B  Company,  were  killed  outright  or  mortally 
wounded. 

In  the  meanwhile,  on  the  right,  the  31 1th  had  swept  forward  after  the  barbed 
wire  was  cut  and  met  little  resistance  in  the  first  rush,  engulfing  the  ruined  hamlet 
of  Harcourt  and  finally  emerging  upon  another  ruined  town,  Malancourt,  lying  well 
within  the  original  enemy  territory.  Terrific  enfilading  fire  swept  this  open  area. 
Despite  the  resistance,  the  31 1th  kept  advancing,  its  progress  slowing  up  consider- 
ably, however.  Supreme  acts  of  heroism  developed  on  all  sides  as  the  squads 
rushed  or  surrounded  machine  gun  nests.  The  deaths  of  Sergeant  Michael  C. 
^'entura  and  Sergeant  Peter  Strucel,  and  the  achievements  of  Sergeant  Grant  U. 
Cole,  Sergeant  Joseph  Cabla,  Corporal  James  A.  Larson,  and  Private  Clifford  M. 
Seiders,  are  incidents  of  the  manner  in  which  the  stalking  was  done.  Late  after- 
noon at  last  found  the  311th  abreast  of  the  position  of  the  313th  Infantry,  with 
Montfaucon  in  plain  view  beyond. 

141 


Evflling  Bullettii. 


Three  Cheers  for  Ihe  U.  S.  A. 


The  158th  Brigade,  coming  up  in  support,  was  undergoing  heavy  punishment 
from  shell  fire,  and  its  advance  units  were  constantly  engaged  in  mopping  up  the 
snipers  and  machine  gunners  whom  the  first  waves  had  overlooked.  In  fact,  the 
concealed  Boche  was  even  at  times  enabled  to  escape  detection  by  the  supporting 
troops,  as  in  the  instance  of  Captain  Albert  C.  Rubel,  of  the  304th  Engineers,  who 
ran  into  a  Boche  machine  gun  on  the  road  to  Montfaucon.  a  kilometer  or  so  behind 
the  advance,  and  won  the  D.  S.  C.  by  the  way  in  which  he  silenced  it.  Shell  fire 
and  snipers  cost  the  315th  three  officers  and  the  316th  one,  in  the  course  of  the  day — 
those  killed  being  Lieutenant  William  P.  Craig,  of  the  Medical  Detachment; 
Lieutenant  Raymond  A.  Turn.  Company  I;  and  Lieutenant  Floyd  S.  Strosnider, 
Company  L.  all  of  the  315th,  and  Lieutenant  John  Harold  Fox,  Company  D,  316th. 

Up  forward  the  resistance  in  front  of  the  313th  in  the  Bois  de  Cuisy  was  growing 
heavier  with  every  passing  minute,  and  the  result  was  that  by  dusk  the  157th  Bri- 
gade was  in  front  of  Montfaucon,  but  some  distance  behind  the  Division  on  both  the 
right  and  left,  which  had  not  met  with  such  desperate  resistance.  Orders  came  to 
the  brigade  to  make  one  last  effort  to  take  Montfaucon  that  day.  The  infantry 
had  already  outdistanced  the  heavy  guns  and  the  crowded  conditions  of  the  single 
highway — the  Avocourt-Malancourt  road — made  it  impossible  to  bring  up  ailil- 
lery.  That  meant  an  attack  would  have  to  be  made  without  a  covering  barrage. 
In  the  gathering  darkness  the  313th  attacked,  aided  by  two  small  French  whippet 

142 


tanks  which  had  somehow  gotten  through.  The  shock  companies  in  the  lead  had 
gotten  about  200  yards  from  the  edge  of  the  wood,  and  up  the  slope  leading  to 
Monlfaucon,  when  they  were  deluged  with  machine  gun  and  artillery  fire  and  hand 
grenades.  The  men  could  not  see  the  machine  gun  positions  nor  make  any  effec- 
tive return  fire.  Their  leader,  Major  Israel  Putnam,  was  instantly  killed.  In 
the  words  of  the  Divisional  report  of  operations,  "After  suffering  heavy  casualties 
for  some  time  in  this  attempt,  withdrawal  was  ordered  to  the  edge  of  the  woods, 
at  which  point  the  regiment  bivouacked  for  the  night. " 

The  311th  and  312th  Machine  Gun  Battalions  had  managed  to  work  in  some 
effective  firing  upon  located  machine  gun  nests  but  only  in  isolated  instances,  while 
the  310th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  had  been  held  up  by  traffic  congestion.  The 
road  conditions,  in  fact,  became  seiious  from  the  very  opening  hour,  and  the  six 
companies  of  the  301th  Engineers  for  the  ensuing  five  days  were  building  and 
repairing  roads  under  continuous  shell  fire. 

On  the  morning  of  September  27th,  General  Ruhn,  dissatisfied  with  the  dis- 
position of  the  unils  of  the  1.58th  Brigade,  relieved  the  Brigade  Commander 
and  created  a  provisicjnal  brigade  of  the  311th  and  3l5th  Infantry,  under  Colonel 
Oury.  of  the  31ith.  General  Nicholson,  of  the  157th  Brigade,  thus  found  his 
coniinaiid  consisting  of  the  313th  and  316th  Infantry.  With  the  313th  and  31 1th 
reformed  during  the  night,  the  advance  was  resumed  on  the  27th,  the  latter  unit 
getting  off  at  4  a.m.  and  the  former  at  7  a.m.  Between  7  and  11  o'clock  that 
morning  the  313th  fought  a  dogged,  determined  fight  up  the  hill  toward  Mont- 
faucon.  Swept  by  machine  gun  fire  and  heavies,  the  regiment  kept  on.  Aided  by 
effective  fire  from  one  company  of  the  311th  Machine  Gun  Battalion,  the  2d  Bat- 
talion of  the  3l3th  reached  the  outskirts  of  the  town  on  the  hill  at  11  o'clock,  and  at 
11:55  completed  its  occupation.  The  historic  message,  sent  back  to  Divisional 
Headquarters  by  Colonel  Sweezy,  gave  the  news  as  follows: 

Took  town  of  MONTFAUCON  llh  55,  after  considerable  fighting  in  town.  Many  snipers 
left  behind.  Town  sheUed  to  slight  extent  after  our  occupation.  Am  moving  on  to  Corps  ob- 
jective and  hope  to  reach  it  by  16  h(4  p.m.) 

From  4  a.m.  onward  the  314th  had  been  in  deadly  fighting  on  the  right,  keep- 
ing abreast  of  the  313th's  advance  and  topping  the  rises  of  the  Fayal  Farm  at  about 
the  same  time  its  companion  imit  was  sweeping  into  Montfaucon.  Both  regiments 
suffered  heavily.  In  the  314th,  Captain  Clarence  P.  Freeman,  of  M  Company, 
and  Lieutenant  Clifford  McK.  Alexander,  of  L  Company,  were  killed,  while  the  lost 
among  the  ranks  had  been  so  heavy  as  to  interfere  with  further  successful  advance. 
Nevertheless,  both  regiments  tried  to  extend  their  operations.  The  313th  was 
heavily  shelled  from  the  Bois  de  Beuge  to  the  northwest  and  finally,  toward  even- 
ing was  compelled  to  dig  in  a  few  hundred  meters  north  of  Montfaucon;  while  the 
314th,  after  repeated  attempts  during  the  afternoon  to  take  Nantallois,  a  hamlet 
about  three  kilometers  north  of  the  town  on  the  hill,  finally  dug  in  about  a  half 
kilometer  south  of  its  objective. 

The  315th  and  316th  regiments  in  support  had  kept  close  on  the  heels  of  the 
leaders,  with  the  result  that  elements  of  the  316th  were  in  Montfaucon  within  a 
half  hour  after  it  fell.  But  conditions  farther  in  the  rear  had  grown  worse  and  worse. 
With  but  a  single  highway  for  the  evacuation  of  the  wounded,  the  bringing  up  of 
ammunition  and  supplies  and  the  advance  of  the  artillery,  it  was  inevitable  that 

143 


^ 


Courtesy  of  the  livfuiug  BulletJii. 

A  Wounded  Man  of  the  79lli  Division  beinij  carried  from  the  Transport  "  Kroonlund." 


llie  Divisional  trains  sliould  become  jammed.  Eye-witnesses,  however,  declare 
that  the  congestion  was  absolutely  indescribable.  Of  it  Brigadier  General  William 
Mitchell,  Commander  of  the  Air  Service  for  the  1st  Army,  states: 

Ahhoiif?h  there  was  some  congestion  in  oilier  placiw.  it  was  worse  in  this  area  (the  Avocourt- 
Malancourt-Montfaucon  road)  than  I  ha\  e  ever  seen  on  a  battlefield. 

The  result  was  that  the  wounded  were  retarded  for  hours  in  their  progress 
toward  the  rear  and  the  supplies  for  the  front  line  troops  simply  could  not  get 
through.  The  rations  issued  on  the  night  of  September  2oth  were  by  this  time 
exhausted,  and  to  the  fatigue  of  two  days  of  gruelling  fighting  were  added  the  dis- 
comfort of  empty  stomachs,  and  the  depression  caused  by  an  almost  incessant 
rainfall,  which  soaked  every  one  to  the  skin  and  rendered  the  ground  a  muddy 
morass. 

On  the  night  of  September  27th,  the  313tli  and  .^Uth  regiments,  which  had 
borne  the  brunt  of  the  first  two  days'  fighting,  were  relieved  and  passed  back  into 
support,  the  316th  moving  ahead  to  the  left  and  the  315th  to  the  right.  The  morn- 
ing of  the  28th  found  new  men  facing  the  Boche,  but  men  also  fatigued  and  himgry. 
Nevertheless,  the  two  regiments  started  off  at  dawn,  the  315th  on  the  east  pressing 
along  the  highway  toward  the  town  of  Nantallois,  and  the  316th  attacking  across 
open  ground  toward  the  Bois  de  Beuge,  a  cluster  of  woods  which  lay  to  the  west 
of  Nantallois. 

The  way  led  across  a  valley  which  ran  diagonally  from  northeast  to  south- 
west, and  which  was  exposed  over  a  two  kilometer  width  to  an  enfilading  fire  from 
the  heights  of  the  Meuse  far  over  to  the  right.  This  withering  fire,  aided  by  the 
myriad  machine  guns  in  front  and  Boche  machine  gunners  in  fast  planes  overhead, 
brought  the  advancing  lines  to  a  stop  within  a  few  hours.  There  was  a  pause  and 
then  another  advance.     The  blood  of  the  two  regiments  was  up.     The  315th 

144 


stormed  into  Nantallois  and  took  it  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet,  passing  through 
the  town  al)oiit  noon  and  gaining  a  hill  beyond,  where  it  dug  in  awaiting  word 
that  the  316th  was  up  abreast. 

But  the  316th,  on  the  left,  did  not  come  up  abreast.  A  terrible  tragedy  had 
occurred,  one  of  those  unforeseen  disasters  which  moulds  heroes  and  martyrs  in 
the  short  space  of  minutes.  The  316th  had  fought  its  way  effectively  through  the 
Bois  de  Beuge  and  faced  a  slight  woods  beyond.  The  3d  Battalion,  leading  the 
advance,  reached  the  edge  of  the  woods  and  ran  into  a  strong  machine  gun  position. 
Major  J.  Bayard  Atwood,  commanding  the  Battalion,  called  a  halt  until  such  time 
as  artillery  or  machine  guns  could  be  brought  up  to  reduce  the  position.  He 
received  a  curt  command  to  go  forward.  It  was  just  such  a  command  which  had 
sent  the  Jjight  Brigade  to  destruction  and  eternal  glory  at  Balaclava.  It  did  the 
same  for  L  and  M  Companies  of  the  316th  on  that  September  day  in  the  depths  of 
the  woods.  Some  one  had  blundered.  OlTicers  and  men  of  the  3d  Battalion 
paid  with  their  lives  for  the  fatal  error.  I  and  K  Companies  were  in  reserve;  L 
and  M  Companies  made  the  attack.  Two  full  companies,  well-nigh  500  men,  went 
forward  without  the  slightest  bit  of  aitillery  or  machine  gun  barrage  to  cover  them. 
With  them  went  Major  Atwood  to  his  death;  with  them  went  Lieutenant  Albert 
Clinton  Wunderlich,  of  L  Company,  to  the  same  fate — oflicers  and  men,  ,500  of  them, 
assaulting  in  echelon  with  not  a  ghost  of  a  chance,  but  refusing  to  quit  until  lioth 
companies  were  well-nigh  annihilated.  Three  times  they  drove  forward  to  wither 
away  under  the  avalanche  of  fire  until  finally  the  attempt  was  abandoned.  Says 
the  Beport  of  Operations,  "The  regiment  was  badly  disorganized  at  this  point 
after  this  advance."  It  was  humanly  impossible  for  it  to  have  been  otherwise. 
It  bivouacked  on  the  spot  and  took  account  of  casualties,  while  over  to  the  right, 
the  315th  found  two  officers,  Lieutenant  Seth  Caldwell  Hetherington  and  Lieu- 
tenant Alfred  L.  ()uintard,  and  many  men  killed.  Nightfall  found  the  positions 
unchanged. 

All  through  the  day  on  the  heights  of  Montfaucon  a  little  detail  of  men,  headed 
by  Sergeant  Thomas  M.  Rivel,  of  the  Headquarters  Detachment,  had  been  earning 
the  commendation  of  General  Kuhn  by  their  heroism  in  manning  a  periscopic 
telescope  which  had  been  captured  the  day  before.  The  Hun,  in  his  haste,  had 
failed  to  destroy  the  telescope,  which  was  incased  in  a  solid  concrete  structure, 
and  the  enemy  made  every  effort  during  the  subsequent  three  days  to  atone  for 
this  mistake.  The  telescope  was  said  to  have  been  used  by  the  CrOwn  Prince  when 
Montfaucon  was  the  official  observatory  for  the  attacks  upon  \^erdun  two  years 
before,  and  now  the  same  implement,  which  had  aided  the  German  observers,  was 
used  upon  them  by  Sergeant  Rivel  and  Privates  A.  J.  McCain  and  A.  S.  Roberts. 
This  trio  clung  to  the  concrete  building  while  it  was  being  blasted  to  fragments 
around  them,  and  their  services  were  rewarded  subsequently  by  the  D.  S.  C. 

The  morning  of  September  29th  found  the  315th  drawn  up  in  the  shelter  of  a 
low  hill  a  few  hundred  yards  north  of  Nantallois — "Suicide  Hifi" — as  it  was  called 
by  the  men,  an  apt  name  indeed,  as  it  meant  self-destruction  to  venture  over  its 
crest  into  the  raging  inferno  of  machine  gun  fire  from  the  woods  beyond.  To  their 
left  the  316th  still  held  the  position  north  of  the  Boise  de  Beuge.  The  attack  was 
resumed  at  7  a.m.  The  left  battalion  of  the  3l6th  was  only  able  to  get  about 
300  meters  north  of  the  small  woods  which  had  proven  so  disastrous  the  day 
before,  but  the  right  battalion  pushed  clear  to  the  western  edge  of  the  Bois  des 


Ogons.  The  advance  was  at  so  high  a  cost  that  by  noon  the  regiment  was  down 
to  1.000  effectives.  At  this  point  the  313th  was  called  from  support  to  the  attack, 
passing  through  the  316th,  which  in  turn  was  reorganized  as  a  battalion  and  held 
800  meters  behind  the  advancing  line.  The  313th  made  a  shght  advance  and  then 
physical  exhaustion  won.  The  men  had  expended  every  ounce  of  driving  power 
and  the  officers  realized  it.  At  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  the  Brigade  Commander 
ordered  the  313th  to  fall  back  and  maintain  a  holding  line  along  the  northern 
edge  of  the  Boise  de  Beuge,  and  this  was  effected  successfully.  However,  the  bat- 
talion of  the  316th,  passing  too  far  to  the  right,  got  ahead  of  the  313th  and  was 
through  the  Bois  des  Ogons  and  in  full  view  of  the  town  of  Romagne  by  late  after- 
noon. The  Battalion  Commander  urged  an  attack  and  asked  for  reinforcements, 
but  there  were  none  to  send  and  his  own  men  were  "done  up. "  Regretfully  he  was 
forced  to  withdraw  to  the  holding  line. 

During  the  day  the  315th,  on  the  right,  had  been  engaged  in  continuous  and 
deadly  fighting.  Before  it  lay  the  Bois  des  Ogons,  held  by  the  enemy  in  force. 
The  Divisional  Artillery  had  succeeded  in  getting  close  enough  to  shell  the  woods, 
driving  out  the  machine  gunners  and,  with  this  effected,  the  31.5tli  advanced  and 
obtained  a  temporary  hold  in  the  fastness.  But  not  for  long.  From  the  Madeleine 
Farm,  a  strong  point  in  the  woods,  and  from  the  Boche  artillery  farther  north, 
poured  such  a  fire  as  to  make  the  spot  untenable.  Finally,  after  a  number  of 
desperate  efforts,  the  315th  was  withdrawn  and  dug  in  on  the  reverse  slope  of 
"Suicide  Hill." 

The  toll  in  officers  and  men  among  all  four  regiments  had  been  more  severe 
than  on  any  other  day.  In  the  31 3th.  Lieutenant  Charles  G.  Reilly,  of  D  Company, 
was  killed;  Lieutenant  William  P.  McCoohan,  of  A  Company,  mortally  wounded; 
Captain  David  Rupp,  of  C  Company,  killed;  Lieutenant  David  M.  Rupp,  of  G 
Company,  killed:  and  Lieutenant  William  J.  Walters,  of  A  Company,  killed.  In 
the  314th,  Lieutenant  Ballard  C:.  Linch,  of  the  Sanitary  Detachment,  had  been 
killed.  In  the  315th,  the  killed  or  mortally  wounded  were  Lieutenant  George  N. 
Althouse,  of  H  Company:  Lieutenant  Benjamin  Bullock,  3d  Battalion  Adjutant: 
Lieutenant  James  F.  Delaney;  Captain  Joseph  Gray  Duncan,  Jr.,  of  the  Machine 
Gun  Company;  Lieutenant  Herman  D.  Partson,  of  Company  G;  and  Lieutenant 
William  A.  Sheehan,  of  Company  F.  The  killed  or  mortally  wounded  in  the  31 6th 
were  Lieutenant  Joseph  C.  Fitzharris,  Company  K;  Captain  Benjamin  H.  Hewitt. 
Company  F;  Lieutenant  Daniel  S.  Keller,  Begimental  Staff;  Captain  Allen  W. 
Lukens,  Company  G;  and  Lieutenant  Ivan  L.  Lautenbacher,  Supply  Company. 

That  day  back  abreast  of  Montfaucon,  where  on  the  Fayal  Farm  Field  Hos- 
pitals Nos.  315  and  316  had  estabhshcd  themselves,  the  Huns  deliberately  shelled 
the  area.  There  were  between  500  and  600  wounded  men  under  treatment  there 
when  the  enemy  shelling  began.  Three  tents  were  struck  and  twenty-one  men 
killed,  including  a  German  captain  and  German  private,  captives  who  were  being 
treated  for  wounds.  The  men  of  the  two  hospitals  carried  those  most  severely 
injured  back  to  safety  while  the  "walking  cases"  limped  and  staggered  along, 
leaning  on  the  shoulders  of  burdened  orderfies,  until  the  area  was  cleared  without 
further  casualties. 

Before  dawn  on  the  morning  of  September  30th  an  order  from  the  5th  Corps 
announced  that  the  79th  would  be  relieved  by  the  3d  Division  during  the  day. 
As  a  result  it  was  decided  to  make  no  further  advance  but  hold  present  positions 

146 


until  relief  arrived.  During  the  entire  day  the  enfilading  fire  from  the  Meuse  to 
the  eastward  and  northwestwaid  from  the  region  of  Cierges  and  Romagne  beat 
in  upon  the  Division,  causing  many  casualties,  and  also  infiicting  severe  losses  among 
the  units  of  the  3d  Division  Avhich  began  to  reach  the  front  shortly  before  11  o'clock. 
Under  this  fire  the  314th  Infantry  lost  two  officers  killed.  Major  Alfred  Reginald 
Allen  and  Lieutenant  E.  Thorp  ^  anDusen,  of  the  Machine  Gun  Company,  and  had 
one  mortally  wounded,  Lieutenant  Matthew  F.  Olstein,  of  the  Sanitary  Detach- 
ment. The  relief  went  on  steadily  under  the  greatest  difficulties,  and  by  6  p.m.  the 
last  unit  of  the  Division,  save  two  companies  of  the  311th  Machine  Gun  Battalion, 
which  were  not  relieved  until  the  following  day,  had  fallen  back  to  Montfaucon  for  a 
much  needed  rest.  The  30 1th  Engineers,  however,  after  reaching  the  vicinity  of 
Malancourt,  were  recalled  and  attached  to  the  3d  Division,  continuing  the  road 
work  until  October  8th,  when  they  were  permitted  to  march  from  the  area. 

The  79th  in  its  first  offensive  had  advanced  to  a  depth  of  ten  kilometers  and 
taken  90.5  prisoners,  together  with  considerable  quantities  of  machine  guns  and  other 
cannon.  Its  casualties  as  computed  immediately  after  its  withdrawal  from  the 
front,  totalled  108  officers  and  3,315  men,  divided  as  follows: 

Officers:  Killed.  22;  wounded,  77;  gassed,  9. 

Men:  Killed,  278;  wounded  2,1.50;  gassed,  138;  missing,  749. 

The  conclusions  of  the  General  commanding,  as  found  in  the  Report  of  Opera- 
tions, are: 

The  79th  Division  came  under  fire  for  the  first  time  since  its  organization.  More  than  half 
of  its  strength  was  made  up  of  draftees  of  not  more  than  four  months'  service,  and  considerable 
loss  of  actual  training,  due  to  time  lost  in  transport  from  the  United  States  and  in  moving  about 
while  in  France.  So  far  as  courage  and  self-sacrifice  are  concerned,  the  conduct  of  both  officers 
and  men  was  above  all  reproach;  but,  as  in  the  case  with  all  green  troops,  there  was  lacking  the 
e.xperience,  which  comes  only  from  actual  contact  with  the  enemy.  In  view  of  the  difficulties 
of  the  terrain  and  the  inexperience  of  the  troops,  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  both  officers  and  men 
fought  well. 

From  Troyon  to  La  Grande  Montagne 

For  three  days  after  leaving  the  Montfaucon  front  the  79th  Division  was  bivou- 
acked in  the  area  south  of  the  Esnes-Avocourt  Road,  and  on  October  1th  and  5th 
marched  to  the  Troyon  Sector,  lying  south  of  Verdun,  and  eight  kilometers  north 
of  St.  Mihiel.  It  received  several  days'  rest  and  then  relieved  the  26th  Division 
on  October  8th,  pa.ssing  from  the  administration  of  the  1st  American  Army  to  that 
of  the  2d  Colonial  French  Corps.  The  new  front  extended  from  Fresnes-en-Woevre 
on  the  north  to  one  kilometer  south  of  Doncourt-aux-Tem pliers,  a  distance  of 
eleven  kilometers.  It  was  supposed  to  be  a  quiet  sector.  Perhaps  it  had  been 
before  the  79lh  arrived:  but  immediately  after  it  had  taken  over  the  line,  the  Huns 
began  to  alternate  trench  raids,  with  gas  attacks,  until  the  units  in  the  trenches 
were  constantly  on  the  alert.  Gas  casualties  totalled  nearly  500  before  the  orders 
came  to  move  out.  Originally  the  A.  E.  F.  reports  gave  the  occupancy  of  the  Tro- 
yon sector  as  a  rest  period,  but  a  revision  made  in  the  fall  of  1920  placed  this  sector 
as  a  part  of  the  Meuse-Argonne,  with  the  result  that  the  79th  Division  is  now  en- 
titled to  credit  for  participating  three  times  in  the  great  offensive. 

On  October  26th  the  33d  Division  came  into  Troyon  and  relieved  the  79th, 
which  forthwith  started  northward,  proceeding  by  marches  along  the  Meuse  River 

147 


to  the  sector  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Meuse.  known  as  La  Grande  Montagne,  four- 
teen kilometers  north  of  Verdun. 

In  La  Grande  Montagne  the  79th  relieved  the  29th  and  part  of  the  26th, 
wliicii  had  just  completed  the  conquest  of  Belleu  Woods  (not  those  of  Chateau- 
Thierry  fame).  The  79th  was  now  a  part  of  the  17th  French  Corps,  and  its  activ- 
ities henceforth  were  interwoven  with  those  of  the  French.  The  new  divisional 
fiont  covered  a  width  of  7.3  kilometers  in  the  form  of  a  quadrant,  with  the  left 
flank  facing  north  and  the  right  flank  facing  east.  Back  at  Troyon  the  157th 
and  l.'jSth  Brigades  had  been  reformed,  Colonel  Oury  returning  to  the  command 
(if  the  31  Itli  Infantry  and  Brigadier  (ieneral  Evan  M.  Johnson  assuming  control 
of  the  l.")8th  Brigade.  The  316th  Infantry  was  at  that  time  under  connnand  of 
Colonel  George  Williams,  the  313th  under  Colonel  William  J.  Rogers,  and  the 
301th  Engineers  under  Colonel  J.  Frank  liarber,  the  other  units  remaining  under 
the  same  leadership  as  at  Montfaucon.  Every  organization  was  back  at  war 
strength,  ample  replacements  having  been  received  and  drilled  during  the  stay 
in  the  Troyon  sector. 

On  October  31st,  when  the  79tli  took  ovci-  thr  new  sector,  the  157lh  Brigade 
moved  in  on  the  right,  facing  east  and  the  158th  Brigade  took  over  the  left  flank, 
facing  due  north.  Each  brigade  had  both  regimcTits  in  the  line,  the  disposition  at 
first  being  two  battalions  on  the  line  and  one  in  support,  altliough  this  later 
was  changed  to  one  battalion  in  the  line,  one  in  .support  and  one  in  brigade 
reserve. 

Directly  in  front  of  the  158th  Brigade's  sector,  and  about  a  kikmieter  away, 
was  the  famous  Hill  378  (Borne  du  Cornouiller,  as  the  French  called  it,  and  "  Corned 
Willie  Hill."'  as  the  doughboys  termed  it).  It  was  a  hii,'h.  jagged  eminence,  gashed 
by  shell-lire  and  wooded  in  spots.  It  had  been  considered  by  French  military 
experts  as  impregnable.  Three  previous  attempts  had  been  made  to  take  it, 
but  all  had  failed,  and  the  task  was  now  up  to  the  79th.  On  the  night  of  November 
2d  patrols  were  sent  out,  and  on  November  3d  the  316th  Infantry  began  a  recon- 
naissance in  force  in  three  columns  which  opened  up  severe  fighting  and  resulted 
in  {)artial  success.  At  6  a.m.  on  November  1th  the  316th  made  its  first  assault 
upon  the  position,  the  1st  Battalion  leading  ofl'.  There  was  immediate  success; 
but  the  division  on  the  left  falling  back  enabled  the  Germans  to  counter-attack,  and 
the  316th  was  forced  to  relinquish  its  hold  on  the  lower  slopes  of  the  hill  for  the  time 
being.  Captain  Claude  Cunningham,  of  Company  H,  was  mortally  wounded  and 
three  oflicers  and  twenty-three  men  of  B  Company  captured,  one  of  whom.  Cap- 
tain Louis  C.  Knack,  died  of  his  wounds.  Lieutenant  Maxwell  McKeen,  of  D 
Company,  also  was  killed. 

On  November  5th  the  second  attack  was  launched.  Again  the  316th  fought 
its  way  doggedly  up  the  slope.  For  a  time  it  seemed  as  though  it  would  have  to 
fall  back,  but  the  men  kept  on  and  finally  attained  the  coveted  goal.  By  this 
time  the  fire  from  the  left  flank  had  become  terrific.  It  would  have  been  suicidal 
to  try  and  hold  the  hill  under  such  circumstances,  so,  although  they  had 
taken  it,  the  men  of  the  316th  were  forced  to  return  down  the  southern  slope,  this 
time  stopping  and  digging  in  at  the  point  they  had  reached  in  the  farthest  ad- 
vance of  the  preceding  day.  The  attack  had  cost  the  fife  of  Major  William  Sinkler 
Manning,  son  of  the  Governor  of  South  Carolina,  who  was  killed  on  the  bullet- 
swept  slope,  and  of  Lieutenant  Lawrence  J.  Ayers,  of  H  Company.     On  the  same 

MH 


day  Lieutenant  .luliii  1'.  Owens,  of  the  :U5tli  InCantiy,  was  killed  during  a  support 
attack  upon  the  right  of  the  316th*s  objective. 

On  November  6th  a  battalion  of  the  3l3th  was  ordered  to  assist  the  almost 
exhausted  316th  in  taking  the  position,  but  the  newcomers  did  not  reach  the  as- 
signed position  until  too  late  in  the  afternoon  for  an  effective  attack.  On  the  7th, 
however,  after  a  heavy  barrage  delivered  by  the  312th  Machine  Gun  Battalion, 
the  316th  and  the  battalion  of  the  313th  started  up  the  hill  together  and  nothing 
could  stop  theni  this  time.  Within  two  hours  they  were  over  the  crest,  and  the  top 
of  Hill  378  had  been  consolidated.  A  French  division  on  the  left,  which  had  been 
ordered  to  advance  and  had  been  held  up  for  three  days  because  the  defenses  of  Hill 
378  had  not  been  overthrown,  then  got  under  way  and  put  out  of  business  the  ma- 
chine guns  that  had  delivered  the  enfilading  fire  on  the  316th  during  the  previous 
days. 

Hill  378  stands  out  as  the  brightest  achievement  in  the  history  of  the  316th. 
It  won  a  divisional  citation  for  the  deed,  while  both  Major  General  Kuhn  and  Bri- 
gadier General  Johnson  were  cited  by  the  French  for  planning  and  executing  it. 

The  advance  of  the  P'rench  division  had  straightened  out  the  line,  so  that  after 
November  7th  the  70th  was  no  longer  on  a  quadrant  front.  The  reduction  of  Hill 
378  enabled  the  1.58th  Brigade  to  pivot  until  it  faced  eastward  in  a  line  with  the 
157th  Brigade,  and  the  divisional  front  now  ran  from  west  of  Ecurey  to  west  of  Cre- 
pion,  a  front  of  almost  ten  kilometers.  The  straightening  out  of  the  line  resulted 
in  the  mopping  up  of  numerous  machine  gun  nests  entrenched  in  the  rolling  country. 

On  the  morning  of  November  8th  the  Germans  unleashed  a  terrific  rain  of 
fire  along  the  entire  front.  They  seemed  to  be  pouring  everything  in  the  shell 
line  upon  the  79th.  Hour  after  hour  it  continued,  until  in  the  afternoon  it  slackened 
and  finally  died  out  completely.  The  front  grew  oppressively  silent.  The  sus- 
pense was  terrific,  officers  and  men  not  knowing  whether  an  assault  was  coming 
or  whether  the  Germans  were  in  retreat.  Finally  aerial  observers  brought  in  word 
that  the  Huns  were  indeed  falling  back  toward  Damvillers.  The  French  Corps 
Commander,  to  reduce  the  width  of  the  79th's  front,  issued  instructions  to  (General 
Kuhn  on  that  day  with  the  result  that  the  3Mth  took  over  the  entire  divisional 
front  for  a  short  space  of  time  while  the  315th  Infantry,  the  left  element  of  the  158th 
Brigade,  was  compelled  to  side-step  to  the  south.  The  efl'ect  of  the  maneuver 
was  to  change  the  79th's  front  slightly,  the  line  now  being  from  east  of  Etraye  to 
east  of  Moirey,  Etraye  being  some  distance  south  of  Ecurey  and  Moirey  a  short 
distance  below  Crepion.  The  315th  marched  four  and  one-half  kilometers  at 
night  through  underbrush  and  woods,  and  reached  its  assigned  position  in  time  to 
attack  on  November  9th. 

On  the  mf)rning  of  November  9th,  the  Division  was  in  position  with  the  31ith 
(jn  the  line  and  the  313th  in  support  on  the  right  of  the  sector,  and  the  315  th  behind 
the  line  on  the  left  of  the  sector,  with  the  316th  coming  upin  support.  As  it  was 
impossible  to  deploy  the  315th  into  line  on  the  then  narrow  front,  the  attack  at 
dawn  developed  entirely  upon  the  31-lth  Infantry.  This  unit,  advancing  at  6  a.m. 
took  Crepicjn  at  8.20,  and  Wavrille,  Gibercy,  Etraye  and  Moirey  shortly  after- 
wards. On  the  left  the  31lth  ran  up  against  such  heavy  fire  from  Hill  356  and 
the  Cote  de  Morimont  that  it  was  brought  to  a  halt,  but  on  the  right  it  progressed 
to  the  crest  of  Hill  328  by  nightfall.  In  the  meanwhile  a  battalion  of  the  315th 
relieved  the  left  battalion  of  the  314th  in  front  of  the  Cote  de  Morimont,  and  both 

149 


brigades  were  again  facing  the  enemy.  Major  Ward  W.  Pierson,  of  the  315th,  was 
killed  that  day  while  effecting  the  relief. 

The  plans  of  attack  were  changed  for  November  10th.  Because  of  the  natural 
strength  of  the  Cote  d'Orne  and  Cote  de  Morimont,  facing  the  315th  Infantry, 
it  was  decided  to  flank  them  from  the  south  and  southeast,  this  necessitating  a  di- 
rect attack  by  the  157th  Brigade  and  a  feint  against  the  strong  hills  by  the  158th. 
At  6  A.M.  the  31 1th  attacked  on  the  right,  completing  the  reduction  of  Hill  328, 
passing  through  Chaumont-devant-Damvillers  and,  after  dusk,  capturing  Hill  319. 
In  the  meanwhile  the  315th  had  fought  its  way  partly  up  the  slope  of  Cote  d'Orne 
and  dug  in  for  the  night.  The  last  officer  of  the  Division  killed  in  action  died  that 
day,  Captain  Frank  F.  Battles,  of  the  Machine  Gun  Company,  311th  Infantry. 

Beginning  at  9:30  a.m.  on  November  11th  the  attack  was  pushed  along  the 
entire  front.  The  31lth  moved  forward  against  the  Cote  de  Romagne,  with  a 
battalion  of  the  313th  also  pressing  forward  for  the  same  oijjective  and  town  of 
Azannes.  At  the  same  time  another  battalion  of  the  313th  occupied  the  town  of 
Ville-devant-Chaumont,  and  the  315th  executed  a  flanking  attack  on  the  Cote 
d'Orne,  one  company  (D)  pushing  up  the  slope  and  capturing  a  9-inch  German  can- 
non. Armistice  hour  found  the  Division  well  on  its  way  to  its  objectives.  Nor 
had  the  other  divisional  units  aside  from  the  infantry  been  idle.  The  301th  En- 
gineers had  been  bridge  and  road  building  between  Vaucherauville,  the  Divisional 
Headquarters,  and  the  front  line;  the  supply  train  had  been  under  constant  shell 
fire  for  the  whole  eleven  days  since  taking  over  the  sector,  and  even  the  30tth 
Ammunition  Train  had  managed  to  get  into  the  offensive.  The  horse  battalion 
had  been  with  the  Division  at  Montfaucon,  but  the  motor  battalion  did  not  get 
away  from  the  artillery  brigade  until  just  before  the  final  olfensive.  It  had  reached 
the  sector  on  November  3d,  and  while  C,  D  and  F  Companies  had,  through  lack 
of  equipment,  been  forced  to  turn  engineers  and  work  with  the  road  and  bridge 
builders.  Companies  A,  B,  E  and  G  had  served  ammunition  constantly  from 
November  3d  to  Armistice  Day  and  hour. 

The  total  depth  of  the  79th  Division  advance  in  the  La  Grande  Montagne 
sector  had  been  93-2  kilometers.  It  had  taken  192  prisoners  and  material  in  great 
abundance.  Its  casualties  for  the  offensive  totalled  sixty-four  officers  and  2,636 
men,  divided  as  follows; 

Officers:  Killed,  10;  wounded,  39;  gassed,  13;  missing  in  action,  2. 

Men:  Killed,  153;  wounded  1,417;  gassed,  275;  missing,  including  captured,  461. 

To  compare  the  conclusions  with  those  given  after  Montfaucon,  the  following 
is  taken  from  the  Report  of  Operations : 

The  Division  fought  with  niucii  more  skill,  as  a  result  of  the  first  experience  at  Montfaucon. 
The  energies  of  combat  units  were  husbanded  and  not  dissipated  so  rapidly  as  on  the  first  offen- 
sive. Troops  were  kept  well  in  hand,  and  straggling  was  kept  at  a  gratifying  low  limit.  After 
eight  days  of  severe  combat,  the  1.58th  Brigade,  although  somewhat  depleted,  was  still  capable 
of  further  effort,  while  the  157th  Brigade,  after  three  days'  offensive,  was  still  relatively  fresh, 
and  the  Division  as  a  whole  could  have  maintained  considerable  driving  power  foranumberofdays. 

The  Armistice   Period   and  Afterwards 

From  November  11th  to  December  26th,  the  79th  remained  on  the  battle 
front,  taking  over  a  sector  from  Damvillers  on  the  north  to  Fresnes-en-Woevre 
(the  northern  point  of  the  old  Troyon  sector)  on  the  south.     They  kept  up  patrol 

150 


and  police  duty  during  that  month  and  a  half.  On  Decemher  10th,  headquarters 
of  the  31  tth  Infantry,  Headquarters  Company  and  one  battalion  proceeded  to  the 
area  around  Montmedy,  Stenay  and  Virton  (Belgium)  for  the  purpose  of  guarding 
property,  listing  material  and  maintaining  order.  On  February  1st,  this  detach- 
ment rejoined  the  Division  in  the  Souilly  area. 

It  was  on  December  27th  that  the  Division  had  moved  to  the  Souilly  area, 
where  it  was  j((ined  in  January  by  the  l.j4th  Artillery  Brigade,  the  first  time  the 
entire  Division  liad  been  assembled  as  such  since  leaving  Camp  Meade.  While 
in  this  area  General  Kuhn  took  temporary  command  of  the  9th  Corps  during  the 
month  of  February,  Brigadier  General  Johnson  taking  over  the  control  of  the 
Division  during  his  absence. 

From  the  Souilly  area  the  Division  moved  during  the  last  days  of  March  to  the 
area  northeast  of  Chaumont  around  Andelot  and  Bimaucourt  (Fourth  Training 
Area).  It  was  here  that  the  Division  was  reviewed  by  General  Pershing,  the  last 
official  review,  by  the  way,  in  its  history.  General  Pershing,  who  decorated  the 
colors,  and  awarded  numerous  Distinguished  Service  Crosses,  afterwards  addressed 
a  letter  to  General  Kuhn  in  which  he  said : 

"It  afforded  me  great  satisfaction  to  inspect  the  79tli  Division  on  April  12tti,  and  on  ttiat 
occasion  to  decorate  the  standards  of  your  regiments  and,  for  gallantry  in  action,  to  confer  medals 
upon  certain  officers  and  men.  Your  transportation  and  artillery  were  in  splendid  shape,  and  the 
general  appearance  of  the  Division  was  well  up  to  the  standard  of  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces.  Throughout  the  inspection  and  review  the  excellent  morale  of  the  men  and  their  pride 
in  the  record  of  their  organizations  was  evident. 

"In  the  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive  the  Division  liad  its  full  share  of  hard  fighting.  Entering 
the  line  for  the  first  time  on  September  26  as  the  right  of  the  center  corps,  it  took  part  in  the 
beginning  of  the  great  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive.  By  September  27  it  had  captured  the  strong 
position  of  Montfaucon;  and  in  spite  of  heavy  artillery  reaction,  the  Bois  de  Beuge  and 
Nantillois  were  occupied.  On  September  30  it  was  relieved,  having  advanced  ten  kilometers. 
It  again  entered  the  battle  on  October  29,  relieving,  as  part  of  the  17th  French  Corps,  the  29th 
Division  in  the  Grande  Montague  Sector  to  the  east  of  the  Meuse  River.  From  that  time 
until  the  armistice  went  into  effect  it  was  almost  constantly  in  action.  On  November  9, 
Crepion,  Wavrille  and  Gibercy  were  taken,  and  in  conjunction  with  elements  on  the  right  and 
left  Etraye  and  Moirey  were  invested.  On  November  10,  Chaumont-devant-Danivilliers  was 
occupied,  and  on  November  11,  ViUe-devant-Chaumont  was  taken — a  total  of  9  kilometers. 

"This  is  a  fine  record  for  any  division,  and  I  want  the  oilicers  and  men  to  know  this  and  to 
realize  how  much  they  have  contributed  to  the  success  of  our  arms.  They  may  return  home 
justly  proud  of  themselves  and  of  the  part  they  have  played  in  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces." 

The  corrected  figures  of  the  Divisional  activities  in  France  are  as  follows: 

Total  advance:  Montfaucon  sector,  10  kilometers;  La  Grande  Montagne  sector,  9}i  kilo- 
meters; total  193^2  kilometers. 

Prisoners  taken:  Montfaucon  sector,  905;  Troyon  sector,  23;  La  Grande  Montagne  sector, 
192;  total  1,120. 

Casualties:  Deaths,  officers,  66;  men,  2,059.  Wounded,  officers,  179;  men,  5,1.52.  Prisoners, 
officers,  2;  men,  78.     Total,  officers,  247;  men,  7,289. 

The  revised  table  of  battle  participations  of  the  79th  Division  is  taken  from  a 
compilation  completed  May  15,  1920,  by  the  War  Department,  and  is  as  follows: 

157th  Infantry  Brigade  (complete),  158th  Infantry  Brigade  (complete),  304th  Field  Signal 
Battalion  and  310th  Machine  Gun  Battafion: 

1.  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive,  France,  September  26  to  30. 

2.  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive,  France,  October  8  to  25. 

3.  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive,  France,  October  29  to  November  11. 

151 


304th  Engineers,  same  as  above  with  exception  that  No.  1  reads:  Meuse-Argonne  Offensive, 
France,  September  26  to  October  8. 

The  movemenl  of  the  79th  Division  to  the  embarkation  area  began  on  April 
19th,  the  artillery  going  to  St.  Nazaire  and  the  infantry  to  the  vicinity  of  Nantes 
and  Cholet.  On  May  13th  the  314th  Infantry,  the  304th  Field  Signal  Battalion 
and  the  134th  Artillery  Brigade  Headquarters,  the  first  units  to  start  for  home, 
sailed  from  France  on  the  Princess  Maloika,  and  from  then  on  until  the  end  of  the 
month  the  various  units  cleared  either  Nantes  or  St.  Nazaire.  The  Princess  Maloi- 
ka arrived  at  Hoboken  on  May  26th  at  the  same  time  the  transport  Tiger  brought 
the  310th  Field  Artillery  into  New  York  and  the  transport  Virginian  landed  the 
312th  Field  Artillery  and  311th  Machine  Gun  Battalion  at  Newport  News,  Va. 
On  May  28th,  transport  Edward  Luckenbach  arrived  at  Brooklyn  with  the  311th 
Field  Artillery  and  312th  Machine  Gun  Battahon.  On  May  29th  the  transport 
Kroonland  docked  at  New  York  with  Division  Headqum'ters,  304th  F.ngineers, 
Headquarters  Troop,  Train  Headquarters,  and  a  part  of  the  3d  Battalion 
316th  Infantry.  The  same  day  the  transport  Texan  sailed  up  the  Delaware 
to  Philadelphia  with  the  balance  of  the  316th  Infantry.  The  next  day.  May  30th, 
the  transport  San/a  Rosa  brought  all  but  two  companies  of  "Philadelphia's  Own," 
315th  Infantry,  into  their  home  port,  and  on  May  31st  the  transport  Dakolan  also 
arrived  at  Philadelphia  with  the  304th  Supply  Train,  79th  Military  Police,  a  de- 
tachment of  the  310th  Field  Artillery  and  Companies  L  and  M,  31.5th  Infantry. 
In  the  meanwhile  the  transport  Pastores  had  taken  the  313th  Infantry  to  Newport 
News,  so  that  on  June  1st  the  final  units  of  the  Division  reached  America,  they  being 
the  Horse  Battalion  of  the  304th  Ammunition  Train  and  the  304th  Sanitary  Train 
complete. 

The  men  who  arrived  at  Hoboken  and  Philadelphia  were  sent  to  Camp  Dix, 
New  Jersey,  for  demobilization,  and  those  who  arrived  at  Newport  News  were 
demobilized  at  Camp  Meade  and,  before  the  middle  of  June,  1919,  the  79th  Div- 
ision had  ceased  to  exist  save  in  history. 


Courtesy  of  the  Tulilic  Ledger  Co, 


Hume  Again. 
152 


153 


OTHER  PHILADELPHIA  UNITS 


units,    distinctly 
officers,  were  sunnnarized 


HILADELPHIA  men  served  in  practically  every  American 
Division  and  in  all  hranclios  of  the  service,  at  home  and 
overseas.  It  is,  at  this  time,  impossible  to  review  the 
work  of  each  unit  in  which  Philadelphians  served,  but  in 
the  followinf;  brief  reviews  some  idea  is  given  of  the  way 
in  which  the  men  of  the  city  answered  every  call  of 
duty. 

Nor  should  the  work  of  the  women  of  Philadelphia 
go  unchronicled.    Thex  too,  responded  as  they  were  able. 

Therefore,  as  opportunity  offered,  the  records  of  those 
Philadelphia    in    personnel,    or    commanded    by    Philadelphia 


AMERICAN  FIELD  SERVICE 
James  A.  Develin,  Jr. 

The  American  Field  Service  owes  its  origin  to  a  small  group  of  Americans  in 
France,  who,  at  the  very  outset  of  the  war,  finding  a  strict  neutrality  impossible 
for  themselves,  offered  their  services  to  France  for  the  transportation  of  wounded 
at  the  fighting  front.  A  gift  of  ten  Ford  cars  was  the  nucleus  from  which  the 
service  grew  to  comprise  thirty-five  sections  of  ambulances  and,  in  1917,  fourteen 
"camion"  sections,  used  in  transportation  of  ammunition  and  supplies  for  the  armies 
at  the  front. 

This  little  group  of  American  volunteers  at  no  time  amounted  to  more  than 
2,000  men,  but,  at  the  time  of  France's  greatest  need,  they  were  a  tangible  expres- 
sion of  American  sympathy.  From  the  English  Channel  to  the  Vosges  Mountains, 
French  "poilus"  saw  American  volunteers  working  in  mud  and  rain,  and  under 
shell  fire,  to  alleviate  the  sufferings  of  French  wounded,  and  they  knew  that  these 
men  represented  a  friendly  spirit  in  the  American  people.  The  American  Field 
Service  was  composed  largely  of  college  men  who,  coming  from  every  part  of  the 
country,  were  the  means  of  influencing  a  great  number  of  Americans  in  the 
Allied  cause. 

Theodore  Roosevelt  said  of  those  men  in  1916: 

"There  is  not  an  American  worth  calling  such  who  is  not  under  a  heavy  debt  of  obligation 
to  these  boys  for  what  they  have  done.  We  are  under  an  even  greater  debt  to  them  than  the 
French  and  Belgians  are  ....  The  most  important  thing  that  a  nation  can  possibly  save 
is  its  soul,  and  these  young  men  have  been  helping  this  nation  to  save  its  soul." 

Early  in  1915,  the  French  officials  recognized  the  value  of  the  work  accom- 
plished by  the  few  American  cars  attached  to  their  own  Sanitary  sections  and 
larger  sections  of  Americans  were  formed  and  made  independent,  each  one  serving 
an  army  division.  The  light  Fords  were  found  to  possess  splendid  qualities  for 
this  work.  They  could  dodge  through  the  traffic -jammed  roads,  pull  themselves 
out  of  mire  and  shell  holes,  or  could  be  pulled  out  by  a  few  wilUng  "poilus."    Where 

154 


roads  were  blocked,  they  took  fiayly  to  the  fields  in  mockery  of  the  heavy  French 
trucks.  The  work  was  largely  done  from  "postes  de  secours"  and  communication 
trenches  to  "'triage"  (sorting)  hospitals  and  field  hospitals.  A  large  part  of  the 
driving  was  done  at  night  and  without  lights,  over  shell-torn  roads  full  of  trucks, 
field  guns  and  annnunition  caissons,  for  it  was  only  under  cover  of  darkness  that 
some  of  the  advanced  posts  could  be  served.  Soon  it  became  the  custom  to 
send  Ihc  most  serious  cases  with  the  American  drivers.  Thus  the  Field  Service 
aciiuired  an  enviable  reputation  for  the  manner  in  which  it  hurried  the  wounded  to 
the  hospitals. 

Among  the  first  of  the  seventy  or  more  Philadelphians  who  joined  the  service 
were  John  H.  Mi'Fadden,  Jr..  and  Benjamin  R.  Woodworth.  Wuodworth,  who 
became  a  Section  leader  and  was  awarded  the  Croix  de  Guerre,  went  to  the  front 
with  Section  I  in  June,  1915,  and  served  with  it  in  Belgium  and  Flanders.  He 
died  in  the  service  on  June  15,  1917.  Paul  B.  Kurtz,  later  leader  of  Section  18, 
also  joined  the  service  at  this  time.  Kurtz  was  also  awarded  the  Croix  de 
Guerre.    He  was  killed  while  in  the  V.  S.  Aviation  Service. 

The  number  of  Philadelphians  was  increased  during  the  fall  of  1915  and  the 
spring  of  1916  by  the  enlistment  of  L.  Brooke  Edwards,  Julian  L.  Lathrop,  Samuel 
H.  Paul,  W.  Yorke  Stevenson  and  S.  M.  Stephen  Tyson.  Stevenson  and  Edwards 
were  both  cited  for  the  Croix  de  ( iuerre.  Tyson  was  killed  on  July  19,  1918,  while 
in  the  French  Aviation  Service.  The  Section  served  in  the  Amiens  sector,  in  the 
Champagne  sector  near  Soissons,  and  at  Verdun  in  that  year.  This  was  the  time 
of  the  great  German  drive  on  Verdun,  and  the  men  of  the  Section  were  put  to  a 
severe  test  of  courage  and  endurance,  serving  the  postes  at  Marre  and  Esnes  on 
roads  almost  continually  under  sh«'ll  fire. 

In  1915,  Section  2  had  but  one  Philadelphian,  John  R.  Graham,  who  was 
later  killed  while  serving  with  the  United  States  Infantry.  During  1915-17, 
Section  2  was  stationed  in  Lorraine,  in  the  vicinity  of  Pont-a-Mousson. 

Section  3,  also  formed  in  1915,  did  dillicult  duty  in  the  Vosges  Mountains, 
serving  the  postes  which  had  hitherto  been  reached  only  by  mules  over  the  narrow, 
rough  mountain  roads.  The  work  of  Section  .3  was  .so  dependable  that  in  September 
of  1916  tills  Section  was  dispatched  to  the  Balkans  at  the  request  of  the  French 
Army,  and  served  under  difficult  conditions  at  Salonica  and  later  in  Serbia, 
near  Monastir,  where  its  training  in  Vosges  mountain-cfimbing  stood  it  in  good 
stead.  Benjamin  F.  Dawson,  Powel  Fenton,  Henry  K.  Moore  and  Albert  Nalle 
joined  this  Section  in  1915.  Dawson  was  cited  once  and  Fenton  twice  for  the 
Croix  de  Guerre. 

Section  4  was  joined  by  George  A.  McCall  in  1915,  and  by  Edward  Joseph 
Kelley  in  1916.  Kelley,  who  was  awarded  the  Croix  de  Guerre,  was  killed  on 
September  23,  1916,  a  few  days  after  he  had  reached  the  front.  He  was  going  to 
a  poste  near  Marre,  in  the  Verdun  sector,  when  a  shell  exploded  directly  in  front 
of  the  ambulance  and  killed  him  instantly. 

The  advent  of  tiie  year  1917  found  the  American  Field  Service  rapidly  increas- 
ing in  numbers  and  gaining  in  the  amount  of  contributions  to  its  funds.  Individuals, 
clubs  and  business  oi'ganizations  donated  many  cars,  and  college  students  and 
older  business  men  flocked  to  do  their  bit  for  France.  The  German  threat  that  all 
vessels  in  certain  prescribed  zones  would  be  "spiirlos  versenkt"  did  not  deter  a 
large  number  of  volunteers  from  going  over  to  form  new  Ambulance  Sections. 

155 


Section  9  was  formed  in  tiie  latter  part  of  1916  to  replace  Section  3  in  the 
Vosges.  With  it  were  Walter  Chrystie,  Jr.,  Arthur  Enilen  Hutchinson  and  F.  N. 
SoUs-Cohen.  Sections  10,  12  and  13  were  rapidly  formed  in  the  early  months  of 
1917.  No.  10  contained  no  Philadelphians.  No.  12  had  Wharton  Allen,  H.  W. 
Crowhurst  and  Henry  H.  Houston,  2d.  Houston,  who  was  killed  by  a  shell  splinter 
on  August  27,  1918,  while  serving  in  the  U.  S.  Army  on  General  Price's  staff, 
received  the  Croix  de  Guerre  for  bravery  under  fire  in  the  Argonne,  at  Verdun 
and  in  the  Champaigne  in  1917. 

Section  13  had  among  its  members  Thomas  H.  Dougherty,  for  a  while  its 
sous-chef  (and  later  chef  of  a  T.  M.  U.  Section),  Earnest  S.  Clark,  James  A.  Develin, 
Jr.,  and  H.  H.  Houston  Woodward.  Woodward  later  joined  the  Lafayette  Flying 
Corps  and  was  attached  to  Escadrille  91.     He  was  killed  in  an  aerial  combat  on 


Heady  lo  Aruiwer  Any  Call. 

April  1,  1918.  Section  13  did  its  first  work  in  the  Champaigne  district  in  the 
vicinity  of  JVIont  CorneiUet,  where  it  was  cited  in  the  orders  of  tlie  Army,  and 
received  the  Croix  de  Guerre  with  pahn,  the  first  case  of  such  a  distinction  being 
conferred  upon  an  Ambulance  Section. 

After  the  entry  of  America  into  the  war  Americans  came  over  so  fast  that 
there  were  no  places  for  them  in  sections  at  the  front  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  new 
sections  were  being  formed  every  day.  Of  these  men,  John  Y.  Newlin,  S.  S.  U.  19, 
has  the  distinction  of  being  the  only  Philadelphian  to  receive  the  IVIedaille  Militaire, 
the  highest  reward  of  bravery.  He  was  among  five  Field  Service  men  to  get  this 
citation,  and  he  received  the  Croix  de  Guerre  at  the  same  time.  On  August  3, 
1917,  he  was  severely  wounded  in  the  back  by  the  explosion  of  a  shell  at  Montzeville 
in  the  Verdun  sector.  He  was  taken  to  Paris  and  operated  upon,  but  died  on 
August  5th. 

At  the  request  of  the  French  Army,  the  Field  Service  undertook  to  supply 
volunteers  for  '"Camion  Sections"  to  serve  as  transports  for  the  French  Army. 

156 


These  T.  M.  U.  groups  did  very  effective  work  in  augmenting  and  improving  the 
important  motor  transport  service. 

In  October,  1917,  the  Field  Service  completed  its  official  career  with  the 
enrolment  of  all  of  its  members — a  trained  and  efficient  force — in  the  American 
Army. 

In  a  sense,  the  members  of  the  American  Field  Service  really  comprised  the 
first  "American  Expeditionary  Force." 

H4TH  TELEGRAPH   BATTALION    SIGNAL  CORPS 
"The  Galloping  Four  Fourteen" 

A  signal  battalion,  composed  of  men  of  tlie  Philadelphia  &  Readinji  and  Erie 
Railroads,  was  organized  in  November,  1917. 

Captain  H.  C.  Evans  of  this  city  commanded  Company  D,  which  luid  in  it  a 
number  of  men  from  Philadelphia,  including; 

Sergeants,  First  Ctass. — Stephen  C.  tiilliard,  Hugh  J.  Cavanaugh,  Joseph  T.  Larkin,  Louis 
Neigut.  Sergeants. — Samuel  Garrison.  Corporals. — Edward  O.  Becker,  I'jhiuT  lieddy,  George 
C.  Reed,  Isaac  Van  Horn.     Privates,  First  Class. — Harr\  ,1.  Bowden,  Ediimnd  D.  Parlenheimer. 

The  organization  sailed  on  the  White  Star  liner  Adriatic  January  31,  1918, 
and  landed  in  Liverpool  on  February  Ihtii. 

Of  the  voyage  over.  Sergeant  Fisher  says: 

"We  stealthily  crept  on  the  enemy  via  the  2.3d  Street  pier  on  the  East  River, 
where  we  were  loaded  on  a  steam  scow  and  taken  around  the  island  to  the 
White  Star  line  docks  at  West  23d  Street,  and  there  gleaned  the  information  that 
we  were  to  sail  on  the  Adriatic  for  Liverpool,  and  after  being  lined  up  on  the  pier 
and  given  another  talk  on  habits,  drinking,  etc.,  the  Major  announced  that 
we  would  be  searched  and  any  man  found  with  liquor  would  suffer  court  martial, 
and  that  if  we  possessed  anything  strong  to  turn  it  in.  Results  were  not  very 
good,  and  the  talk  only  netted  one  'petite'  vial,  which  the  C.  0.  handed  to  Colonel 
Erricson  of  the  107th  Annnunition  Train,  who  sailed  with  us,  and  the  Colonel 
said:  'Thank  you;  it  is  just  what  I  have  been  looking  for.'" 

Sergeant  Fisher  further  states;  "The  food  was  horrible,  and  since  finding  out 
recently  that  America  paid  England  §81.75  per  man  for  transporting  us,  I  have 
decided  to  ask  for  an  §80.00  rebate. " 

The  battalion  celebrated  Washington's  birthday  by  landing  at  Le  Havre. 

Company  D  proceeded  to  Chinon  (Indre  et  Loire),  and  established  head- 
quarters. 

Some  idea  of  the  work  done  by  the  battalion  is  given  by  Sergeant  Fisher's 
pamphlet,  in  which  he  states  that  about  300  miles  of  wire  were  strung;  20,000 
post-holes  dug  and  posts  set.  INlembers  of  the  battalion  served  as  dispatchers, 
chefs  de  gare,  operators,  linemen  and  maintainers  at  about  eighty  stations  covering 
300  miles  of  railroad. 

After  nineteen  months  of  service,  the  battalion  sailed  from  St.  Nazaire 
on  June  17,  1919,  on  the  Julia  Liickenhach  and  arrived  in  Brooklyn,  June 
23,  1919. 

157 


19TH  ENGINEERS  (RAILWAY) 
Ry  Lieutenant  W.  Frederic  Todd.  Regimental  Historian 

The  history  of  the  19th  Engineers  properly  dates  from  June,  1916,  when 
the  possibility  of  operations  in  Mexico  made  necessary  a  definite  plan  for  operation 
of  the  railroads,  both  as  to  material  and  personnel.  At  this  time  Samuel  M. 
Felton,  President  of  the  Chicago  and  Great  Western  Railway,  was  appointed 
consulting  engineer  and  adviser  to  the  chief  of  engineers,  U.  S.  Army,  on  railway 
matters,  and  it  was  he  who  conceived  the  i(l(>a  of  recruiting  men  for  railway  regi- 
ments direct  from  railway  service. 

When  the  I'nited  States  entered  the  European  War  and  the  question  of  rail- 
way operation  and  maintenance  in  France  became  of  paramount  importance, 
Mr.  Felton  was  officially  placed  in  charge  of  all  preparations  for  the  organization 
and  movement  abroad  of  railway  engineers.  The  pressing  need  for  railroad  men 
at  that  time  is  shown  in  a  letter  written  by  Mr.  Felton:  "The  French  railways  are 
badly  run  down  and  in  more  or  less  need  of  complete  rehabilitation;  they  have 
no  men  who  can  be  spared  to  do  this  work;  they  want  all  their  men  on  the  firing 
line;  before  we  can  train  men  to  go  into  the  trenches  we  can  supply  them  as  to 
railroads,  and  this  immediately.  (General  Joffre  says  any  men  we  send  over  must 
be  soldiers,  so  the  railroad  forces  .  .  .  must  be  enhsted  men.  .  .  .  They  are 
short  of  men  in  their  shops  to  repair  locomotives  and  it  is  proposed  to  organize 

a  shop  regiment "     The  shop  regiment  referred  to  in  Mr.  Felton's  letter, 

when   orgMTii/cfl.   became  the    I'Hh    luigincers   (l^ailway). 


Inlirior  <,J  Commercial  Museum,  used  as  Barmrks  by  the  I9lh  (Railway)  Engineers. 

158 


Rpcniiting  was  begun  in  the  offices  of  the  District  Engineer,  Witherspoon 
Building,  Philadelphia,  with  Captains  Charles  P.  O'Conner  and  Joseph  Caccavajo 
as  Recruiting  Officers.  The  first  enlistment  was  made  on  April  20,  1917,  but  it 
was  not  until  the  beginning  of  May  that  an  active  campaign  for  recruits  was  begun. 

On  May  9,  1917,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Herbert  Deakyne,  Corps  of  Engineers, 
arrived  in  Philadelphia  to  take  command  of  the  regiment,  accompanied  by  First 
Lieutenant  William  F.  Tompkins,  Corps  of  Engineers,  his  Adjutant. 

Colonel  Deakyne  had  served  as  District  Engineer  in  Philadelphia  from  1908 
to  1912,  conducting  important  river  and  harbor  work,  and  his  knowledge  ol  the 
city  was  of  immense  assistance  to  liim  in  the  work  of  organization.  Colonel 
Deakyne  was  transferred  to  the  command  of  the  11th  Engineers  six  months 
after  his  arrival  in  France.  In  ]May.  1918,  he  was  appointed  Director  of  Light 
Railways  and  Roads  and  in  September,  1918,  became  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Second 
Army,  with  the  rank  of  Brigadier  General. 

Since  the  regiment  was  to  depend  to  a  great  extent  upon  the  railroads  for 
personnel,  the  need  for  the  utmost  cooperation  was  manifest.  W.  W.  Atter- 
bury,  Vice-President  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  not  only  gave  official  assistance 
to  Colonel  Deakyne  but  also  took  an  intense  personal  interest  in  the  regiment. 
By  his  instructions,  James  Milhken,  Special  Agent  of  the  railroad,  devoted  his 
entire  time  to  work  among  the  railroad  men  in  encouraging  enlistments,  though 
little  encouragement  was  needed.  The  "business"  quickly  grew  to  such  pro- 
portions that  the  offices  in  the  Witherspoon  Ruilding  became  inadequate  and  the 
first  two  floors  of  the  Hale  Building,  Juniper  and  Sansom  streets,  were  taken 
over. 

Invaluable  aid  in  recruiting  was  rendered  by  the  Home  Defense  Committee 
of  the  Master  Builders  Exchange,  under  the  Chairmanship  of  W.  Nelson 
Mayhew.  This  committee,  two  members  of  which  were  on  duty  at  all  times, 
was  directly  responsible  for  a  very  large  percentage  of  the  enlistments,  for  approxi- 
mately 600  men  were  enlisted  from  railroads,  the  balance  coming  from  various 
other  lines  of  business.  Of  the  men  recruited  from  railroads,  357  were  from 
the  Pennsylvania,  11  from  the  Philadelphia  &  Reading  and  10  from  the  Baltimore 
&  Ohio  Railroads.  The  remainder  came  in  smaller  numbers  from  twenty-six 
other  railroad  companies. 

The  first  men  were  called  into  active  service  on  June  2,  1917,  the  barracks 
being  the  Exhibition  Hall  of  the  Philadelphia  Museums,  34th  and  Spruce  streets. 

The  men  were  called  out  in  groups  of  from  one  to  two  hundred  and  assigned 
to  companies  according  to  trades,  each  company  containing,  so  far  as  practicable, 
all  men  of  the  same  trade.  Military  training  was  begun  at  once  under  experienced 
instructors  furnished  by  the  Pennsylvania  National  C.uard  and  continued  to  the 
date  of  sailing,  August  9th. 

It  was  understood  that  the  regiment  was  to  move  into  fully  equipped  shops 
and  was  not  to  take  any  tools  abroad.  A  small  number  of  hand  tools,  ordered 
as  a  matter  of  precaution,  were  not  received  until  some  time  after  the  arrival  of 
the  regiment  in  France.  Less  than  three  weeks  prior  to  the  date  of  saihng,  the 
Commanding  Officer  was  advised  that  instead  of  going  into  equipped  shops,  it 
would  go  into  the  new  Nevers  shops  of  the  Paris,  Lyon  et  Mediterranee  Railway, 
which  were  then  under  process  of  construction.  As  there  was  absolutely  nothing 
in  the  shops,  it  was  therefore  necessary  to  equip  them  completely  with  all  necessary 

159 


machine  tools,  travelling  cranes,  air  and  hand  tools,  steam,  water  and  air  piping 
power  and  lighting  lines  and  fixtures,  install  a  power  plant  and  furnish  steam  and 
install  lines  for  electric  current  (which  was  to  be  furnished  by  the  Continental 
Edison  Company  from  their  new  plant  at  Carchizy,  about  seven  kilometers 
from  the  shops),  and  provide  a  complete  supply  of  all  materials  necessary  for  the 
operation  of  the  shops  for  a  period  of  six  months.  The  Wilmington  and  Trenton 
shops  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  were  selected  as  being  of  about  the  same 
capacity  as  the  Nevers  sho^js,  and  brief  studies  of  the  equipment  and  supplies, 
were  made,  resulting  in  the  formation  of  a  complete  list  of  tools,  machinery, 
storehouse,  drafting  room  and  office  cqiiijjment;  in  short,  everything  necessary  for 
placing  the  shops  in  operation  and  ruiming  them  for  a  period  of  six  months.  The 
order  for  all  tools  and  material  was  placed  by  th ;  Director  General  of  Railways, 
Mr.  Felton,  within  two  weeks  of  the  time  that  information  was  received  as  to 
supposed  conditions  in  the  Nevers  shops.  It  was  not  until  after  the  arrival  of 
the  organization  in  France  that  the  actual  situation  was  ascertained. 

In  accordance  with  orders  from  the  port  of  embarkation,  nuich  important 
equipment  was  shipped  from  Philadelphia  to  New  York  five  days  in  advance  of 
the  regiment,  in  order  to  insure  its  transportation  on  the  same  ship.  Practically 
none  of  this  equipment,  consisting  of  clothing,  cooking  facilities,  automobiles, 
motorcycles,  tools,  etc.,  was  loaded  on  the  boat,  with  the  result  that  the  regiment 
arrived  in  France  with  no  automobiles,  motorcycles  or  field  ranges,  and  very  little 
in  the  way  of  supplies  of  tools  and  clothing.  Three  days"  reserve  rations,  supposed 
to  be  issued  at  New  York,  were  not  to  be  found,  until,  upon  disembarking  at 
Liverpool,  they  were  discovered  buried  under  hundreds  of  tons  of  other  freight. 

Arriving  at  Liverpool  on  August  23d,  the  regiment  disembarked  the  following 
day  and  immediately  entrained  for  Rorden,  about  seven  miles  from  Aldershot, 
where  it  remained  in  Oxney  Camp  until  August  28th,  when  it  moved  to  South- 
ampton for  embarkation  for  France.  Owing  to  bad  weather  the  crossing  was 
delayed  until  the  following  day  and  the  regiment  landed  in  Le  Havre  on  the  morn- 
ing of  August  30,  1917. 

The  Regiment  Reaches  France 

At  Le  Havre  it  was  learned  that  the  shops  at  Nevers  were  not  ready  for  occu- 
pancy and  each  company  was  sent  to  a  separate  station  for  work  in  French  loco- 
motive repair  shops.  The  distribution  of  the  companies  was  as  follows:  Company 
A,  Regimental  Headquarters  and  First  Rattalion  Headquarters  to  St.  Nazaire; 
Company  R  to  Rordeaux;  Company  C  to  Rennes;  Company  D  to  Sotteville-les- 
Rouen;  Company  E  and  Second  RattaUon  Headquarters  to  St.  Pierre-des-Corps 
(near  Tours),  and  Company  F  to  OuUins,  near  Lyon.  With  the  exception  of  Com- 
pany A,  whose  work  was  locomotive  erection,  all  the  companies  were  engaged 
on  locomotive  repairs  in  the  French  shops. 

With  the  exception  of  the  detachments  at  St.  Nazaire  and  Nevers,  it  is  a 
difficult  matter  to  give  a  detailed  account  of  the  work  done  by  the  companies  in 
the  French  railway  shops.  None  of  the  companies  had  tools,  working  clothing, 
motor  transportation  or  cooking  equipment.  In  one  or  two  instances  it  was  possible 
to  purchase  a  few  American-made  tools,  but  for  the  most  part  the  men  had  to  make 
out  as  best  they  could  with  antiquated  French  equipment  or  to  laboriously  make 
for  themselves  such  tools  as  were  absolutely  necessary. 

160 


Every  company,  upon  arrival  at  its  destination,  met  with  an  enthusiastic 
reception  at  the  hands  of  the  French  authorities — and  were  looked  upon  with 
disapproval  by  the  French  workmen  with  whom  they  were  to  be  associated.  In 
some  instances  this  disapproval  was  the  result  of  the  French  workmen  receiving  the 
not  unnatural  impression  that  "les  Americains"  were  getting  easy  berths  back  of 
the  lines  while  the  French  workmen  would  be  released  for  service  at  the  front.  In 
other  cases  the  French  workmen  complained  that  the  Americans  set  a  higher  stand- 
ard of  production  than  they  could  meet  and  they,  therefore,  would  either  have  to 
work  longer  hours  or  take  less  pay.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  Americans  in  the  shops 
did  more  work  in  an  eight-hour  day  than  the  French  workmen  cUd  in  a  ten  or  twelve- 
hour  day,  though  the  hours  of  the  Americans  were  made  to  coincide  with  the  French 
as  far  as  possible  in  order  to  prevent  any  complaints  on  that  score.  As  an  instance 
of  fast  production  by  the  American  railroad  men,  a  case  at  St.  Nazaire  was  inter- 
esting. The  locomotives  erected  by  the  French  were  usually  completed  in  about 
three  weeks.  The  first  locomotive  received  by  the  Americans  was  erected  in  three 
days,  with  only  the  tools  found  on  the  locomotives  themselves.  The  French  shop 
men  declared  that  it  would  not  run,  and  great  was  their  astonishment  when  they 
saw  that  it  would. 

Antagonism  on  the  part  of  the  French  workmen  was  brief.  They  met  the 
Americans  outside  of  the  shops,  in  the  cafes  and  in  their  own  homes,  and  when  the 
companies  were  withdrawn,  there  was  not  an  instance  in  which  the  French,  the 
workmen  as  well  as  the  authorities,  did  not  protest  against  taking  them  away. 

At  St.  Nazaire,  the  oidy  preparation  that  had  been  made  for  the  men  was  the 
erection  of  wooden  barracks  and  the  placing  of  wooden  bunks.  There  were  no 
kitchens,  wash  houses  or  other  necessary  facihties.  Work  was  immediately  begun 
on  erecting  such  additional  buildings  as  were  needed. 

The  instructions  with  regard  to  the  erecting  shops  were  for  the  Americans  to 
get  out  six  locomotives  a  day.  There  were  no  tools  whatever,  and,  what  proved  to 
be  the  greatest  difficulty  of  all,  there  was  no  provision  of  any  kind  for  handling 
material.  It  was  manifestly  impossible  to  take  the  locomotive  parts  as  they  were 
unloaded  from  the  boats  and  put  them  into  the  shops.  It  was  discovered  almost 
immediately  that  when  a  ship  arrived  with  a  consignment  of  locomotives  it  might 
be  necessary  to  have  it  completely  unloaded  before  there  would  be  enough  parts 
available  to  start  work  on  a  single  locomotive.  This  meant  that  it  was  necessary  to 
build  storage  yards.  The  French  gave  the  Americans  the  use  of  a  plot  of  ground  for 
this  purpose,  but  it  was  swampy  in  character  and  until  the  roadbed  had  been  put  in 
shape  by  throwing  in  ballast  until  it  found  a  bottom,  the  locomotive  cranes  were  off 
the  tracks  on  an  average  of  three  or  four  times  a  day. 

There  were  few  tracks  running  from  the  docks  to  the  locomotive  shops  and 
these  were  constantly  being  used  by  the  French  to  transport  their  own  locomotives 
and  material.  As  a  result,  locomotive  chassis  and  boilers  had  to  be  left  on  the  docks 
until  it  was  possible  to  get  other  space  to  store  them,  lay  tracks  to  the  storage  yard, 
get  cars  to  haul  them  in,  and  fmally,  secure  cranes  to  load  the  parts  on  the  cars. 

The  history  of  the  19th  Engineers  at  St.  Nazaire,  like  Nevers,  is  a  story  of 
difficulty  after  difficulty  overcome,  of  work  done  in  spite  of  apparently  insurmount- 
able obstacles.  The  situation  at  the  docks  was  of  the  greatest  seriousness.  The 
only  cranes  there  were  being  used  night  and  day  by  the  French  for  unloading  of 
ships,  all  material  being  left  on  the  docks,  rather  than  use  the  cranes  for  loading 

161 


cars.  On  the  occasions  when  the  French  cranes  were  available  tor  use  by  the 
Americans,  there  was  difficulty  in  getting  operators  to  handle  them.  Finally  two 
thirty-five-ton  cranes  were  assigned  permanently  to  the  work ;  later  four  more  were 
secured,  two  of  which  were  used  for  loading  and  two  for  unloading  in  the  yards. 
Additional  storage  yard  space  was  secured  from  the  French,  more  tracks  laid  down, 
and  on  January  1,  1919,  there  was  a  total  storage  space  for  about  one  hundred 
locomotives  at  one  time. 

In  the  shops  themselves  there  was  space  for  about  six  or  eight  locomotives,  the 
tracks  being  placed  so  close  together  that  it  was  almost  impossible  for  a  man  to 
work  on  an  engine  when  there  was  another  one  on  the  adjoining  track,  in  addition  to 
which  there  was  so  little  room  for  handling  material  that  it  was  impossible  to 
maintain  any  great  degree  of  order.  There  were  two  large  overhead  cranes  in  this 
shop,  the  Americans  having  practically  the  exclusive  use  of  one  of  them  and  the  use 
of  the  other  for  lifts  that  required  two  cranes.  The  greater  part  of  the  crane  work 
had  to  be  done  at  night,  when  the  French  were  not  working  in  the  shops. 

The  difficulty  in  getting  material  to  replace  parts  that  were  missing  from  the 
packing  boxes  upon  arrival  made  it  necessary  to  send  men  to  Nantes,  Angers  and 
surrounding  country  in  an  endeavor  to  secure  the  material  to  make  such  parts. 
Buying  from  the  French  was  necessitated  by  the  fact  that  placing  requisitions 
through  regular  channels  did  not  bring  satisfactory  results. 

Eventually  the  American  forces  were  given  the  use  of  another  shop,  which  had 
been  used  by  the  French  for  the  manufacture  of  railway  guns  (which  same  guns 
were  on  one  occasion  pointed  out  to  a  party  of  visitors  as  being  part  of  the  work  of 
the  regiment),  and  there  was  a  corresponding  increase  in  production. 

During  the  period  from  September  30,  1917,  to  December  .30.  1918,  the  men  of 
the  19th  Engineers  at  St.  Nazaire  erected  a  total  of  1,124  locomotives,  in  addition 
to  building  storage  yards,  laying  tracks,  and  building  from  locomotive  packing 
boxes  practically  an  entire  new  camp,  capable  of  accommodating  over  a  thousand 
men,  truly  a  notable  achievement. 

Another  phase  of  the  work  done  by  the  St.  Nazaire  Contingent  was  the  repair 
of  steamship  boilers  by  a  detachment  under  Captain  T.  L.  ISIallam,  the  work  being 
done  in  such  a  manner  as  to  merit  the  highest  commendation  of  the  naval  author- 
ities, and  which  resulted  in  a  citation  for  Captain  Mallam. 

Time  Records  Established 

It  has  been  said  that  the  time  consumed  by  the  French  in  the  erection  of 
locomotives  was  three  weeks,  and  that  the  first  locomotive  erected  by  the  Amer- 
icans was  completed  in  three  days.  On  December  30,  1918,  the  average  time  in 
which  a  locomotive  was  erected  in  the  American  shops  was  twenty-six  hours,  and 
the  fastest  time  in  which  any  one  locomotive  was  built  was  eleven  hours  and  ten 
minutes. 

The  situation  at  Nevers,  where  the  first  men  of  the  19th  arrived  on  December 
23,  1917,  compared  favorably  with  that  at  St.  Nazaire,  in  so  far  as  lack  of  material 
and  all  working  and  living  facilities  were  concerned.  \  astly  larger  in  scope  than  the 
operation  at  St.  Nazaire,  with  each  individual  department  presenting  a  multiplicity 
of  problems,  the  results  were  more  than  could  have  been  expected  of  any  organi- 
zation. 

The  shops,  far  from  being  completed  and  lacking  only  tools  and  equipment, 

162 


had  progressed  no  further  than  the  laying  of  the  foundations  of  the  main  building. 
No  machinery  of  any  kind  had  been  installed  and  the  power  plant  at  Garchizy, 
instead  of  being  in  operation,  had  progressed  only  to  the  point  of  partial  erection  of 
the  building,  no  machinery  having  been  installed.  In  addition,  no  arrangements 
whatever  had  been  made  for  taking  care  of  the  troops,  though  it  had  been  under- 
stood that  this  matter  was  to  have  been  taken  care  of  by  the  French. 

Cars  of  railway  material  began  to  arrive  in  November,  and  an  organization 
was  established  to  handle  the  unloading  and  storing  of  it.  During  November  and 
December,  270  carloads  of  material  came  in,  much  of  this  being  heavy  machinery 
for  installation  in  the  shops.  There  were  no  cranes  available  and  all  the  unloading 
of  this  machinery  and  material  had  to  be  done  by  hand.  Company  E  was  ordered 
to  Nevers,  and  upon  arrival  there  was  drawn  upon  for  personnel  for  the  stores 
department,  and  a  gang  of  mechanics  was  organized  and  assigned  to  the  erection 
of  locomotive  cranes.  By  the  first  of  February  two  cranes  had  been  erected  and 
greatly  facilitated  the  unloading  of  material,  845  cars  of  which  arrived  during 
January  and  February.  The  development  of  the  storehouse  work  and  organi- 
zation, like  that  of  every  other  operation  at  Nevers,  was  a  matter  of  gradual 
growth  and  increased  efficiency  as  new  men  were  trained  to  the  work. 

It  is  impossible,  in  a  brief  space,  to  give  even  a  fair  idea  of  what  was  accom- 
phshed.  For  example,  the  power  plant  at  Garchizy.  which  was  supposed  to  be 
ready  to  supply  power,  was  finally  taken  over,  the  building  construction  completed, 
machinery  installed  and  the  plant  operated  by  Americans.  In  the  meantime,  a 
complete  electrical  plant  had  been  installed  in  the  shops  by  the  electrical  depart- 
ment, furnishing  light  and  power  to  both  the  shops  and  the  camp. 

The  growth  of  the  various  departments  is  well  illustrated  by  the  development 
of  the  blacksmith  shop.  This  shop  when  started  in  the  early  part  of  1918,  con- 
sisted of  two  blacksmiths  and  two  helpers,  working  in  a  small  shed.  In  August, 
1918,  the  blacksmith  shop  occupied  over  half  an  acre  of  ground  and  employed 
nearly  a  hundred  men. 

In  addition  to  the  work  done  in  the  Nevers  shops  proper,  car  shops  were  erected 
for  the  repair  of  freight  cars,  and  a  track  system  laid  down  with  a  capacity  of  750 
cars.  From  September  to  December,  1918,  inclusive,  the  car  shops  turned  out, 
repaired,  a  total  of  1,863  cars. 

T  nder  the  supervision  of  the  electrical  department  was  the  maintenance  of 
American  ambulance  trains.  The  first  order  consisted  of  fifteen  trains,  with  two 
more  procured  from  the  French,  but  finding  that  the  number  would  be  inadequate, 
an  order  was  placed  with  the  English  to  furnish  thirty-three  additional  trains. 
Only  four  of  the  additional  thirty-three  trains  had  been  delivered  when  the  armis- 
tice was  signed,  and  the  order  for  the  balance  of  twenty-nine  was  canceled.  One  of 
the  greatest  difficulties  in  handling  the  trains  was  the  variation  in  ecjuipment  and 
parts.  There  were,  in  the  first  fifteen  trains  received,  seven  dill'erent  types,  none 
of  the  parts  of  which  were  interchangeable,  necessitating  considerable  additional 
work  on  the  part  of  the  supply  department,  to  say  nothing  of  the  delay  in  getting 
additional  parts  when  needed. 

Naturally,  with  the  growth  of  the  shops  themselves,  there  was  need  for  in- 
creased personnel,  which,  in  turn,  required  additional  camp  space.  Such  of  the 
companies  still  on  duty  in  outlying  French  shops  as  could  be  released  from  this 
work  were  brought  to  Nevers,  where  a  camp  was  built  capable  of  housing  4,000 

16.3 


men,  and  additional  men,  most  of  them  with  no  raikoad  experience,  secured  from 
replacement  camps.  Camp  Stephenson,  as  it  was  named,  was  undoubtedly  one 
of  the  best  in  France,  with  its  complete  sanitary  system,  company  shower  baths, 
a  Y.  M.  C.  A.  building  capable  of  seating  1,400  men,  and  its  well-stocked  library. 
Classes  in  mechanical  subjects  were  being  conducted  at  Camp  Stephenson  some 
time  before  the  organization  of  the  regular  A.  E.  F.  schools. 

An  idea  of  the  magnitude  of  the  Nevers  operation  may  be  gained  from  the 
fact  that  the  camp  itself  occupied  about  twenty-five  acres  of  land,  the  car  shops 
about  twenty  acres  and  the  locomotive  shops  forty-five  acres. 

In  February,  1919,  the  first  detachment  left  Camp  Stephenson  en  route  for 
the  United  States.  The  remaining  personnel  was  returned  in  detachments  of  about 
500  men,  the  last  to  leave  being  a  small  detachment  from  the  supply  depot 
who  remained  behind  on  special  duty  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  in  turning  over 
the  shops,  supplies  and  equipment  to  the  French. 

The  work  accomplished  by  the  19th  Regiment  of  Engineers  is  something  thai 
cannot  be  appreciated  except  by  those  fully  acquainted  with  the  difficulties  that 
were  continually  encountered  and  overcome,  both  at  home  and  abroad.  With 
few  exceptions,  officers  and  men  had  had  no  previous  military  experience,  their 
training  consisting,  on  the  part  of  most  of  them,  of  that  obtained  during  the  few 
weeks  spent  in  barracks  in  Philadelphia,  but  they  developed  a  military  organi- 
zation and  left  behind  a  record  of  achievement,  individually  and  as  an  organi- 
zation, of  which  any  regiment  may  well  be  proud. 

AIRMEN  OF  PHILADELPHIA 

In  the  brief  period  that  has  elapsed  since  the  ending  of  the  World  War,  it 
has  not  been  possible  to  secure  complete  and  accurate  records  of  either  the  airmen 
of  Philadelphia  or  their  wonderful  feats,  performed  on  both  the  training  camps 
and  fighting  fields. 

Many  a  brave  pilot  gave  up  his  fife  in  the  training  of  the  material  that  was 
later  to  be  flying  fighters  over  the  battle  fines  of  France.  Heroes  all:  no  matter 
the  part  they  took,  or  whether  at  the  present  writing  a  record  of  their  brave  deeds 
be  not  obtainable. 

Philadelphia,  standing  for  years,  as  one  of  the  great  cities  foremost  in  aviation, 
from  the  birth  of  that  art,  it  was  but  natural  that  hundreds  of  its  bravest  young 
citizens  should  enter  the  air  service.  In  this  brief  sketch  are  included  as  Phila- 
delphians  many  familiar  names  of  airmen  who  actually  reside  in  towns  adjoin- 
ing, but  who  are  known  as  Philadelphians  on  account  of  their  close  association 
with  the  city  in  business  and  social  life. 

A  greater  part  of  this  history  has  been  from  necessity  drawn  from  cable  and 
telegraphic  messages  and  some  inaccuracies  are  bound  to  occur,  as  official  records 
are  not  as  yet  accessible. 

Much  credit  is  due  the  press  of  Philadelphia  for  the  vast  amount  of  material 
furnished  regarding  Philadelphians  in  the  air  service,  their  deeds  and  exploits. 
The  files  of  all  Philadelphia  papers  have  been  carefully  searched  for  a  part  of  the 
records  following. 

The  Air  Service  Journal  of  September,  1917,  states  that  "the  complete  roster 
of  the  Americans  who  volunteered  and  were  accepted  for  active  duty  with  the 

164 


French  Aviation  Service  has  never  been  pubhshed."  In  the  list  of  names  that  is 
given  by  the  Journal,  we  find  the  following  Philadelphians,  some  of  whom  were 
still  in  training  at  the  French  aviation  schools  at  Avord  and  Etampes. 

Charles  J.  Biddle,  Avord  School;  JuUan  C.  Biddle,  killed  in  action;  Leo  J. 
Brennan,  accepted,  but  not  assigned;  Lewis  LesUe  Byers,  accepted,  not  assigned; 
James  A.  Connelly,  Jr.,  Avord  School;  John  Armstrong  Drexel,  Lafayette  Esca- 
drille;  Joseph  Flynn,  Avord  School;  Charles  Kerwood,  Avord  School;  Upton  S. 
Sullivan,  awaiting  acceptance;  Stephen  Tyson,  Avord  School. 

On  May  5,  1917,  Robert  Glendinning,  prominent  banker  and  aviator,  received 
from  Secretary  of  War  Baker,  his  commission  as  a  Major  in  the  Aviation  Section 
of  the  Officers'  Reserve  Corps  of  the  United  States  Army.  Major  Glendinning 
had  long  been  one  of  the  leading  promoters  of  better  aviation  service  for 
the  Army. 

In  the  autumn  of  1916  the  Major  made  a  tour  of  the  Army  aviation  schools 
of  France  and  shortly  after  his  return,  gave  a  practical  demonstration  how  Phila- 
delphia might  be  bombarded  from  the  air,  by  flying  over  the  City  Hall  and  dropping 
imitation  bombs  in  the  heart  of  the  city.  It  was  through  the  efforts  of  Major 
Glendinning  that  the  Philadelphia  School  of  Aviation  at  Essington  was  taken  over 
by  the  government  as  a  training  school  for  Army  aviators. 

Major  Glendinning  is  a  native  of  Philadelphia  and  was  graduated  from  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  class  of  1888.  He  is  head  of  the  firm  of  Robert  Glen- 
dinning &  Co.,  bankers  and  brokers.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Aero  Club  of  Penn- 
sylvania and  a  Spanish-American  War  veteran.  For  his  illustrious  services  in 
France  and  Italy  he  was  later  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Lieutenant  Colonel.  He 
was  decorated  by  the  King  of  Italy  and  served  in  the  balloon  section  during  the 
latter  part  of  the  war. 

The  body  of  Julian  C.  Biddle  of  the  Lafayette  Escadrille  who  had  been  re- 
ported missing  and  probably  killed  in  action  on  August  18,  1917,  was  washed 
ashore  by  the  tide  at  Egmond-Aan-Zee,  on  the  north  coast  of  Holland  on  Septem- 
ber 2d.  The  manner  in  which  Biddle  met  his  death  has  never  been  cleared  up. 
AU  that  is  known  is  that  the  aviator  ascended  at  St.  Pol,  France,  to  carry  dispatches 
to  Dunkirk,  and  disappeared,  nothing  definite  being  known  as  to  his  fate  until  his 
body  was  washed  in  by  the  sea.  How  he  got  over  the  sea  is  not  understood,  as 
his  route  was  entirely  over  land.  The  most  probable  solution  seems  to  be  that 
the  Philadelphia  airman  became  involved  with  hostile  flying  forces  and  that  the 
struggle  carried  him  seaward.  The  burial  of  his  body  in  the  Httle  coast  village  was 
made  with  due  honor. 

Prominent  among  the  American  aces  of  the  Great  War  stands  the  name  of 
Major  Charles  J.  Biddle,  Pennsylvania's  first  "ace."  Major  Biddle's  record  as  an 
airman  is  an  enviable  one.  He  was  first  a  member  of  the  Escadrille  73  of  the 
French  Aviation  Service;  then  of  the  famous  Lafayette  Squadron,  and  later  was 
Commanding  Officer  of  the  13th  American  Pursuit  Squadron.  Still  later  he  was 
made  Commanding  Officer  of  the  4th  American  Pursuit  group,  composed  of  four 
squadrons.  It  was  on  the  second  day  of  the  advance  on  the  Western  Front,  late 
in  the  summer  of  1918,  that  Major  Biddle  carried  out  one  of  his  bravest  deeds.  At 
an  altitude  of  18,000  feet  Major  Biddle  lay  in  wait  for  a  German  two-seater,  which 
at  once  accepted  his  challenge.  After  a  considerable  expenditure  of  ammunition 
on  both  sides,  the  observer  of  the  German  machine  was  shot  through  the  head. 

16.S 


The  German  pilot,  however,  continued  to  fight  until  the  synchronizing  gear  of  his 
machine  gun  was  disabled.    He  then  attempted  to  escape  but  was  wounded. 

Major  Biddle  preferred  to  capture  the  German  and  gradually  drove  him 
towards  the  American  lines  and  they  both  made  a  perfect  landing  just  north  of 
Nancy,  in  the  Vosges. 

Major  Biddle  was  cited  several  times  for  his  bravery.  He  was  severely  wounded 
in  May,  1918,  during  one  of  his  many  air  battles.  Major  Biddle  has  eight  official 
victories  to  his  credit  and  many  decorations. 

High  honors  were  given  Captain  J.  D.  Este  who  served  with  the  aviation 
section  of  the  Signal  Corps  in  France.  He  was  cited  for  extraordinary  bravery 
while  leading  his  patrol  in  an  offensive  over  the  enemy's  lines. 

The  official  citation  states  that  on  September  13,  1918,  while  leading  his  patrol 
in  an  offensive  at  Chambley,  his  five  machines  were  attacked  from  above  and 
behind  by  an  enemy  formation  of  seven  single  seaters.  It  adds:  "Although  out- 
numbered and  in  a  very  disadvantageous  position,  he  did  not  hesitate  to  lead  his 
patrol  to  the  attack."  The  citation  further  states  that  "through  the  combat  that 
followed  Lieutenant  Este  fought  with  the  greatest  bravery,  in  spite  of  the  fact 
that  he  himself  was  attacked  by  two  enemy  planes,  which  fired  at  him  from  point 
blank  range  from  the  rear  and  above.  By  his  skill  and  courage  he  was  able  to 
keep  his  formation  together,  and  they  succeeded  in  shooting  down  three  of  the 
enemy  planes  of  which  Lieutenant  Este  himself  destroyed  one  and  drove  another 
out  of  control." 

Captain  Este  had  the  honor  of  iljing  the  first  American-made  aeroplane  with 
a  Liberty  motor.  He  enlisted  after  war  was  declared  and  trained  at  Essington  and 
Kelly  Held.  Texas,  afterward  being  sent  to  France.  While  there  he  was  assigned 
to  training  and  organization  work.  Press  reports  credit  Captain  Este  with  five 
official  victories  over  Hun  planes  and  fuUy  twice  that  number  unofficially. 

Lieutenant  J.  Sydney  Owen  was  another  Philadelphian  who  served  in 
France.     Lieutenant  Owen  received  citations  in  recognition  of  his  work. 

One  of  the  saddest  incidents  at  the  close  of  the  war  was  the  tragic  death  of 
Captain  Hobart  Hare  Baker,  familiarly  known  throughout  the  country  as  "Hobey 
Baker."  Captain  Baker  was  killed  on  liis  last  aeroplane  llight,  shortly  after  making 
his  plans  to  return  to  his  home.  This  was  in  a  practice  flight  from  the  aerodrome 
at  Toul.  France,  December,  1918.  Captain  Baker  was  one  of  the  best  known 
college  athletes  of  recent  years.  He  became  interested  in  aviation  and  started 
flying  long  before  the  United  States  entered  the  war.  Later  he  enUsted  and  was 
sent  to  Essington  as  an  Instructor  in  Aviation.  After  a  few  months  he  went  over- 
seas and  became  a  member  of  the  Lafayette  Escadrille,  and  later  with  the  forma- 
tion of  the  American  flying  units  in  France,  he  was  transferred  to  one  of  these. 
Glowing  tribute  was  paid  Captain  Baker  by  Major  Charles  J.  Biddle,  who  was  in 
command  of  the  group  in  which  Baker  served. 

Major  Biddle  said  that  Captain  Baker  during  his  services  at  the  front  brought 
down  three  German  machines  in  the  last  ten  days  of  the  war.  The  last  machine 
attacked  by  Baker  was  20,000  feet  in  the  air  and  was  carrying  propaganda  leaflets 
to  be  dropped  among  American  infantry.  "There  was  no  finer  man  or  a  better 
pilot"  said  Major  Biddle.  "He  was  very  skilful  and  particularly  fearless.  He 
would  have  had  an  even  greater  record  than  he  did  if  it  had  been  possible  for  him 
to  have  been  at  the  front  more  than  he  was." 

166 


One  of  the  bright  spots  of  war's  gloom  are  the  letters  which  came  to  the  mother 
of  Lieutenant  Charles  Wallace  Drew  who  was  connected  with  the  Thirteenth  Aero 
Squadron  while  fighting  in  France.  In  September,  1918,  he  cabled  his  mother  the 
message:  ""Well  and  happy.  Have  downed  my  first  Boche  and  am  on  a  three 
days'  permission."  Later  in  his  letters  he  writes:  "I  am  absolutely  jolly,  well 
satisfied  with  my  plane,  my  guns,  my  squadron,  our  quarters,  life,  and  best  of  all 
our  captain,  who  is  no  other  than  Captain  Charles  Biddle  of  the  old  Lafayette — 
a  splendid  fighter  and  a  thorough  gentleman." 

The  official  confirmation  of  Drew  downing  his  Hun  says  he  was  attacked  by 
four  Fokkers.  He  attacked  the  first,  a  plane  which  was  firing  on  Lieutenant  Free- 
man. He  then  later  attacked  a  Fokker  which  was  climbing  to  get  on  the  tail  of 
his  machine.  He  observed  a  number  of  his  shots  made  direct  hits  on  the  motor 
and  wings  of  his  enemy's  plane  and  he  followed  same  down  to  an  altitude  of  600 
meters  and  when  last  seen  the  enemy  was  going  down  in  smoke. 

Soon  after  this  exploit  Captain  Drew  was  shot  down  by  German  planes  and 
he  was  captured.  An  explosive  shell  had  torn  his  right  arm  and  he  was  taken  to  a 
German  hospital  where  the  arm  was  amputated  in  order  to  save  his  life.  For  his 
bravery  Lieutenant  Drew  was  officially  cited  and  awarded  the  Distinguished  Cross. 

"I  am  not  a  hero  and  I  am  not  an  ace."  Captain  Drew  protests  when  his 
fellow  citizens  make  a  "fuss"  over  him.    "  I  just  did  the  task  assigned  to  me." 

Late  in  February,  1918,  General  Pershing  sent  word  to  Washington  of  the 
death  in  France  of  Arthur  H.  Wilson,  a  cadet  in  the  American  Aviation  Service. 

As  no  details  were  given  it  is  believed  his  death  was  accidental,  as  letters  re- 
ceived from  him  a  short  period  before  indicate  that  he  had  just  finished  his  test 
and  had  not  begun  combats  with  the  enemy. 

Wilson,  although  a  Philadelphian,  was  studying  and  teaching  in  New 
York  when  war  broke  out  between  the  United  States  and  Germany — that  very 
day  he  erdisted  and  was  transferred  to  the  aviation  service. 

He  finished  his  examination  and  was  sent  to  Cornell  where  he  did  his  ground 
work.  From  there  he  was  sent  to  France  as  one  of  the  "honor  men,"  the  best  in 
his  class.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  Arts  Department  of  the  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania in  the  class  of  1912. 

In  this  short  chapter  it  is  not  possible  to  give  a  record  of  the  brave  deeds  or 
even  names  of  all  the  Philadelphians  in  the  flying  service.  At  a  later  date  no  doubt 
a  more  voluminous  history  wiU  be  compiled  wherein  a  complete  record  of  all  who 
took  part  in  the  Great  War  will  be  given  credit  for  the  work  they  did. 

The  deeds  recited  above  are  ex-ploits  of  some  of  Philadelphia's  most  prominent 
and  well-known  aviators,  but  deeds  just  as  brilliant  and  daring  were  undoubtedly 
performed  by  the  other  flying  fighters  as  the  following  press  account  will  show. 

Twenty  Philadelphia  aviators  fell  to  their  deaths  abroad  during  the  vast 
operations  which  marked  the  domination  of  the  air  by  the  Allies.  Nine  more  were 
brought  down  by  the  Huns  and  placed  in  German  prison  camps  until  after  the 
armistice.  These  figures  show  that  in  the  fighting  in  the  air  this  city  contributed 
in  the  same  unsparing  manner  that  marked  the  sacrifice  of  Philadelphia  lads  in  the 
battles  on  the  soil  of  France.  To  offset  these  sad  fatalities  Philadelphia  can  lay 
claim  to  many  signal  honors  bestowed  as  the  results  of  the  bravery  of  her  sons  in 
aerial  conflict.  The  Distinguished  Service  Cross  of  the  American  Army  has 
been  won  by  three  local  aviators,  one  of  whom  paid  the  supreme  price  in  the  deed 

167 


which  won  for  him  the  coveted  honor.  France  has  pinned  the  Croix  de  Guerre  on 
the  breasts  of  three  other  Pliiladelphia  aviators  and  one  of  that  trio  also  has  made 
his  last  great  flight.  Four  other  Philadelphia  flyers  engaged  with  the  Italian  armies 
during  the  disastrous  campaign  edong  the  Piave  and  later  in  the  splendid  victory 
which  thrust  Austria  from  the  war  have  won  the  ItaUan  Service  Ribbon  for 
conspicuous  bravery. 

Those  who  died  abroad  in  combat  or  accident  are  as  follows:  Captain  Hobart 
Amory  Hare  Baker,  Lieutenant  Horace  Baker,  Lieutenant  Julian  C.  Biddle, 
Lieutenant  David  Bispham,  Jr.,  Lieutenant  Mortimer  P.  Crane,  Lieutenant 
Richard  Foulke  Day,  Lieutenant  William  L.  Deetjen,  Lieutenant  Norton  Downs, 
Lieutenant  Charles  T.  Evans,  Jr.,  Lieutenant  William  F.  Gallagher,  Lieutenant 
Norman  Hughes,  Lieutenant  Warren  T.  Kent,  Lieutenant  Paul  B.  Kurtz,  Lieu- 
tenant Harold  B.  Merz,  Lieutenant  Wistar  Morris,  Lieutenant  Hilary  B.  Rex, 
Lieutenant  Phihp  N.  Rhinelander,  Lieutenant  Walter  M.  Smyth,  Lieutenant 
H.  Pennington  Way,  Corporal  H.  H.  Houston  Woodward.  Of  the  above.  Lieutenant 
H.  Pennington  Way  was  awarded  the  Distinguished  Cross  (posthumously),  while  Cor- 
poral H.  H.  Houston  Woodward  was  awarded  the  Croix  de  Guerre  after  his  death. 

The  nine  who  were  brought  down  behind  the  German  Unes  and  placed  in  prison 
camps  were:  Lieutenant  Earl  Adams,  Corporal  Lewis  L.  Byers,  Lieutenant  Charles 
W.  Drew,  Lieutenant  Brooke  Edwards,  Sergeant  Charles  Wayne  Kerwood,  Lieu- 
tenant Henry  Carvill  Lewis,  Lieutenant  Stewart  A.  McDoweU,  Lieutenant  John 
Joseph  Meredith,  Lieutenant  Frederick  Westing. 

The  following  shows  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross,  Croix  de  Guerre  and 
Italian  Ribbon  awards  for  Philadelphia.  This  is  the  official  list  as  announced  by 
the  government: 

Awarded  Distinguished  Service  Cross :  Major  Charles  J .  Biddle ,  Lieutenant  Chas. 
W.  Drew,  Captain  J.  Dickinson  Este,  Lieutenant  H.  Pennington  Way  (deceased). 

Awarded  Croix  de  Guerre:  Major  Charles  J.  Biddle  (with  palm),  Sergeant 
Charles  Wayne  Kerwood,  Corporal  H.  H.  Houston  Woodward  (deceased). 

Awarded  ItaUan  Service  Ribbons:  Lieutenant  Horace  Drever,  Lieutenant 
George  N.  Hyland,  Lieutenant  Earl  D.  Ranck,  Lieutenant  Richard  Goodman. 

Major  Biddle  also  received  the  Cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  (French)  and 
the  Order  of  Leopold  (Belgian). 

THE  LAST  FLIGHT 

0  God  of  France,  we  pilots  pray 
For  France's  safety,  and  obey 

Thy  pointed  finger  in  the  gale. 

Hail  to  Thee,  Master  of  Storms,  All  Hail ! 
Keep  me  this  day  from  sudden  sorrow, 
Spare  me  today  for  I'm  home  tomorrow. 
Guard  me  this  day  'gainst  the  weakened  wire. 
The  tiny  buUet  of  flying  fire. 

The  treacherous  wings  that  would  buckle  or  break. 

To  drag  me  down  in  its  whistling  wake. 
The  morrow  brings  respite  from  fighting  and  flying — 
And  a  breath  of  the  Seine  ere  day  is  dying. 

(Dabney  Horton,  Sergeant,  French  Aviation  Service.) 
168 


THE  AMERICAN  FOREIGN  LEGION* 

Very  few  civilians  realize  how  varied  were  the  efforts  to  make  the  American 
Army  the  most  efficient  fighting  force  ever  produced  in  the  history  of  the  world. 

One  of  the  problems  confronting  those  in  charge  of  the  development  of  the 
Army  was  caused  by  the  number  of  men,  particularly  among  the  draftees,  who 
spoke  little  or  no  Enghsh,  and  whose  conception  of  the  reasons  for  America's  entry 
into  the  war  were  vague  or  even  worse.  For  example  a  National  Army  soldier  con- 
fidentially told  a  Philadelphian  in  the  Army  "Y"  that  "The  Kaiser,  he  treat  his 
people  so  bad  we  go  over  to  help  them." 

Therefore,  an  experiment  was  made  at  Camp  Meade  which  resulted  in  the 
formation  of  what  was  popularly  known  as  the  "American  Foreign  Legion."  In 
September,  1918,  the  Fifth  Development  Battalion  of  the  154th  Depot  Brigade 
was  formed  and  was  composed  entirely  of  foreign-born  and  foreign-speaking  men. 
This  unit  was  organized  largely  through  the  efforts  of  Brigadier  General  E.  E. 
Hatch,  who  felt  that  there  was  merit  in  so  uniting  tongues  and  races  that  a  real 
esprit  de  corps  would  be  engendered. 

About  50  per  cent  of  the  men  in  this  battalion  were  Philadelphians  and  three 
of  the  original  officers  were  from  this  city:  Captain  Sigmund  J.  Laschenski,  Captain 
Eugene  Prostrednik  and  First  Lieutenant  Henry  F.  Vache. 

Each  company  had  interpreters,  and  companies  and  platoons  were  composed 
exclusively  of  Italians,  Poles  and  men  of  other  nationaUties.  The  companies 
were  officered  by  those  who  not  only  spoke  Enghsh  but  also  the  native  language 
of  their  men  and  the  various  commands  when  given  in  EngUsh  were  repeated  in  a 
foreign  tongue.  In  this  way  the  men  learned  how  the  vai'ious  commands  sounded 
when  given  in  English  and  they  were  taught  how  to  execute  the  commands  by  di- 
rections in  their  own  language. 

Real  Americanization  work  was  undertaken.  The  men  were  taught  to  read 
and  write  English,  and  American  sports  were  explained  and  played.  Great  rivadry 
sprang  up  between  all  nationalities  which  led  to  gieat  efficiency  in  many  ways. 

The  attention  of  the  General  Staff  at  Washington  was  drawn  to  the  way  in 
which  this  scheme  worked  out  and  although  at  fiist  it  was  beUeved  that  as  a  result 
of  this  classification  a  belter  organized  labor  battalion  only  would  result,  in  October, 
1918,  the  battaUon  was  fuUy  equipped  for  overseas  duty  and  was  reviewed  as  an 
infantry  unit  at  Camp  Meade  by  officers  from  the  General  Staff  at  Washington. 

The  result  of  this  review  was  that  a  number  of  the  officers  were  detached  from 
the  battaUon  and  sent  to  camps  elsewhere  to  aid  in  the  organization  of  similar  units. 

In  November  the  battalion  made  final  preparations  for  overseas  duty,  but  the 
signing  of  the  armistice  prevented  and  soon  after  November  11th  the  battalion 
was  demobilized  and  was  the  first  to  leave  Camp  Meade. 

THE   16TH   INFANTRY— 1ST   DIVISION 
By  Thomas  S.  Cline,  Former  Chaplain 

The  story  of  the  16th  Infantry  in  France  is  an  epitome  of  America's  achieve- 
ment in  the  World  War.  It  tells  how  a  regiment,  originally  composed  of  regulars, 
was  reorganized  for  overseas  service,  whisked  from  the  Mexican  border  3,000 

*By  the  Secretary  of  the  Philadelphia  War  History  Committee.  Information  supplied 
by  Lieutenant  Vache. 

169 


miles  across  the  country,  spirited  for  another  3,000  miles  over  the  sea,  trained  in 
the  art  of  trench  warfare  by  the  Chasseurs,  France's  best,  sent  into  the  trenches 
for  its  baptism  of  fire,  and  llien  after  a  month's  rest  plunged  into  the  supreme 
test  of  war's  crucible.  It  tells  also  how  the  16th  gained  all  the  objectives  assigned 
to  it.  in  each  of  the  great  battles  that  followed — Cantigny,  Soissons,  St.  Mihiel, 
the  Argonne  and  Sedan.  The  regiment  was  refilled  three  times  over.  The  origi- 
nals were  half  regulars,  half  volunteers;  the  replacements  were  National  Army 
men.     But  from  first  to  last  the  morale  of  the  16th  remained  constant  and  unbroken. 

A  number  of  Philadelphians  served  as  officers  and  enlisted  men  in  the  16th. 

The  regiment  sailed  from  Hoboken  for  France  on  June  1 1.  1917,  and  reached 
St.  Nazaire  on  June  26th.  The  four  regiments  which  landed  that  day  were  the 
first  American  regiments  to  land  in  a  European  country. 

On  the  1th  of  July,  1917,  a  battalion  of  the  16th  was  reviewed  by  .Marshal 
Joffre  and  President  Poincare  in  Paris.  When  the  parade  visited  the  tomb  of 
Lafayette,  General  Pershing  uttered  the  famous   words   "Lafayelte,  we  are  here." 

For  intensive  training  the  regiment  located  in  the  (jondrecourt  area,  not  far 
behind  the  sector  which  was  eventually  to  become  the  American  front.  During 
the  first  month  the  battalions  were  instructed  separately.  Then  followed  a  month 
of  actual  occupation  of  the  trenches  with  veteran  troops  in  a  quiet  sector.  The 
third  month  was  devoted  to  training  as  a  complete  division,  under  the  direction 
of  their  own  officers.  For  teachers  they  had  the  Alpine  Chasseurs.  The  splendid 
effect  of  the  training  of  these  brave  and  snappy  .\l|)inists  was  evident  in  the  dash 
and  finish  of  the  work  not  only  of  the  16th  Infantry  but  of  the  whole  of  the  1st 
Division  to  which  they  belong. 

The  Killi  Infantrymen  were  among  the  first  Americans  to  enter  the  trenches. 
They  were  the  first  to  shed  blood.  This  occurred  in  the  Bathlemont  raid  which 
took  place  November  3,  1917.  The  16th  had  refieved  the  French  in  what  had 
been  a  quiet  sector  near  the  city  of  \ancy.  The  (iermans.  wlio  had  been  infcjrmed 
of  the  arrival  of  the  Americans  by  traitorous  signals  from  Bathlemont  put  over 
a  box  barrage.  They  captured  several  prisoners  and  killed  three  men  of  the  16th, 
(Iresliam.  Fnright  and  Hay.  A  noble  nionuineiit,  erected  l)\  the  French  Covern- 
ment,  now  marks  the  place  where  they  fell. 

The  16th  did  vafiant  service  in  defending  the  Toul  sector  and  more  particularly 
the  Monldidier  sectoi':  but  the  first  great  oifensive  battle  in  uliich  they  partici- 
pated was  that  of  Soissons. 

The  force  of  the  German  Chateau-Thierry  offensive  had  estabUshed  a  deep 
Marne  salient  which  tempted  (ieneral  Pershing  to  make  a  counter-offensive.  In 
the  great  surprise  attack  which  he  launched  on  July  18tli,  the  1st  Division  was 
in  the  forefront.  For  five  days  the  16th  Infantry  fought  a  terrible  but  glorious 
battle.  Whole  companies  were  wiped  out  in  a  short  lime.  When  officers  were 
shot  down  non-commissioned  oflicers  took  command  of  battalions.  The  cas- 
ualty Ust  tells  the  story  of  hard  fighting.  Killed,  20 1;  wounded,  940;  missing,  590; 
total,  1,734. 

Never  before  nor  after  did  the  16th  suffer  such  heavy  losses  in  the  same  length 
of  time.  They  had  their  objectives  to  take  and  they  did  not  count  the  cost.  It 
was  something  to  recover  seven  or  eight  miles  of  the  sacred  soil  of  France,  but  that 
was  incidental.  They  were  helping  to  win  the  crucial  battle  wiiicli  was  destined 
to  turn  the  whole  tide  of  the  war. 

170 


mt,'  was 

free  to  cany  out  an  all-Aincrican  olVonsivo  on  a  large  scale  at  St.  Mihicl,  ajjain 
the  1st  Division  played  a  prominent  pait.  Here  the  16th  showed  sijinal  agfjres- 
siveness  and  efficiency  in  advancing  against  an  entrenclied  enemy,  through  for- 
midable wire  entanglements,  over  a  broken  terrain  made  m()i(>  (lifliciilt  by  rain, 
and  capturing  promptK  all  objectives  assigned  to  it. 

The  16th  went  over  the  top  in  the  Meuse-Argonne  battle  on  October  tth,  and 
the  ten  days  that  followed  were  terrible  days  in  the  story  of  the  regimiiiit.  On 
the  day  of  the  attack  they  pressed  forward  over  five  miles  against  the  stiffest  op- 
position of  (lermany's  best  warriors  and  took  their  objective,  the  town  of  Fleville. 
The  Ikl  Battalion  which  led  that  day  start(>d  out  in  the  morning  with  twenty  officers 
and  800  men.  When  they  dug  in  at  dusk  they  had  but  two  officers  and  210  men. 
Their  heroic  woik  had  enabled  the  regiment  to  carry  out  its  orders.  The  fact 
should  be  recorded  thai  llie  llJIh  Injanlry  was  Ihr  only  miil  not  only  of  the  Dirision 
hut  also  of  the  Army  that  was  able  to  take  all  of  its  (ihjeclires  that  first  terrible  day 
in  the  Arqonne. 

When  the  1st  Division  was  liually  rclic\ed  b;^  the  Hainbow  Di\isiou.  and  op- 
portunity came  for  the  calling  of  the  roll  it  was  found  that  of  the  sixty-two  officers 
and  approximately  2.600  men,  which  the  16th  sent  into  action,  seven  officers  and 
129  men  wen>  killed,  twenty-three  officers  and  iil2  men  were  wounded,  four 
officers  and  298  men  were  gassed,  one  officer  and  361  men  were  missing. 

This  casualty  list  of  thirty-five  officers  and  1.600  men  is  more  eloi|ueiit  than 
anything  we  can  say  regarding  the  heroic  battle  fought  by  the  boys  of  the  16th  on 
the  edge  of  the  Argonne  forest. 

In  the  citation  which  (ieneral  Pershitig  gave  the  Isl  Division  after  the  bailie 
of  the  Argonne,  he  said,  "The  Commander-in-Chief  has  noted  in  this  Disisioii  a 
special  pride  of  service  and  a  high  state  of  morale,  never  broken  by  hardship  or 
battle."     Those  words  applied  to  no  unit  more  truly  Ihan  to  Ihe  16th. 

The  16th  Infantry  was  the  only  unit  of  the  1st  Division  seriously  engaged  in 
the  Sedan  drive.  By  a  maneuver,  daring  in  its  conception  and  brilliant  in  its 
execution,  the  icgiment  reached  Hill  202  o\ crlookiiig  Sedan  before  the  battle  was 
called  oil'.  In  speaking  of  this  point  Ccneral  Pershing  said,  "The  strategical  goal 
which  was  our  highest  point  was  gained.  We  had  cut  the  enemy's  main  line  of 
commuiiicalioii,  and  nothing  bul  surrender  or  armislice  could  save  his  armies 
from  complete  disaster." 

On  December  1,  1918,  for  I  lie  fiist  time  in  history,  American  troops  marched 
on  German  soil.  The  16lh  liifanlry  led  Ihe  waN  along  Ihe  west  bank  of  the  Biver 
Moselle.  The  regiment  linally  took  slalion  in  the  region  of  Dernbach,  near  the  cir- 
cumference of  the  Coblenz  Bridgehead,  which  had  been  assigned  to  the  3d  Army. 
Here  they  remained  on  outpost  duty  for-  inaii\  UKtnths  until  the  glad  news  came 
that  they  were  to  have  the  honor  of  ictnining  to  the  I  nited  States  with  (Ieneral 
Pershing.  They  liad  been  the  liist  to  go  to  France  and  they  had  stayed  to  the 
finish. 

The  men  of  the  16th  take  just  pride  in  their  regiment.  1  hey  rejoici'  in  the  fact 
that  it  was  ready  for  immediate  service  when  America  entered  the  war;  because 
it  served  in  the  1st  Division;  becau.se  it  had  the  privilege  of  training  with  the 
Chasseurs;  because  it  was  the  first  to  shed  its  blood  in  contact  with  the  (iermans; 
because  it  never  failed  to  take  all  objectives  assigned  to  it;  because  it  never  yielded 

171 


a  foot  of  ground  to  the  enemy ;  because  it  was  among  the  first  American  troops  to 
march  on  German  soil;  because  it  is  entitled  to  wear  the  French  fourragere;  and 
because  the  Commander-in-Chief  honored  the  regiment  and  the  Division  by 
parading  with  them  in  New  York  and  Washington  upon  their  return  from 
France. 

The  following  tribute  was  paid  to  the  16th  Infantry  by  Brigadier  General 
Frank  Parker,  U.  S.  A.: 

To  the  16lh  Infantry  of  the  1st  Brigade  of  the  1st  Division  American  Expeditionary  Forces: 

To  those  officers  and  men  who  have  heltl,  faitlifnlly,  in  this  war,  the  posts  of  highest  honor, 
those  nearest  the  enemy; 

Who  with  their  sweat  and  blood  have  taken  the  ground  that  meant  victory; 

Who  have  impressed  upon  Europe,  in  the  supreme  test  of  battle,  the  quality  of  American 
manhood ; 

Surely  all  honor  is  due. 

Just  so  surely  is  this  honor  the  greatest  where  duty  was  most  difficult,  and  where  it  was  best 
done,  whether  by  colonel  or  private,  matters  not. 

Each  one  in  his  appointed  place,  each  one  to  his  own  work,  and  each  man's  duty  of  equal 
importance  in  the  face  of  death. 

There  is  to  my  thinking,  nothing  finer  in  this  world  than  the  self-etVacing  role  of  the  true 
private  soldier  of  infantry,  and  nowhere  in  this  war  has  this  private  soldier  of  infantry  been  truer 
to  his  country's  expectations  of  him  than  in  the  16th  Infantry. 

All  honor  then  to  these  men,  and  to  those  gallant  officers  and  non-commissioned  officers, 
who  taught,  inspired  and  led  these  private  Great-Hearts  in  the  van  of  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces. 

PHILADELPHIA  WOMEN   IN   THE  SERVICE* 

In  the  World  War  the  records  established  by  American  women  proved  that 
they  were  worthy  to  share  with  the  men  in  the  defense  of  the  nation,  for  they 
occupied  posts  of  danger  and  positions  of  grave  responsibility. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  first  woman  to  enlist  in  the  L  nited  States 
Navy  was  a  Philadelphian — Miss  Loretta  Walsh — who  was  sworn  in  by  Lieu- 
tenant Commander  F.  W.  Payne,  I  J.  S.  N.,  at  the  LTnited  States  Naval  Home  on 
Grays  Ferry  Road,  March  23,  1917.  From  that  date  it  is  estimated  by  Miss 
Margaret  Thomas,  Commander  of  American  Legion  Post  50,  yeomen  (f),  that  over 
2,000  Philadelphia  women  enhsted  in  the  Army,  Navy  and  Marine  Corps.  The 
majority  of  these  were  listed  as  yeomen  (f),  and  they  served  at  the  Navy  Yard,  at 
the  Commandant's  Headquarters,  12th  and  Chestnut  streets,  at  the  Naval  Home, 
in  the  disbursing  offices,  at  the  piers,  and  at  the  storehouses,  recruiting  stations 
and  shipyards.    In  fact,  at  any  plant  or  station  under  government  control. 

A  large  number  of  Pliiladelphia  women  served  in  Washington  and  in  other 
parts  of  the  country,  as  they  were  all  subject  to  transfer  from  point  to  point. 
The  greatest  nmnber  served  in  various  clerical  capacities,  as  stenographers,  tele- 
phone operators,  etc.,  and  in  the  Camouflage  Depaitment. 

Among  those  who  acted  as  stenographers  were  some  specially  trained  women 
who,  during  the  submarine  excitement  in  1917,  served  in  the  Communication 
Office  at  League  Island  and  elsewhere.  Time  and  again  these  women  were  on  duty 
for  twenty-four  hours  at  a  stretch,  and  a  great  deal  of  their  normal  work  was  done 
at  night.  The  only  yeomen  (f)  enlisted  in  the  Fourth  Naval  District  to  go  over- 
seas went  with  Naval  Base  No.  5. 


*Summarized   by   the   Secretary    of  the    Philadelphia   War   History   Committee. 

172 


There  were  twelve  "marinettes" 
stationed  in  Philadelphia,  of  which 
nine  were  residents  of  this  city.  Their 
work  was  at  the  Marine  Recniitinp 
Station,  at  the  Quartermaster  Corps" 
Depot  and  at  the  Advanced  Base 
Headquarters,  U.  S.  M.  C. 

Miss  Margaret  Thomas,  whose 
length  of  service  extended  from  April 
14,  1917,  until  January  1,  1920,  was  a 
Chief  Yeoman,  and  rendered  such  dis- 
tinguished service  under  Lieutenant 
Commander  Payne  as  to  receive  a 
special  letter  of  commendation  from 
him. 

At  least  one  thousand  Philadelphia 
women  served  as  nurses  in  the  Army. 
The  Nurses'  American  Legion  Post 
No.  412  is  being  rapidly  developed. 
Miss  Carohne  Waltemate,  who  was 
with  Base  Hospital  No.  10,  is  Secre- 
tary of  the  post.  This  post  is  known  as 
the  Fairchild  Post,  in  honor  of  Miss 

Helen  Fairchild,  who  also  was  with  Base  Hospital  No.  10  and  who  died  in  service 
overseas. 

Among  the  Philadelphia  nurses  who  were  decorated  for  bravery  were  two  who 
were  with  an  American  Base  Hospital  attached  to  the  British  Army.  These  women 
were  decorated  by  the  Prince  of  Wales  during  his  visit  to  America,  one  in  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  the  other  in  New  York  City. 


Courtesy  of  I'r.inl;  W,    lUilil.r,   tl 


Miss  Loretla  Walsh  of  Philadelphia.     First 
Yeoman  (If).    Sworn  in  March  ?.V,  1917. 


PHILADELPHIANS   IN  THE  TANK   CORPS 

The  original  plans  for  the  United  States  Tank  Corps  called  for  ten  heavy  and 
fifty  light  tank  corps  battalions.  However,  only  a  few  were  organized  and  a  still 
smaller  number  went  overseas  and  got  into  action.  In  the  light  tank  corps 
battalions  a  number  of  Philadelphia  men  served,  particularly  in  the  339th,  344th 
and  345th. 

The  recruiting  which  was  done  in  Philadelphia  during  the  summer  of  1918 
was  largely  for  the  light  tanks.  Those  men  who  did  serve  in  these  battalions  used 
French  tanks  with  double  Mercedes  engines. 

The  men  recruited  in  Philadelphia  and  elsewhere  during  the  special  efforts 
made  to  increase  the  personnel  of  the  "Treat  'em  Rough"  Corps  were  sent 
both  to  Tobyhanna  and  Gettysburg  in  Pennsylvania,  and  also  to  Camp  Polk,  at 
Raleigh,  N.  C,  and  to  Camp  Greene,  at  Charlotte,  N.  C. 

Of  the  heavy  tanks  corps  battalions,  the  301st  was  the  only  one  to  get  into 
major  actions.  It  operated  with  the  British  Army  in  support  of  the  27th  and  30th 
United  States  Divisions  in  the  second  Somme  offensive,  and  also  with  the  3d  and 
5th  Australian  Divisions.     These  heavy  tank  corps  battalions  operated  forty-eight 


17.3 


tanks  of  British  make,  driven  by  a  specially  designed  Recardo  engine,  which  re- 
placed the  Daimler  tractor  engine  in  the  original  British  tank.  The  .301st  Battalion, 
United  States  Tank  Corps,  was  largely  recruited  at  Camp  Meade,  and  Company 
A  was  mostly  Philadeljjhian  in  personnel.  From  Camp  Meade  the  battalion  went 
to  Camp  Merritt  and  sailed  in  March,  1918.  for  France. 

It  saw  service  in  four  major  actions:  first,  at  the  Hindenburg  Line,  in  the 
Bellicourt-Naury  sector,  September  29,  1918;  next,  in  the  second  battle  of  Cambrai, 
in  the  Brancourt  sector,  October  8,  1918,  and  in  two  major  actions  in  the  LaSelle 
River,  October  17  and  23,  1918.  After  this  date  it  was  held  in  reserve  at  the 
second  battle  of  Mens,  and  remained  with  the  British  forces  until  the  signing  of 
the  armistice. 

FIRST  (lator  l()6th)  TELEGRAPH  BATTALION,  S.  R.  C. 

By  p.  L.  Schauble 

When  by  Congressional  action,  just  before  our  country  declared  war,  a  Signal 
Reserve  was  created,  Philadelphia  took  the  lead,  and  as  a  result  the  plans  for 
organizing  the  First  Telegraph  Battalion  S.  R.  C.  were  made  in  this  city.  Although 
the  name  was  changed  later  to  the  406th  Telegraph  BattaUon,  S.  C,  U.  S.  A.,  its 
origintJ  name  was  far  more  appropriate.  There  are  many  reasons.  It  was  the 
first  reserve  telegraph  battalion  to  be  organized;  it  was  the  first  reserve  unit 
to  be  ordered  overseas;  it  was  the  first  complete  signal  unit  to  arrive  in  France; 
it  was  the  first  technical  unit  to  be  attached  to  General  Headquarters,  A.  E.  F. ; 
when  the  First  Army  Corps  was  formed,  it  was  the  first  technical  unit  designated 
as  a  part  of  the  corps. 

Congress  created  the  Signal  Reserve.  The  War  Department  organized  it.  It 
was  but  natural  for  the  Bell  System,  as  the  largest  communication  business  in  the 
world,  to  be  called  on  to  assist  in  the  work.  Plans  were  made  through  the  co- 
operation  of  the  \merican  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company,  the  parent  organi- 


Baltalion  at  1  niepenlenrr  llnll.  June  /.V.  1917. 
174 


zation  of  the  Bell  System,  for  the  recruiting  of  several  battalions  from  the  asso- 
ciated Bell  Companies.  It  was  due  to  the  enthusiasm  of  its  Mce-President  and 
General  Manager,  Leonard  H.  Kinnard,  who  later  became  its  President,  that  the 
Bell  Telephone  Company  of  Pennsylvania,  with  its  two  associated  companies,  which 
operate  Delaware  and  southern  New  Jersey,  were  the  first  actively  to  start  the  work. 
Out  of  6,000  male  employees,  1,400  volunteered.  As  a  result,  a  battalion  was 
organized,  one  company  from  Philadelphia  and  the  eastern  territory  and  the  other 
from  western  Pennsylvania.  Practically  the  entire  roster  of  this  organization, 
comprising  215  men  and  ten  officers,  was  drawn  from  the  employe  body. 

The  battalion  was  sworn  in  during  the  latter  part  of  April,  1917.  By  the 
middle  of  June  they  were  in  camp  at  Monmouth  Park,  New  Jersey,  later  known 
as  Camp  Alfred  Vail,  and  on  August  7th  were  on  shipboard,  arriving  at  St.  Nazaire 
on  the  21st.  In  less  than  four  months  these  raw  recruits  with  no  previous  military 
experience  had  been  whipped  into  shape  as  splendid  soldiers  and  landed  in  France 
ready  for  any  emergency. 

Just  a  word  as  to  the  quality  of  the  personnel  of  the  organization.  Is  it  not 
significant  that  three  men  from  this  organization  were  picked  to  accompany 
General  Pershing  when  he  left  the  United  States  to  take  up  his  duties  as  Com- 
mander of  the  as  yet  embryonic  A.  E.  F.?  Is  it  not  worthy  of  note  that  from  the 
handful  of  men  in  the  battalion,  there  developed  prior  to  the  end  of  the  war,  two 
lieutenant  colonels,  five  majors,  three  captains,  eight  first  lieutenants,  nine  second 
lieutenants  and  more  than  a  score  of  non-commissioned  officers? 

After  a  few  days  at  Base  Camp  No.  1,  in  St.  Nazaire,  the  battalion  was  assigned 
to  Chaumont  to  equip  with  telephone  service  the  buildings  which  in  a  very  few 
days  were  to  be  used  for  General  Pershing's  headquarters.  While  part  of  the  organi- 
zation was  rushing  this  work,  the  remainder  began  the  construction  of  a  line  from 
Chaumont  to  Neufchateau.  This  was  a  long  and  tedious  task.  American  tools 
and  materials  were  not  yet  available,  as  the  battalion  had  come  to  France  with 
one  of  the  earliest  convoys,  and  before  any  amount  of  equipment  had  begun  to 
arrive.    However,  the  line  was  completed  on  September  27th. 

While  Company  E  of  the  battalion  extended  the  line  south  toward  Langres 
from  Chaumont,  Company  D  wired  various  training  areas  preparatory  to  the 
arrival  of  American  divisions  who  were  to  be  trained  in  this  section.  The  entire 
winter  was  spent  in  this  preliminary  construction  work.  The  area  in  the  vicinity 
of  Vaucouleurs  was  completely  equipped  and  a  line  run  from  Vaucouleurs  back  to 
Chaumont. 

It  was  similar  to  work  back  home,  and  yet  it  was  different.  The  boom  of 
guns  could  be  heard  in  the  distance.  Not  far  away  men  were  falling,  wounded  or 
dead  in  the  very  cause  which  had  brought  these  men  with  their  "spurs"  and 
pliers  to  France.  There  was  no  need  to  urge  the  men  on.  They  were  called  the 
"battalion  of  hand  picked  men"  and  they  knew  why  they  were  there.  Telephone 
lines  went  up  as  by  magic,  switchboards  and  telegraph  equipment  were  installed 
in  jig-time.    They  were  there  for  business. 

There  was  some  diversion  during  that  first  winter  on  foreign  soil.  There  were 
parties  at  Hallowe'en,  at  Thanksgiving  and  at  Christmas.  These  parties  were 
very  much  helped  by  the  use  of  a  mess  fund  which  had  been  contributed  by  the 
employes  of  the  telephone  organization  and  which  had  been  turned  over  to  the 
battalion  before  it  went  to  Monmouth  Park. 

175 


It  was  during  this  winter  that  the  battalion  lost  the  name  in  which  it  took  so 
much  pride.  But  pride  could  not  be  considered  in  the  waging  of  war  and  the 
First  Telegraph  Battalion  became  the  406th  under  which  name  it  operated  until  it 
was  demobilized. 

In  January  the  406th  which  had  become  scattered  over  the  Chaumont  area 
on  various  construction  jobs,  was  mobilized  at  Neufchateau  preparatory  to 
forward  work.  In  February,  it  was  assigned  to  the  First  Army  Corps  as  the  Head- 
quarters Telegraph  Battahon.  The  next  couple  of  months  were  spent  in  divisional 
work,  Company  D  building  lines  to  the  front  and  Company  E  doing  construction 
work  in  the  rear  areas. 

From  March  until  June,  details  from  the  battalion  were  assigned  to  listening 
post  work  for  the  radio  intelligence  service  in  the  vicinity  of  Xivray  and  Seicheprey. 
This  involved  the  stringing  of  lines  over  No  Man's  Land  and  maintaining  them, 
constantly  under  fire.  Several  times  during  this  period  the  enemy  raiding  patrols 
advanced  past  the  dugouts  in  which  the  signal  men  were  intercepting  hostile  radio 
and  wire  messages,  but  were  driven  back  by  the  counter-attacks  of  the  allied  forces. 

In  June,  the  First  Army  Corps  was  transferred  to  the  Marne  salient,  there  to 
prepare  to  meet  the  next  German  drive  on  Paris.  This  marks  the  beginning  of 
the  concentration  of  American  troops  for  active  service  under  American  command. 
Many  American  divisions  had  seen  service  with  various  French  and  English 
units  but  now  an  American  Army  Corps,  under  American  command,  was  to  take 
the  field. 

The  battalion  spent  the  next  month  in  preparing  the  lines  of  communication 
for  the  coming  battle.  Headquarters  was  at  La  Ferte-sous-Jouarre.  The  battahon 
took  over  the  operation  of  all  the  telephone  exchanges  in  this  area  and  kept  the 
lines  in  repair.  In  addition  to  the  telephone  operation,  repair  work,  and  construc- 
tion work,  the  battalion  motor  sections  were  called  on  to  assist  in  the  transporta- 
tion of  troops  and  ammunition  to  the  front. 

The  battle  is  a  matter  of  history.  The  Germans  made  an  attack  on  July 
15th.  The  Americans  with  their  Allies  could  not  be  budged,  and  on  the  18th, 
the  great  counter  offensive  began  which  drove  the  Hun  back  and  removed  the 
menace  to  Paris. 

As  the  battle  progressed  and  the  Germans  retreated  Corps  Headquarters 
was  advanced  from  place  to  place,  first  to  Montreuil,  then  to  Buire  and  later  to 
Chateau  Moucheton.  The  battalion  installation  men  rushed  the  switchboards 
and  wires  ahead  sometimes  arriving  at  the  place  designated  for  the  "P.  C."  (Post 
of  Command)  before  the  Germans  were  driven  out  of  the  vicinity. 

The  advance  continued  to  the  Vesle,  headquarters  being  established  at 
Fere-en-Tardenois.  There  is  Uttle  opportunity  in  a  brief  account  of  this  nature 
to  tell  of  the  strenuous  days  and  nights,  always  under  fire,  which  the  signal  men 
spent.  They  carried  no  arms  except  pistols.  They  had  no  opportunity  to  get 
the  thrill  which  comes  from  actual  fighting.  They  were  forced  to  content  them- 
selves with  the  thought  that  without  the  lines  of  communication  which  they  were 
carrying  forward,  the  battle  could  not  proceed  successfully. 

The  Marne  salient  was  wiped  out.  When  the  Vesle  was  reached  and  the 
battle  fine  became  stationary,  the  First  Army  Corps  hurried  to  new  fields.  It 
was  next  to  take  part  in  the  great  attack  which  was  to  drive  the  Germans  out  of 
the  St.  Mihiel  sector.     Corps  Headquarters  was  established  at  Saizerais  about  the 

176 


middle  of  August,  and  until  early  in  September  preparations  were  made  for  the 
attack.  All  of  the  forward  exchanges  were  taken  over  by  the  battalion  men  and 
on  September  12th,  the  battle  began.  The  orders  provided  that  after  three  days 
the  First  Corps  was  to  be  withdrawn  and  transferred  to  the  Argonne  sector  to 
assist  in  driving  the  Germans  back  in  that  region.  The  St.  Mihiel  offensive  pro- 
gressed so  rapidly  that  the  Hun  was  completely  on  the  run  by  the  time  the  First 
Corps  left  the  battle  line. 

After  a  very  brief  period  spent  in  equipping  the  new  headquarters  at  Rare- 
court  in  the  Argonne  sector,  and  in  taking  over  all  of  the  advance  telephone  and 
telegraph  offices,  the  attack  began  which  was  to  continue  almost  without  interrup- 
tion until  the  enemies  threw  up  their  hands  on  November  11  th.  As  the  forces  became 
engaged  with  the  Germans  in  the  Argonne,  the  construction  of  a  telephone  line  was 
staited.  following  on  the  very  heels  of  the  advancing  troops,  to  maintain  commu- 
nication to  the  rear.  This  hue  was  built  from  salvaged  poles  from  Boche  camouflage 
screens  and  in  places  from  lines  abandoned  by  the  enemy.  The  advance  was  so 
rapid  that  at  times  it  was  impossible  for  the  signal  men  to  keep  up  with  it.  At 
such  times  they  jumped  ahead  and  resumed  work  again  just  in  the  rear  of  the 
fighting  forces.     This  line  followed  the  entire  advance  through  the  Argonne. 

\n  advance  "P.  C,"  the  code  name  of  which  was  "Bonehead,"  was  estab- 
lished in  a  huge  dugout  at  Cotes-de-Forimont.  This  was  an  important  office  and 
a  large  part  of  the  battalion  force  was  stationed  here  to  operate  the  telephone 
and  telegraph  equipment  and  maintain  the  lines.  As  the  Argonne  was  cleared 
of  the  enemy,  lines  were  built  in  what  were  now  the  rear  areas  for  the  handling 
of  trains  on  the  rebuilt  railroads. 

A  lull  in  the  advance  was  followed  by  a  renewal  of  the  offensive  on  November 
2d.  (irandpre,  after  a  terrific  struggle  fell  to  the  Americans,  and  the  telephone 
line  was  rushed  on  toward  St.  Juvin.  Corps  Headquarters  was  estabhshed  at 
Harricourt  to  vvliicli  place  the  battalion  moved.  The  enemy  was  now  on  the  run 
and  the  American  forces  rushed  after  tliem  toward  Sedan.  Just  two  days  before 
the  armistice  was  signed,  the  First  Corps,  including  the  406th  Telegraph  Battalion, 
was  relieved. 

The  battalion  had  seen  practically  continuous  service  since  the  first  American 
offensive  began  in  July.  During  that  period  of  nearly  four  months  on  active 
fronts,  the  men  had  engaged  in  nearly  every  kind  of  work.  They  had  constructed 
communication  lines  to  prepare  for  the  various  attacks.  And  when  the  actual 
battles  started  they  were  occupying  the  front  line  telephone  exchanges.  This 
sounds  like  rather  pro.saic  work.  Let  one  of  the  men  dispel  any  such  illusion.  The 
Marne  offensive  was  just  starting.  The  406th  had  installed  a  switchboard  in  a 
dugout  at  Montreuil.  It  was  being  operated  and  the  lines  in  the  vicinity  kept  in 
repair  by  the  same  organization  as  the  attack  began.    It  was  the  night  of  July  17th. 

"About  11.30  all  our  lines  to  the  Yankee  Division  went  out  of  service.  Two 
of  the  men  left  the  dugout  to  find  the  break.  Shells  were  dropping  by  the  ton. 
Down  the  hill  in  the  pitchy  darkness  the  men  stumbled.  They  fell  into  a  huge 
cavity.  It  was  a  shell  hole.  The  shell  had  fallen  on  the  telephone  fine.  Nearly  a 
hundred  feet  of  the  wires  had  been  shot  away.  A  quick  repair  was  made.  No 
sooner  had  they  returned  than  all  lines  to  the  rear  went  out.  This  cut  us  off 
from  headtiuaiters.  A  detail  started  out  and  found  the  line  almost  completely 
broken  down  by  shell  fire.     Repair  after  repair  was  made.     Many  times,  the  same 

177 


job  had  to  be  repeated  as  shells 
tore  down  the  newly  repaired 
wires.  It  was  not  until  the 
next  evening  that  these  men 
returned  to  the  dugout. 

"While  they  were  gone, 
the  operators  at  the  switch- 
hoard  were  having  a  'hot' 
time.  Officers  at  the  rear  were 
demanding  connections  to  the 
front.  Officers  at  the  front 
wore  asking  for  connections  to 
I  he  rear.  Next  was  an  order 
liianging  the  direction  of 
attack.  And  every  call  was 
an  emergency  call." 

Such  was  life  at  the  ad- 
^ance  exchanges.  In  the  rear 
the  motor  sections  with  some 
sixty  to  eighty  vehicles  of 
\  arious  vintages  in  their  care 
had  no  light  task.  Hauling 
signal  corps  material  by  day, 
snatching  an  hour  now  and 
again  for  repairs,  and  spending 
the  night  hauling  troops  and 
ammunition  to  the  front,  these  chauffeurs  and  repairmen  had  a  strenuous  time. 

The  Telegraph  Battalion  had  been  in  France  a  year  and  a  half.  It  had  made 
such  a  reputation  for  itself  that  when  Colonel  ^'oris,  Signal  Officer  of  the  First 
Army  Corps  was  preparing  to  enter  the  Occupation  Zone  in  Germany,  he  pleaded 
to  be  allowed  to  take  this  "Battalion  of  Experts"  as  he  called  it.  He  agreed  to 
dispense  with  the  additional  signal  unit  which  was  allowed  to  an  Army  Corps,  if 
he  could  have  these  Pennsylvania  Bell  men.  The  Chief  Signal  Officer  ruled  that 
these  men  had  already  done  their  share  in  the  war  and  were  not  to  join  the  Army 
of  Occupation.     So  winter  quarters  were  taken  up  at  Tonnerre. 

The  question  uppermost  in  the  minds  of  every  man  in  France  now  was,  "When 
do  we  go  home?"  During  this  winter  the  men  of  the  battalion  had  their  first 
"vacations"  since  they  had  arrived  in  France.  During  this  period,  too,  a  Horse 
and  Motor  Show  was  held  in  the  First  Army  Corps  and  four  motor  vehicles  were 
entered  by  the  battalion.  Each  of  the  four  was  awarded  the  Blue  Bibbon  in  its 
respective  class.     One  of  the  four  received  the  Grand  Prize  for  all  classes. 

On  April  8th,  the  battahon  boarded  the  Seattle  at  Brest.  Easter  Sunday 
found  the  ship  in  New  York  harbor,  and  at  midnight  the  battahon  arrived  at 
Camp  Upton.  Three  days  later  it  was  transferred  to  Camp  Dix  for  demobiUza- 
tion.     On  April  26th  the  signal  men  were  finally  mustered  out  of  service. 

The  406th,  which  many  of  its  friends  and  members  still  called  the  First  Tele- 
graph Battalion,  ceased  to  exist  as  an  active  military  unit,  having  completed  just 
two  years  of  service  —  twenty  months  of  which  had  been  spent  overseas.     These 


Photo   by    D.    Sarsent   Etll. 

Final  Reinew  of  Hie 


'mill  Ti-lei]n,ph  lialliilion. 


men  had  laid  down  their  telephone  tools  to  serve  their  country.  After  two  years 
of  absence  they  again  took  up  their  work,  richer  by  their  experience  in  having 
shared  in  the  fight  to  preserve  democracy. 


THE  STATE  FENCIBLES  liN  THE  WORLD  WAR* 

The  State  Fencibles,  having  responded  to  every  call  for  duty  since  its  organiza- 
tion in  1813,  and  seeing  the  part  the  United  States  were  destined  to  play  in  the  World 
War,  passed  a  resolution  on  March  28,  1917,  requesting  authority  from  the  Mayor 
of  the  City  of  Philadelphia  to  increase  the  command  from  a  battalion  of  four  com- 
panies to  a  full  regiment.  This  permission  was  granted  on  April  2,  1917,  and 
recruiting  was  at  once  begun. 

By  April  14,  1917,  the  regiment  had  been  fully  organized,  recruited  and  partly 
equipped,  and  on  that  day,  1,200  men  were  paraded  and  reviewed  by  the  Mayor 
of  the  City  of  Philadelphia  and  by  members  of  Councils  and  citizens  generally,  from 
the  West  Plaza  of  City  Hall.  The  services  of  this  regiment  were  immediately 
tendered  to  the  Governor  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  to  form  part  of  its  quota, 
and  to  the  President  of  the  United  States;  also  to  Colonel  Theodore  Roosevelt, 
who  was  at  this  time  attempting  to  form  a  division,  to  be  known  as  the  Roosevelt 
Expeditionary  Forces,  for  immediate  service  in  France. 

At  the  opening  of  the  war  the  authorities  at  Washington  found  themselves 
divided  into  two  groups,  one  favoring  the  volunteer  system,  and  the  other,  the 
selective  draft.  The  final  decision  of  Congress,  in  favor  of  the  selective  draft,  made 
it  impossible  for  the  State  Fencibles'  Regiment  to  enter  the  service  as  a  unit. 
The  regiment  up  to  this  time  had  been  recruited  to  1,960  officers  and  men.  "I 
regret,"  said  Colonel  Theodore  Roosevelt  in  a  letter  addressed  to  the  State 
Fencibles,  "from  the  standpoint  of  the  country  that  your  services  were  not  utilized. 
But  the  country  has  every  reason  to  be  proud  of  the  zeal,  patriotism  and  business- 
like efficiency  with  which  you  came  forward. " 

The  Fencibles  later  deemed  it  advisable  to  permit  the  various  members  to 
select  other  branches  of  the  service  so  that  the  organization  would  be  properly 
represented  in  this  conflict. 

The  members  of  the  Fencibles  later  entering  the  service  were  mustered  at  Fort 
AUen,  Camp  Brown.  Columbus  Barracks,  Camp  Dix,  Frankford  Arsenal,  Camp 
Green,  Camp  Hill,  Camp  Hancock,  Camp  Humphreys,  Camp  Jackson,  Camp 
Johnston,  Fort  Jay,  Camp  Lee,  Camp  Meade,  Camp  Merritt,  Pliiladelphia  Navy 
Yard,  Camp  Slocum,  Camp  Upton,  Camp  Vail  and  Wissahickon  Barracks. 

Its  members  were  represented  in  the  United  States  Regular  Army,  National 
Guard,  National  Army,  United  States  Navy,  Marine  Corps  and  Naval  Reserve, 
serving  in  England,  Italy,  France,  Germany  and  United  States. 

Of  the  number  originally  recruited,  it  has  been  found  impossible  to  trace  all, 
but  from  the  records  now  available,  960  entered  the  service  during  the  war.  Of 
this  number  thirty-seven  were  killed  or  died  of  disease  and  186  were  wounded. 

To  the  members  of  the  Fencibles  there  were  awarded  the  Distinguished 
Service  Cross,  British  War  Cross,  ItaUan  War  Cross  and  Croix  de  Guerre. 

'Summarized  from  "Spectemur  Agendo"  by  Colonel  Thomas  S.  Lanard. 

170 


After  the  close  of  the  war  twenty-eight  men  remained  in  the  service  and 
were  transferred  to  the  regular  Army  and  Navy. 


PIONEER   INFANTRY   REGIMENTS 
By  Major  Louis  L.  Tafel 

Among  the  Combatant  Troops  bearing  an  important  part  in  the  great  American 
drives  which  helped  to  end  the  war  were  numerous  regiments  of  Pioneer  Infantry 
— a  combination  of  infantry  and  engineers — among  whom  were  many  officers  and 
men  from  Philadelphia  and  its  vicinity. 

Major  C.  W.  Davis,  in  his  "Story  of  the  1st  Pioneer  Infantry,  U.  S.  A.,"  has 
given  the  following  concise  and  excellent  description  of  this  new  branch  of  the  ser- 
vice: 

"Pioneer  troops,  as  the  term  was  used  in  our  Army,  may  be  described  as  regi- 
ments trained  and  equipped  as  infantry  to  be  used  as  troops  of  emergency,  either 
for  combat  or  simple  engineering  construction.  The  American  General  Staff, 
late  in  1917,  decided  to  form  a  number  of  infantry  regiments  to  be  attached  to  the 
headquarters  of  the  Armies  and  Army  Corps  then  in  process  of  formation,  and  to  call 
these  Corps  and  Army  Troops  'Pioneer  Infantry.'  Infantry  regiments  had  always 
been  attached  to  Corps  and  Army  headquarters  and,  as  has  been  shown,  it  was  a 
logical  step  to  call  them  Pioneers.  The  regiments  could  be  used  for  such  special 
work  as  the  Army  or  Corps  Commander  might  direct,  trained  and  armed  for  con- 
struction or  combat,  and  instantly  available  in  cUiy  emergency  without  destroying 
the  tactical  solidarity  of  the  divisions."  He  adds:  "The  general  idea  of  the 
European  armies  was  to  use  as  pioneers  those  troops  who  would  be  more  skilled 
in  the  requirements  of  simple  field  construction  than  infantry  and  not  so  technical 
as  the  engineers;  the  heavy  losses  in  purely  technical  troops  having  seriously 
inconvenienced  their  operations. " 

On  the  4th  of  January,  1918,  under  an  order  of  General  Guy  Carleton,  com- 
manding the  ProN-isional  Depot  for  Corps  and  Army  troops,  at  Spartanburg,  S.  C, 
there  was  organized  the  1st  Pioneer  Infantry  from  what  remained  of  the  old  1st  New 
York,  under  command  of  Colonel  Jas.  S.  Boyer.  The  2d,  .3d,  1th  and  5th  Pioneer 
Infantry  were  formed  from  National  Guard  regiments  which  had  been  skeletonized 
in  the  creation  of  the  new  war  strength  regiments  in  the  various  divisions.  All 
these  Pioneer  regiments  were  then  completed  by  the  transfer  of  officers  and  men 
from  the  Reserve  Corps  and  National  Army,  and  these  regiments  were  designated 
as  "Corps  Troops,"  to  be  attached  to  the  several  Army  Corps.  There  were  or- 
ganized, in  a  similar  manner,  from  these  former  National  Guard  regiments,  other 
regiments,  to  be  attached  to  the  several  Field  Armies,  called  "Army  Troops," 
numbered  respectively  from  51  to  65.  Among  the  Philadelphians  in  the  1st  Pioneer 
Infantry  were  Majors  George  Blair  and  Louis  L.  Tafel;  Captain  Lelan  M.  Haller 
and  Lieutenants  Charles  P.  Delp,  Thomas  A.  Logue,  William  May,  James  S.  Smith, 
Jr.,  and  Francis  J.  Harrity.  In  the  other  Pioneer  regiments,  Philadelphia  was 
likewise  well  represented.  Nearly  all  of  these  regiments  saw  service 
overseas.  Later,  there  were  certain  other  regiments  of  Pioneers  for  con- 
struction work,  bearing  numbers  over  800.  which  also  rendered  good 
service. 

180 


Overseas  the  Pioneers  sometimes  operated  with  the  infantry,  or  as  part  of  the 
reserve,  but  usually  they  worked  with  the  engineers  in  building  and  repairing 
bridges,  roads,  camouflage  screens  and  trenches,  cutting  wire  entanglements  and 
keeping  open  the  communications  over  the  spongy,  shell-torn  roads  for  the  troops, 
artillery,  ambulances,  ammunition  and  supplies,  often  under  the  fire  of  artillery, 
machine  guns  and  airplanes,  and  bearing  their  inevitable  share  of  the  casualties. 

The  1st  Pioneer  Infantry  served  with  the  1st  and  3d  Army  Corps  during  the 
Oise-Aisne,  Aisne-Marne  and  Meuse-Argonne  olTensives;  and  during  the  St.  Mihiel 
and  Meuse-Argonne  drives,  a  number  of  these  Pioneer  regiments  rendered  valiant 
service,  advancing  with  the  infantry  and  later  making  and  maintaining  roads 
and  bridges  over  No  Man's  Land  for  the  miles  and  miles  of  troops,  artillery, 
ambulances,  wagons  and  ammunition  trucks  pressing  to  and  from  the  advancing 
lines.  The  importance  of  this  work  is  evidenced  by  the  words  of  General  Drum 
in  his  talk  on  "The  Great  American  Offensive,"  when  he  states,  in  connection 
with  the  work  near  Montfaucon,  on  September  26,  1918,  "Pioneers  were  collect- 
ing stone  with  their  bare  hands  and  throwing  it  on  the  road,  and  every  handful  of 
stone  they  put  in  was  worth  a  hundred  bullets."  Working  furiously,  day  and 
night,  with  little  rest  or  food,  during  those  first  momentous  days  of  that  great 
attack,  the  Engineers  and  Pioneers  opened  and  maintained  the  great  Victory  Road 
over  No  Man's  Land,  so  that  our  Army  could  continue  its  advance,  day  after  day, 
until  the  armistice  found  it  well  across  the  Meuse. 

It  was,  therefore,  eminently  fitting  that  several  regiments  of  Pioneer  Infantry 
should  be  chosen  as  part  of  that  veteran  Army  of  Occupation  which  made  the 
memorable  march  to  the  Rhine  and  occupied  the  American  sector  in  Germany, 
holding  the  bridgehead  at  Coblenz.  It  fell  to  the  lot  of  the  1st  Pioneers  to  cross 
the  Rhine  with  the  3d  Corps  and  to  be  the  first  American  troops  to  occupy  the 
great  German  fortress  of  Ehrenbreitstein,  often  called  "The  Gibraltar  of  the 
Rhine." 

As  these  Pioneer  "Corps  and  Army  Troops"  were  not  an  integral  or  permanent 
part  of  any  particular  division,  the  record  of  their  achievements  has  often  been  over- 
looked. Nevertheless,  no  troops  had  a  better  record  for  duty  earnestly  and  bravely 
performed  in  the  face  of  hardships  and  danger  than  these  same  sturdy  Pioneers,  as 
they  manfully  struggled,  day  after  day  to  carry  out  the  part  assigned  to  them  in 
the  "Great  Adventure,"  which  has  added  such  a  glorious  chapter  to  our 
American  history. 

54TH  PIONEER   INFANTRY 
By  Major  David  B.  Simpson 

January  5,  1918,  marked  the  demise  of  the  old  71st  Infantry,  New  York  Na- 
tional Guard,  and  the  inception  of  the  51th  Pioneer  Infantry  to  Camp  Wadsworth, 
South  Carolina,  the  1st  Battalion  of  which  was  almost  exclusively  Philadelphian 
in  personnel.  The  3d  Battalion  was  commanded  by  a  Philadelphia  officer. 
Major  David  B.  Simpson. 

Its  Commander,  Colonel  WiUiam  G.  Bates,  a  veteran  of  long  service  in  the 
Army  and  National  Guard,  held  fast  to  his  regimental  band  and  the  very  best  of 
his  non-commissioned  officer  personnel,  which  gave  him  a  skeletonized  regiment 
around  which  could  be  built  an  exceptionaUy  fine  organization. 

181 


On  January  6,  1918,  when  it  was  assigned  to  Corps  and  Army  troops,  majors 
and  captains  from  National  Guard  camps  all  over  the  country  arrived  and  were 
assigned.  They  were  followed  by  a  quota  of  first  and  second  lieutenants  from 
the  Reserve  Officers'  Training  Camps  and  others  who  had  been  commissioned  from 
the  ranks  in  the  Regular  Army. 

Until  June,  the  officers  and  specially  selected  non-commissioned  officers  at- 
tended engineering  schools  to  fit  them  for  the  work  they  were  to  do  later  in  a  practi- 
cal way  overseas. 

In  July  it  received  3,300  selective  service  men.  chiefly  from  Minnesota  and 
Pennsylvania,  and  the  training  immediately  began. 

The  regiment  left  Camp  Wadsworth  on  August  20th.  arriving  at  Newport 
News  the  following  day.  It  embarked  for  France  on  the  transports  Diica  d'Aoslu 
and  the  Caseria — the  troops  being  commanded  by  Colonel  Rates  and  Major  Simp- 
son, respectively — on  August  29th,  and  arrived  at  Rrest,  September  12th,  where 
it  remained  in  the  rest  camp  area  until  September  17,  when  it  entrained  for  the 
the  Is-sur-Tille  area. 

After  a  three-day  train  ride,  further  movement  was  stopped  when  the  regi- 
ment arrived  at  Port  d'Ateher,  and  at  this  point  a  shelter  tent  camp  was  pitched 
to  await  further  orders.  This  happened  on  September  20th,  and  the  following 
day  "tin  hats"  and  gas  masks  were  issued.  This  meamt  no  training.  On  Septem- 
ber 22d  the  regiment,  after  spending  one  day  in  gas-mask  drill,  again  entrained 
for  the  front. 

September  23d  found  it  at  Fleury-sur-Aire,  where  it  detrained  at  3  p.m.,  and 
immediately  took  cover  in  an  adjacent  woods  because  the  Roche  planes  were 
reconnoitering  overhead.  Spending  that  night  and  all  of  the  following  day  in  the 
same  woods,  without  fires  for  cooking  or  any  other  lights,  it  finally  received  orders 
at  7  P.M.  to  pack  up  and  move  for  the  advanced  zone  of  operations. 

At  precisely  9:30  p.m.  a  march  of  15  kilometers  began,  with  the  Clermont 
woods  in  the  Argonne  forest  as  the  objective.  The  "hike"  was  made  in  six  and  a 
half  hours,  along  with  other  units  in  the  one  general  direction  in  which  all  traffic 
was  moving. 

On  September  25th,  while  bivouacked  in  the  Clermont  woods,  the  regiment 
not  only  received  its  official  assignment  as  1st  Army  Troops  for  engineering  work, 
but  also  its  baptism  of  fire.  Its  initial  battle  orders  called  for  it  to  follow  the  28th 
Division  when  it  made  its  "jump  off"  on  the  morning  of  September  26th.  Subse- 
quent orders  assigned  individual  companies  to  special  lines  of  engineering  work. 

Companies  D  and  M  were  sent  to  AubreyviUe  to  assist  the  14th  and  21st 
Engineers  in  the  construction  of  narrow-gauge  railways,  and  push  forward  as  the 
advance  zone  moved  northward.  The  rest  of  the  regiment  was  assigned  for  duty 
with  the  23d  (road)  Engineers. 

From  the  opening  to  the  close  of  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive,  September  26th 
to  November  11,  the  regiment  remained  in  the  Argonne,  constantly  subjected  to 
shell  fire  and  nightly  air  raids.  It  operated  as  companies  always  within  range 
of  the  Roche  artillery,  especially  in  and  around  Varennes,  Apremont,  Montblain- 
ville,  Raulny,  Charpentry,  Very,  Malancourt,  Cunel  and  other  strategic  points 
in  that  sector. 

Its  designation  as  Army  Troops  subjected  it  to  being  ordered  for  road  work 
with  most  of  the  divisions  in  the  west  sector  of  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive. 

182 


It  operated  with  the  28th,  35th,  79th,  77th,  78th,  42d,  and  2d  and  with  the  1st 
Division  in  its  six  weeks  in  the  Argonne. 

On  November  1st,  when  the  big  drive  was  started  in  the  Argonne,  the  regiment 
followed  up  the  fast  moving  infantry,  and  repaired  roads  that  had  been 
badly  damaged  by  the  American  "million  dollar"  barrage  which  drove  the 
Boche  back  towards  the  Rhine  and  brought  about  the  signing  of  the  armistice  on 
November  11th. 

As  fast  as  the  infantry  moved  up,  the  various  companies  took  stations  in 
Landres-et-St.  Georges;  Verpel;  Champignelles;  Imniicourt,  Buzancy  and  Beau- 
mont in  the  western  sector,  and  the  2d  Battalion  was  sent  to  \'auchreville  on  the 
Verdun  front.  At  these  points  the  several  units  operated  until  November,  15th 
when  orders  were  received  to  concentrate  at  Dun-sur-Meuse. 

Assigned   to  Army   of   Occupation 

All  through  the  night  of  November  15th  and  the  early  part  of  November  16th 
the  various  companies  began  to  arrive  at  Dun-sur-Meuse,  and  the  same  day  it  was 
assigned  to  the  Army  of  Occupation.  The  various  divisions  of  the  Army  of  Occu- 
pation were  marching  towards  the  Rhine,  and  the  following  day  the  regiment  took 
its  position  in  the  column  as  the  last  element. 

As  a  part  of  the  column  it  did  not  last  very  long,  because  orders  were  received 
by  the  Commanding  Officer  to  detach  his  battalions  for  various  duties  while  en 
route,  either  to  do  some  road  work  or  concentrate  and  guard  war  munitions  and 
villages  but  recently  vacated  by  the  Germany  Army. 

The  regiment  was  first  assigned  to  the  7th  Corps,  and  its  several  battalion 
Commanders  received  orders  as  follows:  1st  Battalion  to  Virton,  Belgium;  2d  to 
Briey;  and  the  3d  to  Longwy,  and  await  further  orders. 

The  1st  Battalion  concentrated,  guarded  and  took  inventory  of  all  German 
property  in  its  area;  the  second  battalion  did  Ukewise,  and  also  guarded  the  iron 
mines  in  its  vicinity;  the  third  battahon  had  the  task  of  the  regiment.  It  entered 
Longwy  and  took  over  from  the  11th  Infantry,  the  1st  Engineers  and  the  13th 
Machine  Gun  Battalion  all  of  the  work  these  organizations  had  been  performing, 
which  included  the  following :  Guarding  forty  miles  of  railroad ;  establishing  a  civilian 
prison  for  the  French  who  had  been  friendly  to  the  Boche  during  their  fifty-two 
months'  stay  in  Longwy;  guarding  and  taking  inventory  of  the  largest  German 
ration  dump  and  warehouse  in  France;  an  aviation  field  with  all  equipment;  a 
manufacturing  plant  for  gas  shells;  a  mine- throwers'  school,  and  the  big  "clearing 
house"  for  repatriated  prisoners  of  war.  These  prisoners  were  mostly  Russians, 
who  had  been  confined  in  Boche  prison  camps  since  1914,  and  they  had  to  be  bathed, 
deloused  and  fed.  Every  five  days  a  train  load  of  2,500  was  sent  with  an 
American  Army  guard  and  with  American  rations  to  the  Allied  Commission  at 
Verdun. 

Remaining  at  these  three  points,  until  December  16th,  the  Relief  orders  called 
for  another  regimental  concentration  at  Longwy,  when  it  was  relieved  by  the  34th 
Infantry  at  Longwy  and  110th  Infantry  at  Briey. 

Still  under  orders  from  7th  Corps  Headquarters,  it  proceeded  to  the  vicinity 
of  Wittlich,  Germany.  It  arrived  at  Salmrohr,  Germany,  on  December  22d,  where 
it  was  billeted  in  fifteen  small  villages  awaiting  instructions.  On  December  29th, 
in  pursuant  to  orders  by  courier,  the  regiment  was  detached  from  the  7th  Corps, 

183 


and  assigned  to  the  3d  Army  Headquarters,  with  instructions  to  finish  the  rest 
of  the  trip  to  the  Rhine  by  rail. 

It  entrained  in  three  sections  between  3  p.m.  and  9  p.m.  December  29th,  and 
arrived  at  Coblenz  on  December  30th  at  3  p.m..  making  a  fifty-seven  mile  trip 
by  rail  in  twenty-four  hours. 

Arriving  at  Coblenz  the  regiment  was  again  shattered.  Regimental  Head- 
quarters, Supply  Company,  Medical  Detachment  and  Companies  A,  B,  and  C 
with  1st  Battalion  Headquarters  were  stationed  at  Coblenz-Neundorf.  Company 
D  went  to  Wallersheim.  2d  Battalion  Headquarters;  and  Company  E  to  Kessel- 
heim.  Company  F  to  St.  Sebastian,  Company  G  to  tirmitz;  Companies  H 
and  K  to  Mulheim;  Companies  I,  L  and  M  and  3d  Battalion  Headquarters 
to  Rubenach. 

Spending  all  of  the  winter  of  1918-19  in  the  Rhineland  at  drill,  or  furnishing 
details  for  the  several  quartermaster  depots,  and  squads  for  demolition  of  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  Cierman  hand  grenades,  the  officers  and  men  of  the  regiment  soon 
recuperated  from  the  hardships  endured  in  the  gruelhng  days  of  the  Argonne  drive, 
with  its  long  marches,  constant  subjection  to  shell  fire,  bombing  and  machine  gun 
fire  from  the  air,  and  soon  became  a  smart,  snappy  well  drilled,  equipped  and  dis- 
ciplined body  of  men. 

After  "sitting  on  the  World,"  as  the  men  termed  it,  for  seven  months,  orders 
were  received  to  detrain  for  the  I^eMans  l^]mbarkation  Center  on  May  23,  1919, 
and  the  regiment  concentrated  and  entrained  at  Coblenz-Lutzel  on  May  24th 
en  route  for  home. 

It  arrived  at  LeMans  May  28th,  had  its  Memorial  Day  exercises  at  Regimental 
Headquarters  at  Avoise  on  May  30th,  and  pulled  out  for  St.  Nazaire  on  June  1st. 
Arriving  at  St.  Nazaire  two  days  later,  it  partook  of  all  the  essential  inspections, 
and  worked  night  and  day  preparing  for  its  homeward  trip.  For  some  reason 
this  movement  was  delayed  until  June  16th,  when  the  entire  regiment  saw  the 
best  sight  in  Europe,  i.e.: — the  U.  S.  S.  Artemis — which  was  the  ship  that  brought 
the  men  home. 

The  regiment  arrived  at  Camp  Stuart,  Newport  News,  Va.,  on  the  morning 
of  June  29th,  and  after  another  day  of  inspections  and  farewells  among  the  officers, 
who  came  from  forty-two  states  of  the  Inion  and  the  men  who  hailed  from  forty 
states  of  this  country  and  eight  European  countries,  it  was  broken  up.  Irre- 
spective of  previous  company  designation,  it  was  divided  into  three  groups;  the 
New  York  men  and  New  Englanders  going  to  Camp  Upton,  New  York;  the 
Pennsylvanians  and  New  Jersey  men  going  to  Camp  Dix,  New  Jersey;  and  all 
others,  including  Regimental  Headquarters,  going  to  Camp  Grant,  Illinois,  for 
final  muster  out. 

The  Philadelphia  contingent,  numbering  582  officers  and  men,  were  brought 
to  Camp  Dix  by  Major  David  B.  Simpson,  of  Philadelphia,  who  commanded  the 
3d  Battalion,  but  whose  command  was  entirely  from  Minnesota.  The  Philadel- 
phians  served  in  the  1st  Battalion. 

All  were  demobihzed  on  July  1st,  but  awaited  the  last  man's  discharge  so  that 
they  could  come  home  in  a  body.  This  they  did.  They  were  met  at  Market 
Street  Ferry  by  the  Philadelphia  Police  Band  and  escorted  to  the  1st  Regiment 
Armory,  where  they  were  dismissed. 

During  the  service  of  the  regiment  it  lost  many  men  by  death,  either  killed 

184 


or  from  disease,  to  say  nothing  of  the  men  wounded, 
killed  or  died  of  disease  are  the  following: 


In  the  list  of  Philadelphians 


Company  B:     Corporal  James  M.  Smith,  121  W.  Wyoming  \venue. 

Private  Pasqualle  Balassone,  2:510  Meredith  Street. 

Private  William  B.  Pfrommer,  1221  S.  57th  Street. 

Private  William  .1.  Perkins,  5219  Knox  Street. 
Company  C:     Corporal  Joseph  J.  Maguire.  1801  E.  Adams  Street. 

Bugler  Harry  McCain,  1832  E.  Wishart  Street. 

Private  John  B.  Wilkinson,  530  Brinton  Street. 
Company  D:     Private  William  Buckius,  2528  Martin  Street. 

Private  Harvey  Fitzgerald,  516 1  Marvin  Avenue. 

Private  Edward  I.  Garrity,  1089  Lancaster  Avenue. 
Company  H:     Private  Lantus  Johnson,  1525  McKean  Street,  died  aboard  U.  S.  S.  Caseriu. 
en  route  to  France. 

FIRST  TROOP  PHILADELPHIA  CITY  CAVALRY   1917-1919 

The  First  Troop  Philadelphia  City  Cavalry  has  had  a  continuous  military 
existence  since  November  17,  1774,  when  it  was  organized  in  anticipation  of  the 
American  Revolution,  and  has  taken  part  as  an  organization  in  every  war  involving 
the  I  iiited  States  in  which  volunteer  tinops  were  employed. 

During  the  Revolution  it  took  pari  in  the  battles  of  Trenton  and  Princeton 
and  served  during  the  advance  to  winter  quarters   at  Morristown,  N.  J.,   acting 


TJie  King  of  the  Belgiims  with  Mayor  Smilh,  escorted  by  the  "City  Troop.' 

185 


as  personal  escort  to  General  Washington;  later  it  took  part  in  the  Battle  of  Brandy- 
wine  and  rendered  many  other  services  durinjj  the  war.  In  the  War  of  1812,  the 
Troop,  four  days  after  news  of  the  declaration  of  war  reached  Philadelphia,  offered 
its  services  to  the  Federal  Government  and  was  accepted.  Its  principal  service 
was  in  1814,  when  it  was  on  duty  in  the  neighborhood  of  Elkton.  Md..  and 
Chesapeake  Bay,  guarding  against  the  advance  of  the  British  troops  which  at  that 
time  held  Washington. 

In  the  Civil  War,  the  Troop  volunteered  on  April  15,  1861,  and  was  accepted 
in  May  for  three  months'  service,  it  being  the  only  volunteer  cavalry  fully  equipped 
with  horses  and  arms  ready  for  immediate  service.  Upon  the  completion  of  this 
service  practically  the  entire  personnel  received  commissions  and  served  as  officers 
of  various  ranks.  In  the  Spanish  War  in  1898  it  volunteered  and  served  as  a  unit 
throughout  the  entire  war;  it  took  part  in  the  Porto  Rican  campaign,  being  attached 
to  General  Brooke's  column. 

Just  prior  to  the  declaration  of  war  upon  Germany  by  the  United  States 
in  1917,  the  Troop,  under  the  command  of  Captain  J.  Franklin  .McFadden,  its 
nineteenth  Captain,  had  returned  from  Camp  Stewart.  El  Paso,  Texas,  after 
six  months'  active  service  on  the  Mexican  border  as  a  unit  of  the  National  Guard 
of  the  United  States,  and  was  mustered  out  of  Federal  service  into  State  service 
on  January  22,  1917.  In  March,  1917,  in  anticipation  of  the  war  against 
Germany,  practically  all  the  enlisted  members  of  the  Troop  applied  for 
examination  and  appointment  as  reserve  officers.  When  these  examinations 
were  suspended  shortly  after  the  declaration  of  war,  about  half  of  the  Troop  had 
already  taken  the  examinations  and  had  been  reconnnentU'd  for  commissions. 
They  and  those  who  had  not  yet  been  examined  attended  the  First  Officers' 
Training  Camp  at  Fort  Niagara,  which  opened  May  15,  1917,  first  having  obtained 
discharges  from  the  National  Guard  for  that  purpose,  and  at  end  of  the  three 
months'  training  were  commissioned  or  recommissioned  in  various  branches  of 
the  service.  A  large  proportion  of  these  officers  were  assigned  to  the  79th  Division, 
and  served  with  it  throughout  the  war,  though  many  served  with  other  organiza- 
tions. A  considerable  number  of  other  Troopers  served  with  the  309th  Cavalry 
at  Fort  Sam  Houston,  Texas,  from  the  time  of  its  organization,  and  when  it  was 
disbanded  were  transferred  to  the  56th  and  57th  Regiments  of  Field  Artillery. 

The  Active  Roll  of  the  Troop,  as  it  was  on  the  return  from  the  Mexican  border, 
including  those  who  volunteered  for  border  service,  suppUed  ninety-six  officers 
in  the  service  of  the  United  States.  Included  in  this  number  are  two  lieutenant 
colonels,  fourteen  majors,  forty-six  captains,  twenty-eight  first  lieutenants,  four 
second  lieutenants  and  two  officers  in  the  Navy.  In  addition,  the  non-active 
and  honorary  membership  of  the  Troop  furnished  thirty -five  officers  from  the  grade 
of  colonel  to  that  of  first  lieutenant.     Three  others  served  as  officers  in  the  Navy. 

Decorations  and  Citations 

For  gallantry  in  action  and  for  meritorious  service  a  number  of  decorations  and 
honors  were  awarded  to  members  of  the  Troop.  Harry  Ingersoll  and  Effingham 
B.  Morris,  Jr.,  received  the  Distinguished  Service  Cross;  Harold  M.  Willcox,  the 
Navy  Cross;  George  McFadden,  the  Distinguished  Service  Medal;  J.  Franklin 
McFadden,  John  Houston  Merrill,  Effingham  B.  Morris,  Jr.,  and  Barclay  H.  War- 
burton,  the  Cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  (French);  John  C.  Groome,  the  Order 

186 


of  the  Bath  (British),  the  Distinguished  Order  of  St.  Michael  and  St.  George  (Brit- 
ish), the  Order  of  St.  Vladimir  (Russian),  the  Order  of  the  Black  Star  (French), 
the  Croix  de  la  Liberte  (Esthonian);  Robert  Glendinning,  the  Order  of  the  Crown 
of  Italy;  Schofield  Andrews  and  Effingham  B.  Morris,  Jr.,  the  Croix  de  Guerre 
(French):  and  Norton  Downs,  Jr.,  the  Italian  War  Cross  of  Merit.  For  faithful 
performance  of  duty,  Schofield  Andrews  was  cited  in  General  Orders  by  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief, American  Expeditionary  Forces;  for  especially  meritorious  and 
conspicuous  service,  John  Houston  Merrill  was  awarded  a  certificate  by  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief. WiUiam  W.  Bodine,  Joseph  N.  DuBarry,  Edward  Law  and 
Edward  W.  Madeira  were  mentioned  in  orders  by  their  Division  Commanders. 

Seventy-nine  members  of  the  Troop  served  overseas  and  fifty  took  part  in 
engagements.  Three  Troopers  fell  in  action  and  three  others  died  in  active 
service;  seven  were  wounded.     Those  who  lost  their  lives  in  the  war  were: 

Phinehas  P.  Clirystie,  Captain,  312th  Field  Artillery 

Norton  Downs,  Jr.,  First  Lieutenant,  Air  Service 

Thomas  Graham  Hirst,  First  Lieutenant,  151st  Field  Artillery 

Edward  IngersoU,  Captain.  Air  .Service 

Harry  IngersoU,  Captain,  31.3th  Infantry 

Frank  F.  Battles,  Captain,  314tb  Infantry 

The  Volunteer  National  Guard  Troop 

In  order  to  replace  in  the  National  Guard  Troop,  the  members  of  the  Old  Troop 
who  had  been  discharged  to  accept  commissions,  the  Troop  Officers,  in  April,  May 
and  June,  1917,  enlisted  102  volunteers.  This  \  olunteer  Troop,  under  the  name  of 
"First  Troop  Philadelphia  City  Cavalry"  commanded  by  Captain  George  C. 
Thayer,  the  twentieth  Captain  of  the  Old  Troop,  was  drafted  into  Federal  service  in 
August  of  1917,  as  one  of  the  component  units  of  the  First  Regiment  of  Cavalry  of 
the  Pennsylvania  National  Guard  Division,  with  which  it  went  to  Camp  Hancock, 
Georgia,  where  the  Division  was  reorganized  as  the  28th  Division.  In  November, 
1917,  the  cavalry  regiment  was  disbanded  and  the  Troop  assigned  as  Head- 
quarters Troop,  28th  Division.  It  served  in  this  capacity  for  only  a  few  weeks 
before  it  was  replaced,  and  the  personnel  of  the  Troop  transferred  to  the  103d 
Engineers.  Shortly  afterwards  the  former  officers  and  men  of  the  Troop, 
with  additional  personnel  from  other  troops  of  the  former  cavalry  regiment, 
were  assigned  to  the  103d  Trench  Mortar  Battery  of  the  53d  Field  Artillery 
Brigade  (28th  Division).  In  the  course  of  the  winter  all  of  the  Troop  Officers 
were  transferred  to  other  organizations,  and  a  considerable  number  of  the  men  at- 
tended officers'  training  schools  and  received  commissions.  Practically  all  those 
who  were  commissioned  were  assigned  to  the  28th  Division,  which  rendered  gallant 
service  in  France. 

The  Battery,  after  a  long  period  of  training  went  to  France  with  the 
28th  Division  in  May,  1918,  and  served  in  the  fine  near  Fismes  on  the  Vesle  in  Au- 
gust: and  in  the  Meuse-Argonne  offensive,  just  east  of  the  Argonne  Forest,  from 
September  26th  to  October  9th.  It  was  then  sent  to  Belgium  and  served  there, 
until  the  armistice,  with  the  53d  Field  .\rtillery  Brigade,  which  supported  the  91st 
Division  in  the  Ypres-Lys  offensive. 

Of  those  who  volunteered  in  1917,  forty -nine  in  the  course  of  war  were  com- 
missioned officers.     Six  fell  in  action ;  three  others  died  in  service. 

187 


Those  who  lost  their  Hves  were: 

James  A.  Bonsack,  Second  Lieutenant.  109th  Infantry 
William  S.  Bonsai,  First  Lieutenant,  llOlh  Infantry 
Richard  Stockton  Bullitt,  Second  Lieutenant,  110th  Infantry 
Orville  S.  Kidwell,  Sergeant  First  Class,  Quartermaster  Corps 
Dallas  W.  Koons,  Private,  Company  A,  ^0'2d  Tank  Battalion 
Nelson  \V.  Perine,  Second  Lieutenant,  110th  Infantry 
Frederic  B.  Prichett,  Second  Lieutenant,  109th  Field  Artillery 
Carl  Daniel  Schnioize,  Bugler,  103d  Trench  Mortar  Battery 
Taylor  Everly  Walthour,  Corporal,  103d  Trench  Mortar  Battery 

The  total  contribution  of  First  Troop  Philadelphia  City  Cavalry  to  the  military 
and  naval  service  of  the  United  States  in  the  World  War  was  242  men,  of  whom 
183  were  commissioned  officers. 

The  present  officers  of  the  Troop  (1921)  are:  Captain,  Clement  B.  Wood  (the 
twenty -second  Captain) ;  First  Lieutenant,  W.  West  Frazier,  3d;  Second  Lieutenant, 
Effingham  B.  Morris.  Jr..  and  Cornet,  John  B.  Thayer. 

THE  UNITED   STATES  ABMY  AMBULANCE  SERVICE 
By   Fr.\ncis   F.   Bodine 

In  the  summer  of  1918,  during  the  height  of  America's  activities  in  the  World 
War,  an  officer  on  the  tieneral  Staff  at  Chaumont  was  heard  to  query,  '"What 
in  the  devil  is  the  United  States  Army  Ambulance  Service.'*"  The  annals  of  the 
part  played  by  America  in  the  World  War  would  tend  to  show  that  this  ig- 
norance of  the  identity  of  this  organization  prevailed  in  many  quarters,  notwith- 
standing the  fact  that  the  L  nited  States  Army  Ambulance  Service  was  not  the 
least  in  importance  of  the  various  units  of  the  A.  E.  F. 

The  LInited  States  Army  Ambidance  Service  was  an  organization  formed 
originally  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  ambulance  units  to  the  French  Army. 
After  the  sailing  of  the  third  overseas  contingent  for  France,  it  was  decided  to  send 
a  contingent  of  thirty  anibulancc  sections  to  Italy.  The  French  branch  numbered 
about  eighty-one  sections:  the  Italian  branch  thirty  sections;  and  each  maintained 
its  own  headquarters  under  the  command  of  a  chief  of  service  with  the  rank  of 
colonel. 

When  the  first  French  High  Commission  arrived  in  Washington  in  May,  1917, 
General  Joffre  was  asked  by  the  then  Siu-geon  General  what  the  LInited  States 
Army  Medical  Department  could  do  for  P'rance;  his  reply  was  a  request  that  the 
United  States  shoidd  undertake  the  responsibility  of  handling  the  wounded  of  the 
French  armies  at  the  front.  As  a  result  of  this  request,  the  organization  of  the 
United  States  Army  Ambulance  Corps  (later  known  as  service  instead  of  corps) 
was  effected. 

During  May,  1917,  a  recruiting  headquarters  for  the  Ambulance  Corps  was 
opened  in  Cooper  Battalion  Hall.  Philadelphia,  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant 
Colonel  E.  E.  Persons,  who  chose  for  his  _Vides  Dr.  Clarence  P.  Franklin  and  Dr. 
Arthur  W.  Yale.  Philadelphia  was  for  a  time  the  center  of  the  recruiting  for  the 
Corps;  but  appeals  were  sent  out  to  men  of  the  universities  and  colleges  all  over 
the  country,  who  responded  in  large  numbers,  in  many  instances  forming  entire 
units. 

188 


The  site  chosen  for  the  training  camp  of  the  Ambulance  Corps  was  the  Fair 
Grounds  at  Allentown,  Pa.,  which  were  situated  on  the  edge  of  that  city  and 
made  an  ideal  place  for  a  camp.  The  large  exhibition  buildings,  stables,  etc., 
were  easily  transformed  into  excellent  barracks;  the  large  brick  grandstand 
had  a  great  area  beneath  the  seats  which  was  utilized  as  a  mess  hall;  while  the  race 
track  proved  a  natural  drill  grounds. 

It  would  be  diflicult  at  this  time  to  give  separately  the  part  played  by  indi- 
vidual Philadelphians  and  Philadelphia  units  in  the  Ambulance  Corps.  Suffice 
to  state  that  there  were  a  number  of  entire  units  from  Philadelphia.  At  the  open- 
ing of  the  camp  in  June,  1917,  Philaddpliia  units  were  the  first  to  go  into  training. 

Upon  the  removal  of  Colonel  Persons'  headquarters  from  Philadelphia  to  Allen- 
town,  the  Corps  was  organized  on  the  basis  of  sections  of  thirty-six  men  each  com- 
manded by  a  first  lieutenant.  Several  sections  formed  a  battalion,  commanded 
by  a  captain,  one  of  which  was  commanded  by  Captain  Wai'd  Brinton  of  Phila- 
delphia. Later  these  sections  were  increased  from  thirty-six  to  forty-five  men. 
In  France,  the  strength  of  each  section  was  reduced  to  thirty-seven  men.  Twenty- 
Ford  ambulances  comprised  an  ambulance  train.  (In  France,  these  sections  went 
under  the  French  designation  of  S.  S.  U.) 

Short K  after  the  organization  of  the  Corps,  a  personnel  was  sent  to  France 
to  establish  a  headquarters  for  the  Corps  there.  Brigadier  General  Kean,  who 
was  later  succeeded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  Percy  L.  Jones,  was  assigned  as  Chief 
of  Service.  An  early  task  confronting  him  after  his  arrival  there  was  the  absorp- 
tion of  the  American  Field  Service  by  the  Ambulance  Corps.  In  the  assimilation 
of  the  American  Field  Service  the  Ambulance  Corps  had  now  within  itself  several 
ambulance  sections  comprised  of  volunteers  who,  serving  without  pay,  had  carried 
more  than  500,000  French  wounded  between  the  years  1914  and  1917;  men  whose 
unselfish  devotion  to  a  then  foreign  cause,  and  whose  valor  and  heroism  had  won 
citations  from  the  French  (iovernment  for  their  units  more  than  fifty  times;  and 
upon  more  than  250  of  the  drivers  was  conferred  the  Croix  de  Guerre,  while  five 
others  received  the  JMedaille  Militaire.  the  highest  honor  for  military  valor  given 
in  France. 

In  the  meanwhile  at  Allentown  the  Corps  was  thoroughly  organized  on  a  firm 
military  basis,  equipped,  and  uniformed.  The  time  was  given  to  foot,  stretcher,  and 
ambulance  drills,  sanitary  lectures,  and  hikes.  A  military  band  was  formed  under 
the  supervision  of  Lieutenant  W.  E.  Baken.  a  Philadelphian,  to  instill  in  the  breasts 
of  the  rank  and  file  that  proper  military  enthusiasm  which  martial  music  never 
fails  to  inspire. 

The  first  contingent  of  ambulance  sections  sailed  for  France  in  August,  1917. 
The  second  was  scheduled  to  leave  a  short  time  later;  but  after  preparations  were 
complete  the  sailing  orders  were  canceled,  the  second  contingent  broken  up.  a 
portion  of  which  sailed  in  October,  while  the  remainder,  with  other  sections,  formed 
a  third  contingent,  which  sailed  in  January,  1918,  from  ^ew  York  on  the  Cannuinu, 
reaching  France  by  way  of  England. 

Of  the  activities  of  the  French  and  Italian  branches  of  the  Corps  (now  called 
Service),  lack  of  space  prevents  more  than  a  cursory  touch  being  given.  The  French 
branch  first  maintained  a  base  camp  near  Paris,  but  in  February,  1918,  the 
base  camp  was  changed  t(j  a  famous  old  monastery  in  the  village  of  Ferreriers.  sixty 
kilometers  from  Paris.  Headquarters  was  maintained  in  Paris,  as  was  also  the  garage. 

189 


With  the  signing  of  the  armistice  (jn  November  11,  1918.  the  Ambulance  Ser- 
vice in  France  had  estabh'shed  an  enviable  record  for  service  on  the  frf)nt.  Am- 
bulance sections  had  served  in  practically  every  important  engagement,  and  on 
every  portion  of  th(!  battle  front  from  the  Dutch  border  to  the  southern  end  of 
the  line.  For  the  most  part,  these  sections  served  with  French  divisions,  but  at 
limes  several  operated  with  American  divisions.  In  an  attack  ambulance  drivers 
would  be  on  the  road  day  and  night  incessantly,  operating  from  a  point  well  up  at 
the  front  to  a  base  hospital  distant  from  the  lines  anywhere  from  twelve  to 
(ift>  miles.  The  roads  these  ambulances  traveled  over  were  usually  rough,  broken, 
muddy  affairs  (in  Flanders,  in  the  vicinity  of  Ypres.  the  ambulances  invariably 
wallowed  Ihrough  seas  of  mud). 

Th(!  Fren('h  branch  of  the  Service  paid  u  hca\.\  toll  in  dead  and  wounded. 
Thi'  casualty  list  was  a  long  one;  many  sections,  too,  suffered  heavy  losses  in  am- 
bulances destroyed  by  shell  fire.  The  record  for  gallantry  in  action  was  also  a  long 
(jne.  Many  citations  were  made  for  entire  sections,  while  80  per  cent  of  the  per- 
sonnel of  the  entire  Service  were  cited  in  the  orders  of  the  French  Government; 
in  a  number  of  instances  awards  of  the  Distinguistied  Service  Cross  by  the  American 
(iovernment  were  receivi-d.  The  lirst  of  any  American  unit  abroad  to  receive; 
the  famous  French  fourragere  was  an  ambulance  section,  S.  S.  U.  646,  which  w(m 
that  decoration  for  work  in  llie  attack  at  the  Chemin  fles  Dames  in  October,  1917. 
Sections  501,  .■j02,  .jOj,  and  .501,  all  Philadelphia  sections,  received  sectional,  and 
many  individuals,  citations  for  the  Croix  de  Guerre. 

A  very  conspicuous  part  was  pcrfornicd,  duiing  llic  hcit'lit  of  activities.  })y  a 
Philadelphia  section,  S.  S.  U.  502.  I  nder  the  command  of  Lieutenant  D.  L.  llath- 
way,  this  section  was  working  with  an  American  division  in  the  vicinity  of  Chateau- 
Thierry.  During  an  attack,  Lieutenant  Hathway  and  fifteen  men  were  overcome 
by  mustard  gas,  and  Private  Arthur  L.  Cannon  was  killed;  but  the  remnant  of  tiie 
section  "carried  on"  to  such  a  degree  that  the  Division  Surgeon  wrote  a  letter  tf) 
the  Commanding  Oflicer  of  t}i(!  Divisifin  ralliriL' attention  to  "tlie  superb  work  of 
Lieutenant  llalhway  and  S.  S.  I  .  502  duiing  the  battle  of  July  18-2.'5."'  going  on 
to  slate  that  "these  ambulances  have  been  veritable  mechanical  litter-bearers, 
traversing  zones  hitherto  considered  passable  only  by  littei-bearers  on  foot." 

It  is  regrettable  that  lack  of  time  prevents  the  historiar)  from  securing  more 
information  concerning  the  activities  of  other  Philadelphia  sections,  and  the  con- 
spicuous action  of  Philadelpliians.  on  tlie  French  front.  Names  of  Philadelphian 
ambulance  drivers  appear  on  the  list  of  those  cited  for  valor;  many,  too,  a])pearon 
the  list  of  those  whose  names  are  set  apart  in  immor  fal  distinction — the  wounded 
and  the  dead. 

Under  date  of  .lune  29,  1918,  the  newspapers  of  I  he  I  nited  States  carried  a 
Washington  dispatch  to  thr-  effect  that  "an  American  J]xpeditionary  Force  has 
arrived  in  Italy."  This  body  of  troops  referred  to  was  the  Italian  branch  of  the 
fniled  States  Army  Ambulance  Service,  consisting  of  thirty  ambulance  sections 
under  the  command  of  Colonel  Persons,  who  had  organized  the  Service  in 
Allentown. 

(  pon  the  debarkation  of  the  Ambulance  Service  in  Genoa,  Italy,  a  headquar- 
ters was  established  in  one  of  the  most  famous  old  palaces  of  Italy — the  ducal 
j)alace  of  the  Cionzagas  in  the  city  of  Mantua.  In  (jenoa.  ambulances  were  as- 
sembled by  the  Mechanics  Detachment  with  remarkable  celeril>  and  assigned  to 

1 90 


sections  who,  within  a  short  space  of  time,  were  reporting  to  ItaUan  divisions  on 
the  difterent  portions  of  the  Italian  battle-fronts. 

There  were  no  distinct  Philadelphia  units  in  tlie  Italian  branch  uf  the  Service, 
bul  there  were  many  Philadelphians  in  the  various  units.  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Franklin  was  second  in  command  to  Colonel  Persons,  while  Captain  (later  Major) 
W.  K.  Raken,  also  from  Philadelphia,  was  in  command  of  the  Hospital  Detachment 
which  was  established  in  the  MUa  Raggio  in  Cornigliano. 

Like  the  Ambulance  Service  in  France,  the  Italian  branch  soon  established  a 
wonderful  reputation  for  itself.  Owing  to  the  nature  of  the  country  in  which  the 
fighting  was  carried  on,  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  sections  in  Italy  had  more 
(lifiiculty  in  jjeiforming  the  evacuations  of  the  wounded  than  the  sections  in 
France,  for  the  latter  had,  in  most  instances,  smooth  or  rolling  country:  in  Italy 
there  were  the  steep  slopes  of  mountains  to  work  on.  But  in  spite  of  this 
natural  handicap,  the  sections  w(jrked  steadily  and  faithfully  in  the  various 
campaigns  on  the  Italian  fronts.  Entire  sections  were  not  only  commended 
repeatedly  by  the  Italian  division,  corps,  and  army  commanders,  but  received 
numerous  awards  of  the  Italian  War  Cross. 

Perhaps  the  best  impression  of  the  work  performed  by  the  Service  in  Italy 
can  be  given  by  a  brief  account  of  the  records  of  a  few  of  the  sections.  On  Mount 
Grappa,  sometimes  styled  the  "(iibraltar  of  the  front,"  one  ambulance  section 
worked  for  days  and  nights  without  pausing  an  instant,  evacuating  the  wounded 
over  roads  always  under  shell  fire  and  quite  often  lined  for  long  stretches  with 
mutilated  bodies  of  mules  and  soldiers.  The  record  established  by  one  and)ulance 
section  was  17,488  patients  carried,  and  54,355  miles  traveled  in  four  months.  The 
record  of  another  was  10,338  patients;  a  third,  33,034  patients  with  156,128 
kilometers  covered,  104,082  kilometers  of  which  were  traveled  at  nighl  time. 
Still  another  record  was  33,377  patients  and  a  total  mileage  covered  of  122,235 
between  August,  1918,  and  January,  1919. 

The  emblem  of  the  Italian  branch  of  the  Ambulance  Service  was  the  Lion  of 
St.  Mai'k;  that  of  the  French  branch,  the  famous  Cock  of  \  erdun.  With  the  sign- 
ing of  the  armistice,  sections  of  both  brtuiches  continued  to  do  evacuation  work 
with  their  respective  combat  units  until  recalled  to  the  base  to  prepare  for  the  re- 
turn to  the  States.  This  was  effected  in  the  late  spring  of  1919,  and  on  reaching 
the  States  the  men,  irrespective  of  units,  were  sent  to  the  nearest  demobilization 
camp  and  from  thence  to  their  homes. 

Tile  Allentown  camp,  known  as  Camp  Crane  in  1918,  was  under  the  command 
of  Major  (later  Lieutenant  Colonel)  Richard  Slee,  after  the  departure  of  the 
Italian  contingent  for  Italy.  The  camp  was  turned  into  a  strictly  medical  camp, 
and  men  were  in  training  f(jr  all  branches  of  the  servic(>.  These  men  were  taken 
principally  from  the  medical  camps  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Georgia,  and  Fort  Riley, 
Kansas.  Most  of  them  were  draft  troops,  although  considerable  numbers  were  still 
enlisting  for  this  work.  They  were  trainerl  for  laboratory  units,  field  hospital 
units,  evacuation  hospital  units,  and  organizations  to  conduct  base  hospitals  far 
behind  the  lines. 

When  the  members  of  the  French  and  Italian  branches  of  the  Ambulance 
Service  were  looking  forward  to  the  return  to  America,  it  was  the  cherished  hope 
of  all  that  they  would  be  sent  back  to  Camp  Crane  for  demobilization;  but 
their  hopes  were  not  realized,  as  the  War  Department  at  Washington  decided  to 

191 


close  the  camp,  which  was  done  liy  Colonel  Richard  Slee  on  \pril  10,  1919,  at  12 
o'clock  noon. 

PHILADELPHIA  BRANCH,  MILITARY   INTELLIGENCE  DIVISION, 

GENERAL  STAFF 

In  August,  1917,  John  W.  Geary  was  appointed  an  Agent  of  the  Mihtary 
Intelligence  Service  for  Philadelphia.  In  December  of  the  same  year.  Colonel 
R.  H.  Van  Deman,  Chief  of  the  Military  Intelligence  Service,  decided  it  would 
be  advantageous  to  open  an  office  in  Philadelphia. 

Mr.  Geary  was  commissioned  a  ( '.aptain.  V.  S.  R.,  and  was  instructed  to  or- 
ganize and  take  care  of  the  Philadelphia  branch  office.  On  December  20th  (ieorge 
W.  Elkins,  Jr.,  joined  Captain  Geary,  and  headquarters  were  established  in  Room 
2032,  Commercial  Trust  Building,  on  January  1.  1918.  The  Staff  on  that  date  con- 
sisted of  Captain  Geary  and  Mr.  Elkins,  a  telephone  operator  and  a  stenographer. 
The  work  increased  with  such  rapidity  that  the  force  and  office  space  had  to  be 
continually  increased  until,  at  the  time  of  the  signing  of  the  armistice,  the  force 
numbered  approximately  one  hundred  and  the  entire  twentieth  floor  of  the 
Commercial  Trust  Building  was  required  for  office  space. 

During  the  month  of  January,  George  L.  Harrison,  Jr.,  Edgar  W.  Baird, 
Dr.  Charles  D.  Hart,  Morton  H.  Fetterolf  and  Joseph  Haines,  Jr.,  offered  their 
services,  and  were  accepted,  as  volunteers  in  the  Philadelphia  brauch  of  the  Mili- 
tary Intelligence  Service. 


0(/jr<7'.v  uj  I'lnladi-lijliia  iinuiih.  Military  Inlclliyence. 
192 


The  Philadelphia  ofTire.  at  its  inception,  had  under  its  jurisdiction  the  territory 
as  far  west  as  Pittsburgli  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  all  of  the  State  of  Delaware 
and  all  of  the  State  of  New  Jersey.  Later,  the  northern  part  of  New  Jersey  was 
taken  over  liy  tlie  Alilitary  Tntellif^'cnce  OfTice  in  Hoboken,  where  the  closer  proximity 
enabled  the  handling'  of  work  with  greater  dispatch.  The  work  of  the  outlying 
districts  was  handled  by  volunteer  agents,  cooperating  with  the  Pennsylvania 
State  Constabulary  under  Supt.  George  B.  Lumb.  Satisfactory  cooperation  was 
also  estabhshed  witli  the  branches  of  Naval  Intelligence,  Aide  for  Information, 
Department  of  Justice,  all  local  Federal  offices  and  organizations  engaged  in  war 
work. 

Acting  under  advices  from  the  Director  of  Military  Intelligence  in  Washington, 
upon  information  obtained  locally  or  from  other  parts  of  the  country,  the  work 
of  this  office  was  varied  and  manifold.  It  embraced  cases  of  those  under  suspicion 
of  being  (Jerman  or  enemy  agents,  violators  of  the  "Trading  with  the  Enemy  Act, " 
revolutionary  propaganda,  radical  labor  cases,  conscientious  objectors  and  paci- 
fists, tampering  with  soldiers,  draft  evasions  and  deserters,  the  impersonation  of 
officers,  both  American  and  foreign,  cjuestions  of  graft  and  fraud  in  the  Army, 
and  many  others.  In  addition  to  these  functions,  a  Counter  Espionage  Organiza- 
tion was  developed  in  the  various  military  units  in  Pliiladelphia — this  territory 
being,  probably,  the  greatest  industrial  center  in  tlie  country  and  filled  with  manu- 
facturing plants  doing  Government  work  for  all  departments  of  the  Army,  partic- 
ularly, the  Ordnance  Department  and  the  ()uartermasters"  Depot.  The  employes 
in  these  plants  represented  all  the  elements  of  the  foreign  races,  including  large  num- 
bers of  Germans,  Austrians  and  Russians,  also  representatives  of  all  the  Latin 
and  Slavic  peoples.  Consequently,  during  the  war  the  field  for  sabotage,  propa- 
ganda and  enemy  activity  was  a  dangerous  and  an  important  one.  This  work, 
combined  with  the  difi'erent  service  of  the  Plant  Protection  Division,  under  Wm. 
J.  McCarron,  agent  in  charge,  proved  most  advantageous,  and  it  can  be  stated  that 
no  serious  damage  or  sabotage  was  committed  within  the  limits  of  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Philadelphia  office. 

A  rigid  port  control  was  established  September  15,  1918,  and  it  was  the  function 
of  the  Military  Intelligence  to  act  as  advisory  to  the  Port  Control  officers,  who  were 
the  Collector  of  Customs  for  outgoing  traffic  and  the  Commissioner  of  Immigra- 
tion for  incoming  traffic.  It  was  hoped  thus  to  prevent  the  entry  and  departure 
of  persons  disclosed  in  the  files  and  investigations  of  the  Intelligence  as  "unde- 
sirable" travelers. 

The  foregoing  and  many  other  matters  were  handled  by  the  Military  Intelli- 
gence, though  many  of  its  activities  did  not  strictly  come  under  its  jurisdiction; 
but  as  there  was  no  other  Government  office  equipped  to  handle  such  cases,  they 
were  willingly  taken  on.  greatly  to  the  advantage  of  the  local  community  and 
country  at  large. 

The  work  was  largely  of  a  confidential  and  secret  nature,  and  even  today  it 
is  not  possible  to  give  to  the  public  the  details  with  their  incidents  of  humor 
and  pathos. 

The  usefulness  of  the  organization  waned  after  tiie  signing  of  the  armistice, 
and  the  office  of  the  Military  Intelligence  in  Philadelphia,  on  its  war  basis,  was 
ended  on  February  28,  1919. 

Its  work  had  been  well  done,  as  the  following  extract  from  a  personal  letter 

193 


written  by  Brigadier  General  Marlborough  Churchill,  Director  of  Military  Intelli- 
gence, to  Major  Geary,  dated  May  14,  1919,  will  show: 

"Only  those  of  us  who  have  been  on  the  'inside'  of  the  Intelligence  work  can 
have  any  idea  of  the  magnitude  and  importance  of  the  Intelligence  offices  in  our 
larger  cities,  and  for  this  reason  it  is  all  the  more  fitting  that  I  should  gladly  go  on 
record  as  stating  that  you  and  your  associates  rendered  the  country  and  the  Army 
distinguished  service  in  a  post  of  great  responsibility  and  successfully  contributed 
to  the  war  we  waged  on  the  'Hun  at  Home'." 

"If  the  whole  story  of  the  war  could  ever  be  written,  the  coimtry  would  know 
something  of  which  you  and  your  officers,  non-commissioned  officers,  clerks  and 
agents  accomplished.  Such  a  story  is  impossible,  and  this  letter  seems  a  poor 
substitute  for  the  reward  to  which  you  all  are  entitled." 

OFFICE  FORCE,  NOVEMBER  11,  1918. 

Major  John  W.  Geary,  U.  S.  A., 

Commanding  Officer. 

Captain  Geo.  W.  Elkins,  Jr.,  U.  S.  A.  First  Lieutenant  Joseph  Haines,  Jr.,  U.  S.  A. 

Captain  Edgar  W.  Baird,  U.  S.  A.  Second  Lieutenant  W.  S.  Stokes,  U.  S.  A. 

Captain  Ralph  Dudley,  U.  .S.  A.  Second  Lieutenant  W.  T.  Tiers,  U.  S.  A. 

First  Lieutenant  E.  Marshall  Scull,  U.  S.  A.  Second  Lieutenant  J.  Morgan  Lister,  U.  S.  A. 
First  Lieutenant  M.  H.  Fetterolf,  U.  S.  A. 

Volunteer  Aides  (Full  Time,  $1.00  a  Year):  Geo.  L.  Harrison,  Jr.,  M.  B.  Burton,  W.  R. 
Landis,  J.  L.  Langsdorf,  M.  A.  Apple,  C.  M.  Rainsford,  E.  B.  Colket,  J.  S.  Lovering,  C.  P.  B. 
Jeffreys,  M.  A.  Schoettle. 

Oat  of  Town  Agents:  Grant  Weidman,  B.  Dawson  Coleman,  Lebanon,  Pa.;  Bruce  Bedford, 
N.  Petty,  S.  Dickinson,  Trenton,  N.  J.;  J.  S.  Parsons,  H.  II.  Gilkyson,  Jr.,  J.  B.  Emack,  Phoenix- 
ville.  Pa.;  Stanley  Bright,  G.  Howard  Bright,  Reading,  Pa.;  Louis  C.  Madeira,  3d,  Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa.;  T.  I.  Snyder,  Reading,  Pa.;  Cornelius  Mundy,  W.  G.  Jones,  Jr.,  Wilmington,  Del.;  W.  S. 
Emley,  Atlantic  City,  N.  J.;  W.  V.  Barnes,  York,  Pa.;  Parke  Davis,  Easton,  Pa.;  Albert  G.  Rau, 
Bethlehem,  Pa.;  H.  R.  Gummey,  Jr.,  Downington,  Pa.;  George  Bright,  Pottsville,  Pa.;  W.  P. 
Fisher,  Hamburg,  Pa. 

Volunteer  Aides  (Special  Service):  Dr.  C.  D.  Hart,  H.  A.  Lewis,  C.  J.  Schmidt,  John  C. 
White,  J.  M.  Reynolds,  Martin  Bergen,  Everett  Brown,  Dr.  Eric  Bernhard. 

Investigators:   J.  H.  Sparks,  W.  G.  Petry,  J.  Laskey,  Thomas  A.  Grady,  Robert  A.  Fleming. 

Clerical  Force:  The  Misses  D.  Rigg,  E.  Moore,  A.  Ryan,  M.  Davidson,  L.  Neice,  P.  Sheaffer, 
A.  Kennedy,  Mrs.  A.  M.  Ely,  Private  Mohr. 

Sergeants  Intelligence  Police:  Sergeants  Gillespie,  Hill,  Hughes,  C.  Davis,  McLaughlin, 
Wills,  Burnside,  Booth,  Warren,  Adler,  Allen,  Polk,  Salvatori,  Haines,  Mathews,  MacBain, 
D.  Davis,  Downey,  Unfreed. 

THE  COLORED  MEN  OF  PHILADELPHIA  ANSWER  THE  CALL* 

The  colored  men  of  this  city  were  found  in  many  branches  of  the  service  and 
won  for  themselves  high  commendation. 

The  92d  and  9.3d  Divisions  were  composed  of  colored  men.  The  93d  Division 
was  originally  made  up  of  colored  National  Guardsmen  and  the  92d  Division  of 
National  Army  men. 

368th  Infantry. 

The  368th  Infantry  was  a  unit  in  the  92d  Division  and  in  it  were  many 
colored  men  from  Philadelphia. 

•Summarized  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Philadelphia  War  History  Committee  from  data  supplied 
by  Dr.  De  Haven  Hinkson,  Captain,  M.  R.  C.  (inactive)  and  Lieutenant  Egbert  T.  Scott,  M.  C. 

194 


This  regiment  was  organized  and  trained  at  Camp  Meade,  Maryland,  its 
first  complement  being  furnished  by  the  first  draft.  After  general  routine  infantry 
training,  the  regiment  left  Iloboken,  N.  J.,  on  June  18,  1918,  on  the  George  Wash- 
iuglnti.  and  arrived  at  Brest  on  June  27,  1918.  It  remained  at  Camp  Pontanazen 
until  July  1,  1918,  and  moved  to  its  training  area  with  Regimental  Headquarters  at 
Chatillon-sur-Saone  and  Divisional  Headquarters  at  Bourbonne-les-Bains  (Haute 
Marne). 

On  July  21,  1918,  Colonel  W.  P.  Jackson,  then  Regimental  Commander,  was 
promoted  to  Brigadier  General  and  assigned  to  the  74th  Brigade,  of  the  .37th  Divi- 
sion, being  succeeded  by  Colonel  Fred  R.  Brown  on  August  20,  1918. 

On  August  12,  1918,  the  regiment  moved  with  the  entire  division  to  the  St. 
Die  sector  in  the  Vosges  Mountains.  On  August  24, 1918,  a  portion  of  the  regiment 
took  up  its  first  position  in  the  lines  near  Docelles  (\  osges),  and  on  September  4, 
1918,  the  first  two  German  prisoners  were  captured  by  the  regiment. 

On  September  20,  1918,  the  entire  Division  left  the  St.  Die  sector  for  the 
Argonne.  They  were  relieved  by  the  81st  Division.  On  September  26.  1918. 
the  Argonne  Drive  began  with  the  92d  Division  in  reserve.  The  368th  Infantry 
was  ordered  into  line  and  began  its  work  by  capturing  eight  prisoners. 

On  October  1.  1918,  the  regiment  moved  Ijack  from  the  line  and  started  for 
the  Marbache  sector  just  south  of  Metz.  At  that  time  this  was  a  defensive  sector, 
and  offensive  operations  as  planned  were  halted  by  the  signing  of  the  armistice. 

The  regiment  was  among  the  first  to  enter  Metz  after  the  armistice,  much 
to  the  admiration  of  the  citizens,  many  of  whom  had  never  seen  men  of  dusky  hue. 
Some  actually  thought  that  the  color  was  due  to  paint  placed  on  the  skin,  and  there 
were  instances  where  the  curiosity  was  so  great  that  attempts  were  made  by  the 
people  of  the  city  to  rub  the  supposed  coloring  from  the  faces  of  these  colored  Amer- 
icans. 

In  December,  1918,  the  regiment  started  back  to  Brest,  but,  owing  to  the  con- 
gestion it  was  sent  to  the  Department  of  Mayenne,  arriving  there  about 
Christmas  Day.  About  the  middle  of  January,  1919,  the  men  were  sent  to  LeMans 
for  delousing  and  then  started  for  the  port  of  embarkation.  After  about  ten  days 
at  Camp  Pontanazen,  Brest,  the  regiment  sailed  on  February  5,  1919.  Upon  its 
return  to  the  United  States,  it  was  sent  to  Camp  Meade  and  there  demobilized. 

Although  additional  citations  have  been  made  since  disbanding,  nine  Distin- 
guished Service  Crosses  and  one  Croix  de  Guerre  are  known  to  have  been 
received  by  members  of  the  regiment.  The  regiment  itself  received  the  following 
citation  from  General  Burand  (French)  for  the  capture  of  Binarville  (in  the 
Argonne) : 

"The  prize  of  the  honor  of  the  capture  of  Binarville  rightly  goes  to  the 
.368thlnfantry,  U.  S.  A." 

813th   Pioneer   Infantry 

The  813th  Pioneer  Infantry  had  many  Philadelphia  colored  men  of  the  second 
Draft.  The  regiment  had  but  little  over  a  month's  training  at  Camp  Sherman, 
when  it  was  ordered  to  France.  It  left  for  Camp  Mills  on  September  8,  1918. 
On  September  14th,  it  proceeded  to  Hoboken  and  embarked  on  the  transports 
Pocahontas,  Finland  and  Martha  Washington.    These  ships  sailed  on  the  following 

1% 


day,  with  four  other  ships  in  their  convoy.  Arriving  at  Brest,  France,  on  Septem- 
ber 28.  1918.  they  remained  at  Camp  Pontanazen  for  six  days,  and  then  went  by 
rail  to  the  training  area  assigned  to  them  in  the  vicinity  of  Braux. 

On  October  25,  1918,  they  proceeded  to  the  St.  Mihiel  sector  and  helped  with 
road  construction,  often  under  fire.  After  the  armistice  the  regiment  went  up  near 
Metz  to  fill  in  shell  holes  and  to  salvage  equipment,  etc.  On  February  28,  1919, 
it  was  sent  to  the  Argonne  to  help  clear  up  the  battleground  and  rebury  many  of 
the  men  whose  bodies  had  been  hurriedly  interred  at  the  time  of  their  death.  In 
May,  1919,  it  was  transferred  to  Belleau  Woods  for  the  same  purpose.  Here 
were  met  women  workers  for  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  This  was  a  happy  meeting,  for  the 
men  had  not  seen  women  of  their  own  race  since  leaving  the  United  States. 

On  June  26,  1919,  they  started  by  rail  for  the  port  of  embarkation  at  Brest 
and  on  July  2,  1919,  part  of  the  regiment  left  on  the  transport  Freedom,  arriving  at 
Newport  News,  Va.,  where  the  regiment  was  disbanded. 

325th  Field  Signal  Battalion 

This  Unit  of  the  92d  Division  had  in  it  a  number  of  Philadelphia  colored  men. 
Its  work  was  largely  of  a  technical  nature,  and  was  so  well  performed  as  to  win 
the  commendation  of  superior  officers. 

Officers'  Training  Camps 

Of  the  639  colored  officers  who  were  commissioned  at  the  Officers"  Training 
Camp  at  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  Philadelphia  had  a  good  representation.  Later,  train- 
ing camps  afforded  an  opportunity  to  a  number  of  other  Philadelphians  to  win 
commissions. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  about  twelve  colored  Philadelphians  still  hold 
commissions  in  the  Officers'  Reserve  Corps. 

350th  Field  Artillery 

The  Philadelphia  colored  troops  who  served  in  the  350th  (Light)  Field  Artillery, 
were  commanded  by  Colonel  Walter  Prosser.  The  men  were  mobilized  at  Camp 
Dix  and  were  sent  to  France  with  very  little  preliminary  training  in  America. 
However,  as  soon  as  they  landed  on  French  soil   they  began  intensive  training. 

The  first  guns  received  were  the  French  75"s  and  a  few  heavy  howitzers,  and 
by  August  10,  1918,  when  the  brigade  left  for  the  target  range,  the  men  had  made 
substantial  progress.  Headquarters  had  set  October  1st  as  the  date  when  the 
brigade  was  to  be  called  upon  for  active  service;  but  on  September  20th  it  was 
ready,  and  four  days  later  demonstrated  its  ability  by  firing  a  rolling  barrage,  a 
defensive  barrage  at  night,  and  by  other  ways. 

Nevertheless,  a  serious  problem  confronted  these  troops — there  were  no  means 
of  transportation,  either  horses  or  motors.  The  brigade  needed  twenty-four 
tractors,  of  which  at  that  time  there  were  but  fifty  in  France.  By  strenuous  efforts 
the  required  number  was  secured.  Only  thirty-six  of  the  200  necessary  trucks  and 
231  of  the  necessary  2,300  horses  were  available. 

LTnder  such  conditions,  two  of  the  regiments  of  light  artillery  were  sent  to  a 
reserve  billeting  area  of  the  2d  Army  near  Toul,  about  fifteen  miles  from  the  front. 
They  were  promptly  ordered  to  move  elsewhere  to  make  room  for  other  troops. 

196 


Therefore,  they  rejoined  the  92d  Division,  borrowed  additional  trucks  and  moved 
up  to  the  front. 

Frequently  it  was  impossible  to  get  the  guns  in  position  by  means  of  motors 
and  many  of  them  were  placed  by  hand,  often  after  the  men  had  hauled  them  over 
miles  of  soft  slippery  ground. 

The  92d  Division  at  this  time  was  holding  a  sector  of  abf)ut  9'  ■>  miles  wide, 
on  the  east  bank  of  the  Moselle.  It  had  been  supported  by  the  French  Artillery 
and  by  an  American  Artillery  Brigade.  These  were  withdrawn  and  replaced  on 
October  20th  by  the  167th  Brigade.  Up  to  this  time  the  sector  had  been  known 
as  a  quiet  one,  into  which  not  more  than  500  shells  a  day  were  thrown  and  from 
which  about  the  same  number  of  shells  were  sent. 

With  the  arrival  of  the  colored  troops,  conditions  changed.  On  November  1st 
all  the  guns  were  properly  placed  and  from  2,000  to  3,000  shells  were  fired 
daily. 

In  order  to  deceive  the  enemy  as  to  the  number  and  place  of  guns,  each  battery 
was  divided  into  silent  and  active  platoons,  the  latter  of  which  did  all  the  firing 
and  was  constantly  changing  its  location. 

Enemy  raids  soon  began  and  the  artillery  iiad  its  first  real  opportunity  to  send 
over  a  curtain  of  fire  for  protection. 

On  November  .ith  some  of  the  Infantry  of  the  Division  made  a  raid  in  force. 
The  notice  of  this  attack  was  so  short  that  it  was  necessary  to  move  a  regiment 
and  a  half  of  the  Light  Artillery  and  a  half  a  regiment  of  Heavy  Artillery  into  new 
positions,  from  whicii  a  rolling  barrage  was  sent  over  by  map  calculations,  a  feat 
which  called  for  the  highest  ability  in  the  use  of  artillery. 

On  November  8th.  although  the  German  Envoys  were  within  the  American 
lines,  arranging  for  the  terms  of  the  armistice,  plans  were  made  for  a  general  offen- 
sive, which  was  made  at  dawn  on  the  10th. 

After  a  heavy  preparatory  fire,  the  Infantry  of  the  Division  advanced  the 
American  front  lines  three  kilometers  and  captured  Frehaut  and  Vouvrette  Woods, 
strongly  fortified  positions,  which  had  resisted  two  previous  attacks  by  other 
divisions. 

On  November  11th  an  attack  on  the  heights,  which  were  the  main  defense  of 
Metz  on  the  south,  was  about  to  be  started  when  hostilities  ceased. 

Speaking  of  the  167th  Field  Artillery  Brigade,  Brigadier  General  John  H. 
Sherburne,  who  commanded  it.  said:  "The  brigade  never  failed  to  do  creditably 
any  task  it  was  called  upon  to  do,  and  many  appreciative  and  flattering  things  were 
said  about  it  by  the  military  authorities  who  observed  its  work.  Perhaps  the  best 
testimony  is  the  fact  that  when  the  intelligence  officer  of  the  German  Division 
opposite  came  into  our  lines  at  the  close  of  hostilities,  he  refused  to  believe  that 
the  artillery  supporting  the  colored  infantry  was  not  French  Artillery. 

"But  perhaps  beyond  and  above  the  performance  of  the  merely  technical 
duties  was  the  splendid  morale  of  the  brigade.  The  courage  of  the  men  under 
fire  was  without  criticism.  In  many  instances,  gun  crews  and  telephone  line  men 
showed  a  notable  courage  and  determination  under  fire.  At  all  times  and  under 
all  conditions,  the  men  showed  a  fine  cheerfulness  and  willingness.  Their  conduct 
was  almost  flawless,  and  they  left  each  billet  with  the  good  will  and  affection  of  the 
French  civilians." 

197 


349th  Light  Field  Artillebv 

Philadelphians  in  this  regiment  were  trained  at  Camp  Dix  and  were  com- 
manded by  Colonel  O'Neil. 

351sT  Heavy  Field  Artillery 

The  men  in  this  regiment  were  trained  at  Camp  Meade  and  commanded  Ijy 
Colonel  Carpenter. 

THE  BALDWIN  LOCOMOTIVE  WORKS'  CONTINGENT  TO  SIBERIA 

That  Philadelphians  served  in  practically  every  United  States  military  and 
naval  unit,  at  home  or  abroad,  is  common  knowledge.  However,  it  may  not  be 
known  that  at  the  time  when  the  first  divisions  of  American  troops  were  sailing 
eastward,  and  before  the  great  convoys  were  rushing  men  and  supplies  to  the 
eastern  front,  a  picked  group  of  technically  trained  Philadelphians  was  proceeding 
westward  for  service  in  Siberia. 

The  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  Contingent  of  the  Russian  Railway  Service 
Corps,  a  branch  of  the  United  States  Engineer  Corps,  comprised  of  seventy-five 
mechanical  and  constructing  engineers,  all  skilled  in  their  respective  work  and  care- 
fully selected  from  The  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works,  was  formed  October  17,  1917, 
and  each  man  commissioned  an  officer  in  the  Engineer  Corps,  United  States  Army, 
November  1,  1917,  commissions  ranking  from  second  lieutenant  to  lieutenant 
colonel. 

This  contingent  was  to  supervise  the  re-erection  of  locomotives  and  to  assist 
in  any  manner  possible  to  relieve  the  chaotic  conditions  in  Siberia,  and  was  formed 
on  the  recommendation  of  Samuel  M.  \'auclain.  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of 
National  Defense,  now  President  of  The  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works,  and  S.  M. 
Felton,  Director  General  of  Military  Railroads. 

This  force  left  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  November  9,  1917,  accompanied  by  thirty- 
three  Russian  interpreters,  arrived  in  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  November  14,  1917, 
and  was  joined  at  that  point  by  a  contingent  of  215  officers,  railway  experts  from 
various  railroads  in  the  United  States,  commanded  by  Colonel  G.  M.  Emerson, 
General  Manager,  Great  Northern  Railway.  The  unit  sailed  from  San  Francisco, 
Cal.,  November  19,  1917,  on  the  United  States  Army  transport  Thomas,  destinia- 
tion  Vladivostok,  Siberia,  stopping  at  Honolulu,  T.  H.,  November  26,  1917,  leaving 
November  30,  1917,  and  taking  a  direct  route  to  Vladivostok,  via  Pacific  Ocean, 
Tsugaru  Straits,  Japan  Sea  and  Bay  of  Peter  the  Great,  arriving  December  14, 
1917.  The  American  Consul,  with  several  Russian  officials,  came  aboard  and 
advised  that  the  Bolshevik  party  was  in  complete  control  of  that  city  and  condi- 
tions were  critical,  as  there  was  constant  danger  of  serious  outbreaks.  Vladivostok 
at  this  time  was  in  a  very  congested  condition;  freight,  such  as  locomotives, 
machinery,  tractors,  munitions  and  equipment,  wire,  etc.,  was  piled  in  the  town 
and  on  the  hillsides. 

The  Bolshevik  controlled  the  railroads;  and  being  very  unfavorable  to  any 
attempt  to  enter  Siberia,  it  was  decided  to  proceed  to  some  port  in  Japan  to  acquire 
additional  supplies  and  await  developments.  Leaving  Vladivostok,  December  17, 
1917,  the  contingent  arrived  at  Nagasaki,  Japan,  December  19,  1917. 

lOR 


The  Baldwin  ContingenJ. 


As  time  progressed,  conditions  in  Siberia  remained  unclianged,  and  instruc- 
tions were  received  to  quarter  in  Japan  until  furtiicr  orders  and  to  allow  the  trans- 
port to  return  to  the  United  States.  The  Baldwin  contingent  was  quartered  in 
Obama,  Japan,  thirty-five  miles  from  Nagasaki,  until  April  15, 1918,  when  arrange- 
ments were  made  to  return  to  the  United  States,  as  it  was  unlikely  that  they  could 
fulfill  their  mission  for  several  years,  owing  to  the  disastrous  conditions  existing 
in  Siberia.  During  the  stay  in  Japan,  the  commanding  officers  of  the  Baldwin 
contingent  proceeded  to  Harbin,  Manchuria,  to  go  over  the  Siberian  situation 
with  Colonel  Emerson  and  John  Stevens,  of  the  Railroad  Commission,  but 
were  unable  to  make  any  arrangements  for  the  contingent  to  commence  their 
duties. 

The  Baldwin  contingent  sailed  from  Nagasaki,  Japan,  April  16,  1918,  stopping 
at  Yokohama  and  Honolulu,  arriving  at  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  May  6,  1918,  and 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May  10,  1918.  Some  members  of  this  contingent  were  trans- 
ferred to  various  branches  of  the  Army  and  the  naval  gun  batteries,  others  were 
held  in  reserve. 

The  following  men  of  The  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  were  commissioned: 

Lieutenant  Colonels:     F.  Jaspersen,  Chas.  \V.  Werst. 

Majors:     B.  F.  Paist,  J.  A.  Trainor. 

Captains:  J.  C.  Brooke,  J.  A.  Clarke,  B.  Douglas,  W.  C.  Kipe,  Wni.  L.  Lloyd,  W.  Byrd 
Page,  J.  D.  Bogers,  B.  Soinmerville,  G.  A.  Supplee,  M.  F.  Welsh. 

First  Lieutenants:  W.  I,.  Fagan,  C.  Grow,  J.  W.  Hutchinson,  P.  T.  Jones,  A.  W.  Machunas, 
G.  Pflueger,  G.  F.  Prendergast,  A.  Russell,  H.  B.  Snyder. 

Second  Lieutenants:     J.   Ashenfelder,  F.  Atlee,  F.  Bailiff,  J.  A.  Barrett,  J.  J.  Brown,  R. 

199 


Butler,  H.  Carter,  C.  Chapman,  Raymond  Colesworthy,  W.  H.  Cox,  C.   Grouse,  H.  Crouse, 

D.  Douf^herly,  Geo.  J.  Dougherty.  G.  Eberhardt.  G.  L.  Eby,  H.  Funk,  R.  Gray,  F.  Haney. 
G.  Haney,  W .  W .  Harri.son.  Richard  James.  Robert  Jaiues.  Robert  Johnson,  A.  W.  Kelly.  Earl 
McConisey,  F.  McGeehan,  L.  T.  Martin,  \.  B.  Mahan,  R.  I'atton,  E.  J.  Powers,  J.  I'urcell,  H.  E. 
Ralletto,  R.  D.  Reese,  L.  A.  Rehfuss,  W.  C.  Rehfuss,  .M.  Replogle,  P.  B.  Shelmerdine,  W.  Shraek, 

E.  Scheetz,  W.  A.  Snyder,  J.  W.  Stapleton,  R.  Stoyer,  J.  F.  Stowe,  E.  J.  Tierney,  H.  Veitz, 
Albert  Wagner.  E.  R.  Wagner,  E.  A.  Welsh.  R.  P.  Winn.  Walter  \\'ilson,  J.  A.  Youngblood. 

In  October,  1918,  Samuel  M.  Vauclain  was  commissioned  by  Secretary  of  War 
Baker  to  organize  a  contingent  to  be  commissioned  into  service  in  the  Ordnance 
Department,  United  States  Army,  to  build  and  place  into  service  1500  30-ton 
MARK  VIII  armored  tanks.  This  contingent  was  organized  and  the  following 
men  of  The  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  were  commissioned : 

Lieutenant  Colonel  C.  H.  Crawford 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Chas.  W.  Werst 
Major  John  L.  Tate 
First  Lieutenant  John  V.  Applin 

Mr.  Vauclain,  then  Chairman  of  the  Federal  Board  of  Industries,  commanded 
this  contingent,  and  it  was  his  desire  to  command  as  a  civilian,  although  a  commis- 
sion had  been  offered  him  by  President  Wilson. 

The  contingent  was  to  be  composed  of  several  thousand  workmen  and  to  be 
located  at  Chatcauroux,  France.  All  preliminary  work  was  completed,  but 
further  work  was  discontinued  on  account  of  the  armistice. 


200 


PHILADELPHIA  HOSPITAL  UNITS 

OLIR  important  Base  Hospitals  were  organized  in  Phila- 
delphia, the  personnel  of  which  was  exclusively  or  in  large 
measure  drawn  from  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  the  Episcopal  Hos- 
pital and  Jefferson  Hospital.  A  Naval  Base  Hospital, 
No.  5,  was  organized  at  the  Methodist  Hospital,  and 
Hospital  I'nit  A,  formed  at  the  Presbyterian  Hospital, 
was  the  first  of  its  type  in  the  Medical  Corps  of  the 
^   Army. 


BASE  HOSPITAL  No.   10,   U.   S.   A. 
By  E.  M.  Jefferys,  Chaplain 

The  inception  of  Base  Hospital  No.  10  was  in  1916,  and  was  largely  the  result 
of  the  practical  patriotism  of  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital  of  Philadelphia,  the 
Pennsylvania  Committee  for  National  Prepari'dness,  and  of  Dr.  Richard  H. 
Harte,  the  I  nits  Director.  The  Pennsylvania  Hospital  supplied  a  large  pro- 
portion of  the  original   personnel.     The   Committee  for  National   Preparedness 


Courtesy  of  Frank  W. 


Biihler,    Stanley    Co.    of    America. 

Col.  HichanI  II.  Harle  ani  Col.  Mallliew  A.  Delaiiev. 


201 


largely  furnished  the  materiel.  Dr.  Haite  was  the  foreseeing  leader  and  organizer. 
Early  in  May,  1917,  Major  Matthew  A.  Delaney,  of  the  Regular  Army,  was  placed 
in  command.  Miss  Margaret  A.  Dunlop  was  appointed  Chief  Nurse.  Some  of 
the  most  distinguished  members  of  the  medical  profession  in  Philadelphia  were 
commissioned,  and  assigned  to  duty  with  this  hospital  unit.  Dr.  Jefferys,  the 
rector  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  Philadelphia,  was  appointed  its  Chaplain  by  the 
President  on  May  3d.  A  few  days,  therefore,  after  war  was  declared  Base  Hos- 
pital No.  10  was  ready  to  move  at  a  moment's  notice. 

On  Wednesday,  May  16th.  orders  were  received  for  the  Unit  to  leave  Phila- 
delphia on  the  18th.  This  day  of  departure  proved  to  be  bright  and  clear.  The 
Unit  left  Philadelphia  from  the  West  Philadelphia  station  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Railroad  at  10  a.m.  Many  friends  were  there  to  see  the  first  organization  from 
l^hiladelphia  leave  for  the  front.  There  were  no  stragglers,  every  officer,  every 
nurse  and  every  enlisted  man  being  on  hand.  The  Unit  detrained  in  Jersey  City, 
and  after  lunch  crossed  to  New  York  by  ferry-boat  to  the  dock  where  the  Si.  Paul 
was  lying,  the  ship  which  was  to  take  them  across  the  Atlantic.  DiscipUne  in  the 
Unit  was  good  from  the  beginning,  and  although  shore-leave  was  granted  to  many, 
no  one  failed  to  respond  to  roll-call  at  6  a.m.  on  the  19th. 

On  the  iS7.  Paul,  besides  Base  Hospital  No.  10,  there  was  the  Hospital  Unit 
No.  21,  from  St.  Louis,  and  an  Orthopedic  Unit.  Some  civilians  were  also  on 
board.  The  5/.  Paul  mounted  several  six-pounders  and  four  four-pounders  for 
defense  against  submarines.  These  guns  were  in  charge  of  a  lieutenant  and  a 
detachment  of  blue-jackets  from  the  Navy. 

The  Unit  sailed  from  New  York  on  Saturday,  May  19,  1917,  at  noon.  The 
trip  was  uneventful.  The  time  was  occupied  with  some  setting-up  exercises,  efforts 
at  driUing  and  the  inoculation  of  the  members  with  various  sera.  The  Chaplains 
of  Base  Hospitals  10  and  21  held  reUgious  services  every  evening  in  the  dining- 
saloon,  which  were  largely  attended.  Early  Sunday  morning  many  attended  a 
celebration  of  the  Holy  Communion  in  the  ship's  Ubrary,  and  a  crowded  general 
service  was  held  afterwards  in  the  dining-room. 

On  Saturday,  May  26th,  at  about  9  o'clock  in  the  morning.  Destroyer  No.  59, 
of  the  American  Navy,  was  sighted,  and  was  greeted  with  cheers.  Later  in  the  day 
another  American  destroyer  joined  the  first.  After  a  few  hours  these  destroyers 
departed,  and  British  destroyers  took  their  place.  The  St.  Paul,  in  approaching 
the  Irish  coast,  was  so  well  guarded  that  no  trouble  was  experienced  from  the  sub- 
marines which  infested  those  waters. 

On  Sunday,  May  27th,  the  ship  entered  the  Mersey,  and  at  6.15  p.m.  docked 
at  Liverpool,  too  late  for  Base  Hospital  No.  10  to  disembark.  On  the  following 
morning.  May  28th,  the  Unit  left  the  ship  at  7.30.  The  enhsted  personnel  and  a 
few  officers  were  sent  to  Blackpool.  The  officers  and  nurses  were  provided  with 
accommodations  at  the  Northwestern  and  Adelphi  hotels,  respectively.  Colonels 
Begbie  and  Johnson  of  the  British  Army  were  in  charge  of  the  reception  and 
accommodations,  and  everything  was  done  promptly  and  efficiently  for  the  Unit's 
comfort.  The  English  people  gave  the  Unit  a  cordial  welcome  wherever  it  ap- 
peared. They  openly  showed  their  pleasure  at  the  sight  of  American  uniforms, 
the  Unit  being  one  of  the  first  American  outfits  to  go  overseas  in  the  Great  War. 
At  Blackpool  the  enlisted  men  received  instruction  in  the  use  of  gas  masks  and 
were  put  through  the  fitter  drill.     Amusements  and  entertainments  were  pro- 

202 


vided  for  them.  It  was  said  that  they  made  a  most  favorable  impression  on  the 
British  officers  and  men  stationed  there.  The  detachment  remained  in  Blackpool 
twelve  days.  It  was  then  sent  on  by  train  to  Southampton.  At  Oxford  twenty 
minutes  were  given  for  refreshments.  The  detachment  was  embarked  on  the 
Northwestern  Miller  (a  ship  which  in  peace  times  had  pUed  between  Philadelphia 
and  London),  her  cargo  consisting  of  1,800  men,  750  horses  and  mules,  and  her 
hold  filled  with  high  explosives.  The  Northwestern  Miller  reached  Le  Havre  on 
June  11th. 

The  officers  and  nurses  left  at  Liverpool  had  a  few  days  there,  and  were  then 
sent  by  train  to  London,  where  they  became  the  guests  of  the  British  Government, 
and  were  royally  welcomed  and  entertained.  Advantage  was  taken  of  the  time 
in  London  by  medical  officers,  the  chaplain  and  the  nurses  to  visit  some  of  the  great 
military  hospitals,  in  which  much  information  was  to  be  had.  On  June  10th  the 
L^nit  left  London,  reaching  Southampton  the  same  day,  and  embarked  on  a 
hospital  ship,  formerly  one  of  the  Castle  line.  German  submarines  were  evidently 
anxious  to  give  the  first  American  troops  to  go  overseas  a  warm  reception,  for  a 
British  destroyer  sunk  one  of  these  pestiferous  craft,  just  outside  of  Southampton, 
and  a  French  transport  was  torpedoed  by  one  of  them  just  astern  as  they  were 
going  into  Le  Havre.  The  hospital  ship  on  which  the  Unit  was  transported  was 
fortunately  well  guarded  by  British  destroyers.  The  LTnit  reached  Le  Havre  on 
June  11th,  being  the  third  American  Unit  to  reach  France,  two  other  hospital 
units  having  preceded  them  l)y  a  few  days. 

In  London,  Base  Hospital  No.  10  had  been  turned  over  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment, the  British  Army  being  then  very  short  of  doctors  and  nurses,  the  casualties 
in  the  medical  corps  having  been  greater  in  proportion  to  its  size  than  in  almost 
any  other  branch  of  the  service.  When,  therefore,  the  L^nit  arrived  in  France  it 
practically  became  a  part  of  the  British  Army.  "Nurses"  became  "sisters." 
The  chaplain  became  a  "padre",  and  a  good  deal  of  other  nomenclature  had  to 
be  changed.  For  a  while  a  British  colonel  presided  at  mess.  Colonel  Thurston, 
of  the  British  Army,  their  commanding  officer  for  some  weeks,  endeared  himself 
to  every  member  of  the  Unit. 

From  Le  Havre  to  Le  Treport 

Base  Hospital  No.  10  was  sent  from  Le  Havre  through  Amiens  and  Beauvais 
to  Le  Treport,  a  long  tiresome  journey.  Le  Treport  is  in  the  Seine  Inferieure, 
not  far  from  Dieppe,  AbbeviUe  and  Eu.  Above  the  town  on  the  cUffs  there  was  a 
Hospital  Group,  Canadian  No.  2,  British  Red  Cross  No.  10,  British  General  Nos. 
3,  47  and  16,  and  the  Isolation  Division  for  Contagious  Diseases,  and  a  large 
Convalescent  Camp.  The  American  Unit  was  placed  in  charge  of  British  General 
Hospital  No.  16,  a  well-equipped  hospital  with  over  2,000  beds,  and  of  the  Isolation 
Division  for  Contagious  Diseases.  The  Unit  had  ex^jected  to  take  over  about 
500  beds.  Nothing  but  its  fine  personnel  and  splendid  organization  saved  it  from 
failure.  These  two  and  other  qualifications,  however,  saw  it  through,  and  enabled 
it  to  leave  a  great  reputation  for  efficiency  in  the  British  Army  at  the  end  of  the 
war.  Reinforcements  were  at  once  asked  for  on  reaching  Le  Treport.  Accord- 
ingly eight  officers  and  forty-seven  enlisted  men  from  Philadelphia,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Dr.  H.  B.  Wilmer,  sailed  on  the  Aurania  on  August  18,  1917,  and  thirty 

203 


nurses,  under  the  command  of  Dr.  J.  Paul  Austin,  sailed  soon  after  on  the 
Baltic,  the  one  group  arriving  in  Le  Treport  on  September  7th  and  the  other  on 
September  21st. 

Base  Hospital  No.  10  remained  at  Le  Treport  throughout  the  war  and  for 
several  months  after  the  armistice.  From  time  to  time  its  officers,  nurses  and 
enlisted  men  were  detached  temporarily  for  special  service.  Occasionally  members 
were  detached  permanently  from  the  1  nit.  Five  of  the  enlisted  men  received  com- 
missions. A  Mobile  Unit  was  organized  under  Dr.  Ht)dge  to  move  along  the  front. 
Dr.  Arthur  H.  Gerhard  was  attached  to  the  British  Tank  Corps.  Dr.  Taylor 
served  for  a  time  with  the  military  hospitals  in  London. 

A  number  of  the  officers,  nurses  and  enhsted  men  served  at  Casualty  Clearing 
Stations  along  the  front.  Dr.  Dillard  and  others  served  with  British  fighting 
units.  Dr.  Drayton  was  one  of  the  nerve  specialists  in  the  Maghull  Hospital 
in  England,  and  also  served  at  the  front.  Drs.  Norris,  Gibbon,  Cadwalader,  Pack- 
ard, Knowles,  Earnshaw  and  Cruice  were  all  transferred  to  highly  important  posi- 
tions in  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces.  Dr.  Sweet  was  assigned  to  advanced 
research  work.  The  Cliaplain  served  from  time  to  time  as  Chaplain  of  British  and 
Canadian  hospitals,  British  labor  battalions,  Australian  Infantry,  British  Tanks, 
American  hospitals  and  the  Headquarters  Troops  of  the  3d  Army.  Nearly  every 
officer  in  the  I  nit  and  some  of  the  nuiscs  and  enlisted  men  were  at  times  detached 
for  special  service  at  the  front  or  elsewhere.  Dr.  Harte,  the  Directoi  of  the  Unit, 
and  later  its  commanding  officer,  and  Dr.  Mitchel,  for  some  months  its  commanding 
officer,  took  their  turn  at  the  front.  Dr.  Vaux,  Dr.  Wilmer.  Dr.  Outerbridge,  Dr. 
Nolan,  Dr.  Austin,  Dr.  Fhck,  and  nearly  all  the  other  surgeons  and  doctors  did 
the  same.     All  who  were  given  the  opportunity  to  serve  at  the  front  did  so  eagerly. 

General  Hospital  No.  16,  of  which  Base  Hospital  No.  10  had  charge,  was  in 
the  form  of  half  a  wheel,  with  the  operating  room  at  the  hub  and  the  wards  or  huts 
radiating  like  spokes  from  this  center.  The  most  serious  surgical  cases  were  in 
the  huts  nearest  the  operating  room.  The  medical  huts  were  at  the  periphery. 
The  Isolation  Division  for  Contagious  Diseases  was  remote  from  the  rest  of  the 
hospital.  Le  Treport  was  situated  on  the  Channel,  and  during  the  winter  the 
climate  was  severe,  with  high  winds  and  cold  rains.  The  sick  and  wounded  were 
brought  as  far  as  Le  Treport  by  hospital  trains,  and  from  the  town  to  the  hospital 
by  ambulances  driven  by  Enghsh  ladies  attached  to  the  Women's  .Motor  Convoy 
Service.  The  hospital  was  evacuated  by  train  and  ambulance  through  the  Chan- 
nel ports  to  England.  When  the  Germans  reached  Amiens,  the  entire  hospital 
area  had  to  be  evacuated  in  a  few  hours,  so  far  as  the  patients  were  concerned. 
This  was  done  only  with  great  suffering  to  the  patients  and  at  the  cost  of  many 
lives.     There  was  no  help  for  it,  however. 

From  June  13,  1917,  to  December  31,  1918,  there  were  admitted  to  General 
Hospital  No.  16,  47,811  patients,  of  whom  22,431  were  wounded,  and  24,222  were 
sick.  Of  these  398  of  the  wounded  and  140  of  the  sick  died,  making  a  total  of 
538  deaths.  Such  a  great  number  of  patients  with  so  few  deaths  gave  the  Unit 
one  of  the  lowest  death  averages  of  any  hospital  in  France. 

The  patients  were  chiefly  from  the  British  Expeditionary  Forces.  English, 
Scotch,  Irish,  AustraUan,  South  African,  Canadian,  New  Zealand,  and  West  In- 
dian. Three  thousand  and  twelve  American  soldiers  were  admitted,  of  whom 
forty-four  died. 

204 


The  Dental  Department  of  the  Hospital,  under  Dr.  Jack  and  Dr.  Edwin  Shoe- 
maker, was  very  active.  It  elicited  the  admiration  of  the  British  Medical  Corps. 
There  were  15,926  patients  who  received  treatment  in  this  department. 

The  X-ray  Department  was  extremely  important  too.  Under  Dr.  Knowles 
and  Dr.  William  T.  Shoemaker  and  Sergeant  Cressy  5,852  patients  were  X-rayed. 

The  Pathological  Laboratory,  under  Dr.  Krumbhaar  and  Dr.  Cloud,  assisted 
by  Mrs.  Krumbhaar  and  Privates  Le  Boutillier,  Stevens  and  Smith,  medical 
students,  was  responsible  for  18,878  pathological  and  bacteriological  examinations, 
including  318  autopsies. 

The  nursing  of  the  patients  was  under  Miss  Margaret  A.  Dunlop  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Hospital,  Philadelpiiia,  and  her  able  assistants.  No  praise  could  be  too 
high  for  the  work  of  these  women.  There  was  no  more  efficient  or  able  hospital 
matron  in  France  than  Miss  Dunlop,  and  she  was  supported  by  a  magnificent 
corps  of  nurses.  Their  patience,  sympathy  and  skill  saved  hundreds  of  lives, 
and  the  "American  Sister"  will  long  be  an  expression  to  conjure  by  among  British 
soldiers.  Miss  Fairciiild  died  as  the  result  of  her  work  at  the  front.  Miss  Stam- 
baugh  was  severely  wounded,  but  happily  recovered,  and  many  of  these  women 
sacrificed  their  health  and  strength  permanently  in  the  performance  of  their  nerve- 
wrecking  and  heart-breaking  duties  over  there. 

Army  regulations  place  the  social  and  educational  work  among  troops  (under 
the  commanding  officer)  in  the  hands  of  the  Chaplain  of  the  Organization.  Dr. 
Wilmer,  specially  assigned  to  this  duty,  and  tlie  Chaplain  of  Base  Hospital  No.  10 
gave  a  great  deal  of  their  time  to  this  side  of  their  work.  Baseball,  hockey,  tennis, 
football,  cricket,  boxing  were  made  possible  and  encouraged.  It  was  a  surprise 
to  British  soldiers  that  this  Unit  could  meet  them  on  even  terms  in  their  national 
sport.  Philadelphians,  however,  have  always  been  good  cricketers.  A  reading- 
room  was  provided.  A  dramatic  club  was  formed.  Lectures  on  history,  hygiene 
and  social  questions  were  given  at  regular  intervals.  Every  week  an  entertain- 
ment, known  as  "the  Padre's  Party,"  took  place.  At  these  parties  such  refresh- 
ments as  were  obtainable  were  furnished  and  some  special  program  was  presented. 
Dancing  was  allowed.  Concerts  were  given  frequently,  the  ladies  of  the  Motor 
Convoy  Service  usually  assisting. 

A  great  deal  of  attention  was  given  to  the  amusement  of  the  patients.  Ward 
concerts  were  given  almost  daily,  French  artists,  nurses,  officers.  Red  Cross  workers, 
British  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  Salvation  Army  workers  and  the  enlisted  personnel  and 
convalescent  patients  assisting. 

In  the  British  Army  the  work  of  the  Chaplain  is  taken  seriously,  and  every 
possible  provision  is  made  for  such  work.  The  Church  of  England  put  at  the 
disposal  of  the  Chaplain  of  the  Unit  a  well  equipped  church  hut  for  public  services 
for  the  personnel  and  the  convalescent  patients.  Several  services  were  held  every 
day  in  this  hut.  On  Sundays  the  hut  was  crowded,  so  crowded  that  often  many 
had  to  be  turned  away  for  lack  of  room.  Services  were  also  held  by  the  Chaplain 
in  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  Salvation  Army  huts.  Ward  services  for  the  sick  and 
wounded  were  part  of  the  regular  routine.  Services  were  also  held  for  the  sick  and 
wounded  German  prisoners  in  their  stockade. 

The  burials  took  place  in  the  British  Military  Cemetery  of  Mt.  Huon,  not 
far  from  the  hospital  area.  Every  soldier,  officer  or  private,  who  died  received  a 
dignified  burial  with  miUtary  honors.    The  MiUtary  Cemetery  was  beautifully  kept. 

205 


The  graves  were  carefully  marked  with  a  cross  bearing  the  name,  rank,  organiza- 
tion and  date. 

Even  a  brief  sketch  of  Base  Hospital  No.  10  in  France  would  be  incomplete 
without  reference  to  the  band,  which  was  trained  and  led  by  Dr.  Beebe.  The  in- 
struments were  procured  and  paid  for  by  the  Commanding  Officer,  Dr.  Harte. 
There  was  much  musical  talent  in  the  Unit,  and  before  it  had  been  long  organized, 
it  did  the  Unit  much  credit. 

On  January  12,  1919,  the  Unit  consisted  of  thirty-nine  officers,  125  nurses, 
and  327  enhsted  men,  491  in  all.  Those  who  had  not  been  in  service  for  a  year 
were  ordered  to  various  camps  in  the  A.  E.  F.  On  February  3d,  all  patients  were 
transferred  to  General  Hospital  No.  47.  Early  in  March  the  nurses  were  sent  to 
Plouharnel  in  the  heart  of  Brittany,  near  ^'annes.  On  March  12th  they  were  sent 
to  Brest,  and  on  April  3d  sailed  on  the  Rotterdam  for  New  York,  arriving  April  12th. 
A  few  days  afterwards  the  nurses  received  their  back  pay,  a  bonus  of  $60.  and 
their  official  discharge. 

On  March  4t.h  Dr.  Sweet,  with  twenty-five  officers  and  154  enlisted  men,  left 
Le  Treport  for  Plouharnel;  Dr.  Mitchel  and  Dr.  Newlin,  with  twenty-five  enUsted 
men,  remaining  at  Le  Treport  to  complete  the  closing  of  the  hospital.  The  latter 
contingent  left  on  March  12th.  On  the  23d  all  were  sent  to  Camp  Pontanaza  at 
Brest.  General  Smedley  D.  Butler,  commanding  officer  of  the  camp,  later  wrote 
to  G.  H.  Q.  that  Base  Hospital  No.  10  was  the  best  outfit  of  its  kind  that  had  come 
under  his  charge.  The  Unit  embarked  on  April  6th  on  the  Kaiserin  Augusta- 
Victoria,  saiUng  on  the  8th.  and  arriving  at  Hoboken  April  17th.  On  the  18th 
the  Unit  was  sent  to  Camp  Dix,  New  Jersey,  and  was  demobiUzed  on  April  22, 1919. 

Some  of  the  officers,  nurses  and  enlisted  men  remained  in  France  longer,  and 
were  scattered.  Some  came  home  with  other  organizations,  and  some  returned 
as  "casuals."  It  was  not  long,  however,  before  nearly  all  of  the  original  outfit 
were  home  and  honorably  discharged. 

BASE  HOSPITAL  NO.  20,  U.  S.  A. 
By  Lieutenant  Colonel  Eldridge  L.  Eliason 

U.  S.  Army  Base  Hospital  No.  20  was  organized  at  the  I  niversity  of  Penn- 
sylvania. Colonel  Edward  Martin,  the  first  Director,  resigned  in  April  1917  and 
was  succeeded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  John  B.  Carnett,  who  supervised  the 
organization  of  the  Unit,  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Bed  Cross. 

Preliminary  work  proceeded  simultaneously  along  three  main  lines;  the 
selection  of  the  personnel;   the  raising  of  funds;  and  the  purchase  of  equipment. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Carnett,  together  with  Lieutenant  Colonel  Efiason, 
Chief  of  the  Surgical  Service,  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  George  M.  Piersol,  Chief 
of  the  Medical  Service,  selected  an  able  professional  personnel,  representing  all 
specialties  of  surgery  and  medicine  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  Hospital. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Thomas  H.  Johnson,  M.  C,  LI.  S.  A.,  was  assigned  to  duty 
as  Commanding  Officer,  and  Major  Sherman  M.  Craiger,  Q.  M.  C,  as  Quarter- 
master. 

The  selection  of  a  sufficient  number  of  properly  qualified  nurses  was  a  diffi- 
cult problem  which,  however,  was  admirably  handled  by  Edith  B.  Irwin,  Chief 
Nurse,  who  was  formerly  Chief  Nurse  of  the  General  Surgical  Clinic  at  the  Univer- 

206 


sity  Hospital.  Miss  Irwin,  at  her  own  request,  in  January,  1918,  was  placed  on 
active  duty  for  several  weeks  at  the  United  States  Army  Walter  Reid  Hospital, 
Washington,  D.  C,  to  familiarize  herself  with  the  duties  of  Chief  Nurse  for  an 
army  hospital.  Fifty-seven  of  the  sixty-five  nurses  were  graduates  of  the  Nurses 
Training  School  of  the  University  Hospital. 

The  selection  of  153  enlisted  men  was  entrusted  to  Major  John  H.  Musser, 
Jr.,  and  Major  Philip  F.  Williams.  All  of  the  enlisted  men  were  chosen  because 
of  exceptional  ability.  They  were  all  volunteers  and  sought  service  with  Base  Hos- 
pital No.  20  as  the  quickest  route  to  France.  Over  80  per  cent  of  them  were  college 
men  and  the  remainder  were  proficient  in  special  trades  or  occupations.  The  actual 
work  of  recruiting  was  performed  by  Major  P'loyd  E.  Keene,  together  with  the 
volunteer  assistance  of  Captain  Thomas  Edwards.  Captain  Richard  D.  Hopkinson, 
and  Major  P.  F.  Williams,  who  were  then  on  the  inactive  list. 

Funds  were  immediately  necessary  for  the  purchase  of  equipment,  as  the  Gov- 
ernment made  no  appropriation  for  the  financing  of  a  Base  Hospital  organized  under 
the  direction  of  the  American  Red  Cross.  The  $25,000  worth  of  hospital  equipment 
that  each  Base  Hospital  was  originally  required  to  purchase  and  store  in  times  of 
peace  was  amply  provided  for  Base  Hospital  No.  20  by  the  Harrison  Fund  of 
$30,000,  contributed  in  equal  parts  by  (ieorge  L.  Harrison,  Mrs.  Emily  Leland 
Harrison  and  Thomas  Skelton  Harrison.  When,  after  war  was  declared,  the  Base 
Hospitals  were  required  to  increase  their  equipment,  further  appeals  met  with 
patriotic  support.  Contributions  of  $110,202.18,  in  cash  and  of  forty  thousand 
dollars  worth  of  equipment  were  secured  largely  by  the  individual  efforts  of 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Carnett,  and  were  turned  over  to  the  Medical  Department 
of  the  Army,  without  a  cent  of  expense  to  the  Government. 

A  total  of  thirty-four  freight  carloads  of  equipment  was  shipped  to  New  York, 
and  the  greater  part  of  it  accompanied  the  personnel  on  the  U.  S.  S.  Leviathan 
on  the  voyage  to  Brest,  and  arrived  fairly  promptly  at  Chatel-Guyon,  where  the 
hospital  was  stationed  during  its  activities  in  France. 

On  November  24,  1917,  orders  came  from  the  War  Department  mobilizing  the 
enlisted  men  at  the  First  State  Armory,  the  remaining  professional  personnel, 
nurses  and  civilian  employes  to  be  mobihzed  later.  By  November  30,  1917,  prac- 
tically all  of  the  men  had  reported.  Through  the  courtesy  of  the  Athletic  Asso- 
ciation of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  the  Students'  Training  House 
was  turned  over  to  the  hospital  for  use  for  mess  and  quarters.  The  cooks,  "K. 
P.'s"  and  a  majority  of  the  N.  C.  O.'s  were  also  stationed  in  the  training  house. 

By  the  20th  of  December  all  of  the  officers  and  men  had  reported  and  routine 
military'  instructions  were  well  under  way.  Of  the  153  enlisted  personnel,  103  had 
at  least  five  weeks  hospital  training  as  orderlies  and  anesthetists.  Every  member 
had  full  instruction  in  practical  first-aid  treatment,  given  by  Lieutenant  Colonel 
E.  L.  Eliason.  and  every  man  was  required  to  apply  splints,  bandages  and  dressings. 

On  Monday,  April  1,  1918,  Base  Hospital  No.  20  started  for  Camp  Merritt, 
New  Jersey,  on  the  first  leg  of  its  overseas  journey.  The  organization  arrived  in 
camp  about  4  p.m.,  where  they  were  stationed  for  three  weeks,  sailing  on  the  U.  S.  S. 
Leviathan  from  Hoboken  on  April  22.  The  nurse  personnel,  the  dietitian  and  the 
three  civilian  stenographers,  who  had  been  at  EUis  Island,  No.  3  N.  Y.  H.,  since 
February  18,  1918,  joined  the  Unit  at  Hoboken  and  sailed  with  it.  After 
an  uneventful  voyage,  the  Leviathan  reached  Brest  on  May  2,  1918.     The  officers 

207 


and  men  debarked  the  following  day  and  marched  to  Camp  Pontanazen.  After 
a  stay  of  two  days,  they  were  joined  by  the  nurses  and  left  for  Chatel-Guyon,  where 
they  arrived  on  the  mornini;  of  May  7th. 

Chatel-Guyon  is  a  village  of  some  2,000  inhabitants  and  is  situated  in  the 
Province  of  Puy-de-Dome,  which  forms  a  part  of  the  picturesque  Auvergne  section 
of  France.  The  village  takes  its  name  from  tlie  chateau  built  by  (iuy  11,  Duke 
of  Auvergne,  in  1195.  Its  altitude  is  about  1,200  feet,  and  it  is  on  the  edge  of  the 
large  fertile  plain  of  Liganne  and  in  the  foothills  of  the  Puy  Mountains.  It, 
therefore,  enjoys  an  excellent  climate  dining  both  summer  and  winter. 

The  first  month  of  the  stay  of  Base  Hospital  No.  20  was  devoted  to  the  hard 
and  tedious  work  of  cleaning  up  and  repairing  the  numerous  hotels  and  other 
buildings  that  had  been  assigned  for  its  use. 

The  total  yearly  rental  (in  francs)  for  the  buildings  used  by  Base  Hospital 
No.  20  was  ,328,612,  or  in  normal  times  equivalent  to  $65,722. 10. 

Two  weeks"  hard  work  made  the  hospital  ready  to  care  for  200  patients.  Four 
weeks  saw  the  organization  ready  to  receive  500  patients.  This  number  was  later 
increased  to  over  2,000. 

Functioning  of  the  Hospital 

The  hospital  formally  opened  to  patients  on  Decoration  Day,  1918.  With 
but  the  few  exceptions  of  patients  from  the  post  and  neighboring  camps,  all  jjatients 
were  brought  to  Chatel-(iuyon  on  hospital  trains. 

The  first  one  of  these  arrived  on  June  8tli  witli  .559  patients  and  others  con- 
tinued to  arrive  as  often  as  twice  a  week.  It  may  be  stated  here  that  Base  Hospital 
No.  20  operated  as  a  true  Base  Hospital  in  that  it  kept  and  cared  for  patients  until 
they  were  either  cured  or  classed  for  ultimate  distiibution.  It  at  no  time  acted 
as  an  Evacuation  Hospital,  as  did  many  Base  Hospitals,  merely  keeping  patients 
a  few  hours  before  evacuating  tiiem  to  other  hospitals. 

The  patients  were  classified  according  to  their  disease  or'  injur\,  and  were 
placed  in  separate  wards  for  surgical,  medical  and  infectious  diseases  and  the  spe- 
cialties. A  dispensary  or  "ambulatory"  surgical  ileparlment  treated  all  minor 
walking  cases,  thus  relieving  the  work  in  the  ward  dressing  rooms. 

From  June  8th  to  December  20th,  twenty-three  additional  hospital  trains 
brought  a  total  of  7,872  patients  to  Base  Hospital  No.  20  IVoni  the  various  battle 
fronts.  The  largest  number,  587,  was  received  on  July  25th,  all  of  which  came  from 
the  Chateau-Thierry  front. 

These  figures  do  not  include  the  106  admissions  from  the  command  to  and  from 
hospital  and  quarters  prior  to  the  arrival  of  this  Unit  at  Chatel-Guyon.  The 
maximum  number  of  patients  in  the  hospital  in  any  one  day  was  2,15.3  on  October 
10,  1918.  The  last  patient  was  discharged  on  January  20,  1919,  and  the  Unit 
ceased  to  function  as  a  hospital  on  that  date. 

During  the  nine  months  that  Base  Hospital  No.  20  functioned,  it  cared  for 
8,703  patients,  of  which  number  only  sixty -five  died — a  remarkable  showing.  The 
largest  number  of  patients  in  the  hospital  any  one  day  was  2,153,  on  October  20, 
1918. 

In  the  personnel  of  the  organization  itself  there  was  only  one  death  during  its 
entire  existence,  another  tribute  to  its  efficiency. 

208 


General  Method  of  Receiving  and  Treating  Wounded 

On  the  receipt  of  telegraphic  notice  of  the  impending  arrival  of  a  Hospital 
Train,  eacli  ward  surgeon  was  required  to  submit  to  the  Chiefs  of  the  Surgical 
and  Medical  Service  the  number  of  vacant  beds  in  each  ward  as  well  as  the  number 
of  patients  who  could  be  transferred  to  other  buildings  if  the  necessity  demanded  it. 
From  this  data  the  Chief  of  Medical  and  Surgical  Service  made  provision  for  the 
number  and  variety  of  cases  which  the  incoming  train  contained,  and  a  chart  was 
prepared  stating  the  exact  number  of  beds  available  in  each  ward.  The  Com- 
manding Officer  and  the  two  Chiefs  of  Services,  with  a  corps  of  men,  boarded  the 
Hospital  Train  at  Riom.  the  first  town  beyond  the  Chatel-Guyon,  and  each  patient 
was  examined  and  tagged  with  the  number  of  the  section  and  ward  to  which  he 
was  to  go.  l^pon  the  arrival  of  the  train  the  patients  were  carried  immediately 
to  the  section  on  the  station  platform  as  indicated  by  their  tags.  Here  they  were 
loaded  into  ambulances  or  trucks  bound  for  the  hospital  section,  and  upon  arrival 
there  they  were  at  once  carried  to  the  several  wards.  An  entire  train  load  of  pa- 
tients could  thus  be  transferred  to  their  beds  within  two  hours.  Each  surgeon 
was  required  to  be  in  his  ward,  day  or  night,  to  receive  his  patients,  so  that  he 
could  dress  all  wounds  as  soon  as  possible.  This  fact  was  responsible  for  the  im- 
mediate recognition  of  sixteen  wounded  cases  infected  with  gas  gangrene,  and  the 
immediate  operation,  with  the  consequent  saving  of  life. 

Detached  Duty 

Shortly  after  the  arrival  of  Base  Hospital  No.  20  in  France,  orders  came  from 
the  Chief  Surgeon  to  form  two  Operating  Teams  for  work  in  the  hospitals  at  the 
front.  The  two  Teams  were  formed  and  were  later  designated  as  No.  61  and  No. 
62.  Each  Team  was  made  up  of  a  surgeon  in  charge  and  an  assistant,  an  anesthe- 
tist, a  senior  nurse,  a  second  nurse,  and  two  men  as  orderlies. 

Surgical  Operating  Team  No.  61 

On  June  8,  1918,  this  Team,  under  command  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  EHason, 
went  to  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1,  near  Toul,  for  instruction  in  war  surgery. 

The  personnel  of  Team  No.  61  was:  Lieutenant  Colonel  E.  L.  Eliason,  Surgeon 
in  Charge;  Major  F.  E.  Keene,  Assistant;  Major  William  Bates,  Anesthetist; 
Florence  Williams,  A.  R.  N.  C;  Sabina  Landis.  A.  R.  N.  C;  Sergeant  Joseph 
Dougherty ;  Private  George  Farabaugh ;  Captain  Thompson  Edwards  later  replaced 
Major  Keene  and  Mary  Hume  replaced  Miss  Williams. 

On  July  21st  the  Team  reported  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Bingham  in  Paris,  and 
was  sent  to  the  A.  R.  C.  Military  Hospital  No.  1  at  Neuilly,  and  later  to  the  A.  R. 
C.  MiUtary  Hospital  No.  3  (officers'  hospital).  The  Team  was  ordered  to  La  Ferte 
and  was  taken  by  ambulance  to  Chateau-Thierry,  reporting  to  Evacuation  Hospital 
No.  5.  In  August  it  proceeded  to  Chaligny,  reporting  to  Field  Hospital  No.  162, 
which  on  September  2d  was  taken  over  by  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  113. 

On  October  3d,  it  was  ordered  to  report  to  headquarters  at  Froidos,  to  Evacu- 
ation Hospital  No.  10.  The  Team  stayed  with  this  hospital  for  the  remaining 
period  of  the  war  and  for  three  weeks  afterwards. 

209 


Surgical  Operating  Team  No.  62 

At  the  front  they  performed  about  600  operations  in  addition  to  dressing  many 
severe  cases  that  needed  no  operation. 

Surgical  Operating  Team  No.  62  was  the  first  to  leave  Base  Hospital  No.  20 
for  service  at  the  front.     It  left  Chatel-Guyon  for  Chaumont  on  June  5,  1918. 

The  personnel  of  Team  No.  62  was:  Lieutenant  Colonel  John  B.  Carnett. 
Surgeon  in  Charge;  Captain  George  M.  Laws,  Assistant;  Captain  N.  B.  Goldsmith, 
Anesthetist;  Helen  Pratt,  A.  R.  N.  C;  Marie  Bergstresser,  A.  B.  N.  C;  Sergeant 
First  Class  de  Benneville  Bell;  Private  Rufus  B.  Jones. 

After  a  short  stay  at  Base  Hospital  No.  15  and  at  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1, 
on  the  Lorraine  front,  the  Team  reported  to  the  117th  Sanitary  Train  of  the  42d 
(Bainbow)  Division  and  was  assigned  to  duty  with  Mobile  Hospital  No.  2  at 
Bussy-le-Chateau,  on  the  Champagne  front.  From  July  loth  to  July  18th,  the 
Team  operated  with  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  4  at  Ecury  and  then  rejoined  Mobile 
Hospital  No.  2  at  Vatry,  accompanying  it  to  Lizy-sur-Ourcq  on  the  Chateau- 
Thierry  front.  On  July  31st  the  Team  was  sent  to  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  2 
at  La  Ferte  Milon,  went  with  it  to  Crezancy,  on  the  Marne,  and  rejoined  Mobile 
Hospital  No.  2  at  Coincy,  on  August  6th.  On  August  25th,  the  Team  proceeded 
to  the  St.  Mihiel  front  and  located  at  Becourt,  on  August  30th.  On  September 
25th,  it  left  for  Chateau  Salvange,  near  Froidos,  on  the  Argonne  front,  and  re- 
mained there  until  it  returned  to  Chatel  Guyon  on  November  24th. 

Subsequently  each  member  of  Team  No.  62  received  a  copy  of  a  letter  of  com- 
mendation from  General  Pershing. 

On  September  3d,  Captain  Laws  was  detached  and  placed  in  charge  of 
Surgical  Team  No.  562,  taking  Mat  Grenville,  A.  R.  N.  C,  from  Team  No.  62. 
Major  F.  E.  Keene  and  Letitia  Gallagher  replaced  them  on  Team  No.  62. 
Team  No.  562  saw  duty  with  Mobile  Hospital  No.  2,  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1, 
Base  Hospital  No.  31,  and  returned  to  Base  Hospital  No.  20  on  November  28,  1918. 

Shock  Team  No.   116 

The  personnel  of  Team  No.  116  was:  Major  John  H.  Musser,  Jr.  (in  charge) ; 
Grace  MacMillan,  A.  R.  N.  C;  Sergeant  F.  G.  Connor,  M.D.;  Private  Jos.  R. 
Arnold,  M.D. 

On  July  22,  1918,  the  Team  was  ordered  to  report  to  La  Ferte-sous-Jouarre 
and  arrived  there  the  following  day,  in  charge  of  Major  John  H.  Musser,  Jr. 

They  were  sent  to  Verdolet,  reporting  to  the  Commanding  Officer  of  Field 
Hospital  No.  27,  and  were  immediately  assigned  to  the  task  of  handfing  the  severely 
wounded  of  the  3d  Division. 

While  at  Chateau-Thierry  the  members  of  the  Team  received  a  letter  of  com- 
mendation from  General  Dickman,  commanding  the  3d  Division. 

On  August  10th  the  Team  was  sent  to  Field  Hospital  No.  112  at  Cohan. 
After  several  other  transfers  the  Team  was  ordered  to  report  at  Field  Hospital  No. 
127  of  the  32d  Division.  This  hospital  received  only  the  severely  wounded,  and  at 
the  same  time  acted  as  a  triage  station. 

Four  days,  beginning  September  4th,  the  Team  spent  in  the  forest  of  Pierre- 
Fonds,  returning  to  Base  Hospital  No.  20  on  September  11th. 

210 


Emergency  Medical  Team  No.   116 

The  personnel  of  the  Team  consisted  of  Captain  George  K.  Strode,  M.C., 
Commanding;  Elizabeth  J.  Coombs,  A.  R.  N.  C,  and  Corporal  Robert  F. 
McMurtrie,  M.D.  By  orders  from  General  Headquarters,  Captain  Strode  was 
detailed  to  the  Central  Medical  Department  Laboratory  for  special  instruction 
in  shock  and  hemorrhage  in  September,  1918.  By  authority  from  H.  A.  E.  F., 
the  Team  left  Chatel-Guyon  September  24th  and  proceeded  to  Evacuation  Hos- 
pital No.  6  at  Souilly.  Team  No.  116  immediately  took  charge  of  the  Shock 
Ward  of  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  6  at  Souilly,  and  during  the  fust  week  worked 
night  and  day  without  relief.  A  second  Team  was  then  assigned  to  duty,  and 
therccifter  Team  No.  116  alternated  on  night  and  day  duty. 

On  November  26th,  when  orders  arrived  relieving  them  from  duty  at  Evacua- 
tion Hospital  No.  6,  Team  No.  116  proceeded  to  Paris.  Two  days  later  the 
Team  returned  to  Base  Hospital  No.  20. 

Copies  of  the  commendation  that  was  extended  to  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  6 
by  the  Chief  Surgeon  of  the  1st  Army,  A.  E.  F.,  on  November  30,  1918,  were  for- 
warded to  each  member  of  Emergency  Medical  Team  No.  116. 

Social  Life  at  Base  Hospital  No.  20 
The  fkst  celebration  of  any  type  held  in  France  by  Base  Hospital  No.  20 
occurred  at  Chatel-Guyon  on  May  30,  1918,  and  marked  not  only  Decoration 
Day  but  also  the  formal  opening  of  the  hospital  and  the  first  raising  of  the  American 
Flag  at  Chatel-Guyon.  Less  formal  were  the  exercises  on  Independence  Day, 
when  a  reception  was  given  for  all  sick  and  visiting  French  officers  in  the  morning. 
In  the  afternoon  this  courtesy  was  reciprocated  by  the  French  officers.  A  public 
reception  in  the  late  afternoon  was  extended  to  the  officers  at  the  Casino,  at  which 
addresses  were  made  by  the  Mayor  of  Chatel-Guyon  and  by  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Johnson.    Somewhat  similar  was  the  reception  on  Bastile  Day  on  July  1  tth. 

Entertainments  for  the  patients  on  Thanksgiving  and  Christmas  were  given. 
On  the  afternoon  of  Christmas  the  juvenile  population  of  Chatel-Guyon,  under 
the  age  of  ten  years,  were  the  guests  of  Base  Hospital  No.  20  at  a  Christmas  tree 
celebration.  For  this  purpose  a  large  spruce  tree  in  the  park  was  decorated  with 
colored  electric  lights,  and  after  some  singing,  and  a  short  speech  by  the  cure,  each 
child  was  presented  with  package  of  candy  furnished  by  the  Red  Cross. 

Many  of  the  social  activities  were  arranged  by  the  Red  Cross  representative, 
Captain  J.  M.  Ware,  who  reported  for  duty  on  June  2,  1918.  Among  the  various 
forms  of  diversion  were  baseball,  football  and  tennis.  An  old  reservok  near  head- 
quarters served  as  a  swimming  pool. 

Base  Hospital  No.  20  was  fortunate  in  possessing  an  abundance  of  theatrical 
talent.  A  committee  was  formed  when  the  Unit  was  still  in  training  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  after  short  rehearsals  the  "Retaming  of  the  Shrew"  was  produced, 
the  affair  proving  in  every  respect  most  successful.  Later  "Base  20  Follies" 
was  staged.     At  Camp  Merritt,  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  rendered  much  assistance. 

At  Chatel-Guyon  a  large  number  of  entertainments  were  furnished  both  for 
the  benefit  of  the  patients  and  for  the  civilian  population.  At  these  entertainments 
there  were  popular  music,  and  classical  dancing,  in  which  several  members  of  the 
Unit  took  female  parts  with  the  ease  and  grace  of  long  trained  performers. 

211 


An  orchestra  was  formed  of  the  enlisted  men  which  was  used  for  furnishing 
music  for  various  entertainments.  The  piano  was  antiquated  and  out  of  tune, 
and  the  drum  was  made  from  a  banjo  head.  Other  instruments  were  brought 
from  home  by  the  men  themselves. 

Leaves  and  Trips 

Six  regions  were  designated  as  leave  areas,  including  some  of  the  most  famous 
resorts  in  Europe,  and  it  was  possible  on  a  leave  to  go  anywhere  in  France  from  the 
Alps  to  the  Channel,  and  from  the  Pyrenees  to  the  border.  It  was  possible  for 
nurses  and  enlisted  men  to  take  advantage  of  trips  throughout  France  with  no 
expense,  as  hotels  with  comfortable  quarters  and  excellent  meals  were  provided 
for  their  exclusive  use.  Nice  was  undoubtedly  the  Mecca,  and  whatever  the  route 
traveled  the  trail  inevitably  lead  to  that  resort. 

French  War  Orphan  Fund 

The  French  War  Orphan  Fund  was  initiated  by  the  Stars  and  Stripes  as  a 
special  Thanksgiving  donation  in  1918.  Chaplain  Rogers  Israel  acted  as  treas- 
urer for  Base  Hospital  No.  20,  and  a  sum  of  7,500  francs  represented  the  collection 
from  the  officers,  nurses,  and  enlisted  men ;  no  patients  in  the  hospital  were  allowed 
to  contribute.     Base  Hospital  No.  20  adopted  fifteen  French  war  orphans. 

Medical   Society 

Soon  after  the  hospital  opened  a  Medical  Society  was  formed  which  met  bi- 
monthly, and  to  which  other  hospital  staffs  were  invited.  Base  Hospital  No.  ^0 
accepted  the  invitation  to  join.  At  these  meetings  papers  and  reports  of  work 
done  were  presented  by  the  officers.  The  meetings  were  fully  attended  and  much 
profit  obtained  from  them. 

Classes 

After  the  armistice,  Lt.  Col.  Ehason  arranged  for  a  course  in  anesthesia. 
Twenty  nurses  availed  themselves  of  this  opportunity  and  obtained  practical  and 
didactic  instruction  from  Lieutenant  N.  R.  Goldsmith.  Further  lectures  were 
arranged  for  on  miUtary  surgery  and  medicine,  and  several  talks  were  given  by  staff 
members  on  French  history.  Classes  in  various  subjects  were  being  organized 
for  the  enUsted  men  when  orders  arrived  to  leave  Chatel-Guyon. 

Celebration  of  the  Armistice 

On  November  10th,  many  rumors  reached  Chatel-Guyon  that  the  armistice 
had  been  signed.  The  French  believed  it  to  be  true  and  an  impromptu  celebra- 
tion was  started.  In  the  evening  the  rccil  celebration  commenced.  About  twenty- 
five  American  convalescent  soldiers  started  to  parade.  This  number  soon  in- 
creased to  several  hundred  Americans,  and  an  equal  number  of  French  men,  women 
and  children.  As  they  passed  each  hospital  there  was  a  general  turnout  of  all 
patients  who  could  walk,  so  that  by  the  time  they  reached  the  main  street  there 
were  over  1,000  in  line.  As  no  drums  were  to  be  had  four  Itirge  hard-tack  tins 
were  secured  as  a  result  of  a  raid  on  the  Mess  Department. 

The  next  morning  official  news  that  the  armistice  was  signed  was  received, 
and  the  Mayor  ordered  all  church  Ijells  to  be  rung.  The  town  was  decorated, 
and  that  night  another  parade  was  organized  led  by  a  real  band. 

212 


Auxiliary  of  Base  Hospital  No.   20 

The  Auxiliary  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  Hospital  Unit  of  the  Red 
Cross,  known  as  No.  122,  was  organized  under  the  direction  of  Mrs.  Wni.  Woodward 
Arnett  on  April  11,  1917.  The  seventy  women  who  were  present  at  the  first  meet- 
ing pledged  $6,000  to  purchase  supplies  and  material  for  the  equipment  of  a  500-bed 
base  hospital.  The  actual  work  of  making  up  supphes  was  begun  on  April  15th,  con- 
tinuing for  ten  months  five  days  a  week.  Within  three  months  from  the  time 
the  auxiliary  was  organized  sixty-six  boxes  of  patients'  equipment  containing 
22,244  articles  and  about  35,000  surgical  dressings  were  completed  and  boxed. 

The  original  seventy  members  were  increased  to  256,  and  the  .$6,000  promised 
soon  totaled  $10,000,  nor  was  it  difficult  to  secure  additional  funds  as  rapidly 
as  needed. 

Welfare  Committee 

In  j^February,  1918,  the  Welfare  Committee  of  Base  Hospital  No.  20  was 
organized  and  undertook  to  aid  the  hospital  in  many  ways.  It  pledged  itself  to 
represent  the  hospital  on  this  side,  to  distribute  a  semi-monthly  community  let- 
ter from  France  to  friends  and  relations  of  the  hospital,  to  transmit  funds  to  the 
hospital,  to  supply  it  with  reading  material  and  to  aid  in  many  other  ways. 

During  its  existence  Base  Hospital  No.  20  was  under  the  command  of  four 
different  officers,  Lieutenant  Colonel  T.  H.  Johnson,  Lieutenant  Colonel  G.  M. 
Piersol  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  J.  B.  Carnett.  When  the  organization  was  split 
up  at  embarkation  area,  and  the  officers  sent  home  as  casuals,  the  command  of  the 
LTnit  fell  upon  Major  Philip  Williams"  shoulders. 

Officers,  men  and  nurses  returned  in  separate  small  detachments  during  April 
and  May,  1918. 

After  demobilization  of  Base  Hospital  No.  20  the  University  of  Pennsylvania 
Hospital  received  letters  from  the  American  Red  Cross  at  Washington,  D.  C. ,  and 
from  the  Surgeon  General  commending  Base  Hospital  No.  20  for  its  "readiness  for 
service,  patriotic  devotion  to  duty  and  excellence  of  professional  persormel." 

A  further  letter  of  commendation  for  exceptionally  meritorious  and  conspicuous 
services  was  sent  to  Dr.  J.  B.  Carnett. 

Base  Hospital  No.  20  Association 

The  Association  was  formed  November  14, 1919,  in  Philadelphia,  and  provision 
was  made  to  hold  a  reunion  each  year.  The  first  reunion  was  held  in  November, 
1920. 

BASE  HOSPITAL  No.   34,  U.  S.  A. 
By  Lieutenant  Colonel  Ralph  S.   Bromer 

During  the  early  months  of  1917,  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Army  and 
the  Red  Cross,  Colonel  Jefferson  R.  Kean,  M.  C,  in  charge,  organized  fifty  base 
hospitals  for  service  with  the  American  Army.  The  idea  was  early  conceived  of 
forming  one  at  the  Episcopal  Hospital.  Dr.  Charles  H.  Frazier  was  first  appointed 
Director,  with  Dr.  Astley  P.  C.  Ashhurst  as  Chief  of  the  Surgical  Service.  Funds 
were  raised  and  friends  of  the  hospital  gave  liberally  in  contributions  to  the  Red 
Cross  until  a  sum  of  .§65,000  was  obtained  for  the  equipment  of  the  hospital, 
George  H.  Frazier  serving  as  treasurer  and  disbursing  officer. 

213 


The  months  of  March  and  early  April,  1917,  were  occnpied  with  these  pre- 
liminaries. Late  in  April  Dr.  Frazier,  owing  to  inabihty  to  leave  his  University 
duties,  very  reluctantly  reUnquished  his  charge  of  the  hospital  and  Dr.  Ashhurst 
was  appointed  Director.     Progress  in  the  procurement  of  equipment  was  rapid. 

In  late  May,  Malcolm  Douglas  became  affiliated  with  the  hospital  as  Registrar. 
Under  his  charge  the  work  of  enrolling  the  enlisted  personnel  progressed  most 
speedily.  Applicants  were  many,  and  men  were  secured  of  excellent  caliber  and 
of  varied  vocations,  foreshadowing  success  in  the  eventual  operation  of  the  hospitals 
different  departments.  By  June  30th,  the  entire  quota  of  152  men  had  been 
sworn  in  and  enlisted  in  the  Medical  Enlisted  Reserve  Corps. 

In  the  meantime  the  hospital  was  formally  accepted  by  the  Medical  Depart- 
ment and  was  given  the  number  of  "34."  In  July,  Captain  Raphael  I.  Levin, 
Quartermaster  Reserve  Corps,  was  assigned  and  reported  for  duty  as  ([uarter- 
master.  As  fast  as  equipment  was  bought  it  was  assembled  and  stored  in  the 
Larkin  Building,  20th  and  Arch  streets,  and  at  the  Episcopal  Hospital. 

The  organization  of  the  nurse  corps  personnel  was  entrusted  to  Miss  Katherine 
Brown,  Superintendent  of  Nurses,  Episcopal  Hospital.  During  these  same  months 
she  was  busily  engaged  in  recruiting  and  enlisting  sixty-five  nurses.  By  August 
she  reported  a  full  quota. 

Mention  should  be  made  of  the  men  who  attended  the  early  meetings  at  Dr. 
Frazier's  office  and  who  devoted  much  time  to  the  purchase  of  supplies  for  their 
respective  departments.  Besides  Drs.  Frazier  and  Ashhurst,  there  were  Drs. 
Emory  G.  Alexander,  Geo.  P.  MuUer,  Joseph  Macfarland,  John  B.  Carson,  Ralph 
S.  Bromer  and  Mr.  Malcolm  Douglas.  Of  these  Drs.  Muller  and  Macfarland 
unfortunately  could  not  serve  with  the  unit.  The  assistance  and  advice  of  Dr. 
l^ichard  H.  Harte,  of  the  Board  of  Managers  of  the  hospital,  and  Captain  E.  N. 
Leiper,  the  Superintendent,  were  also  greatly  appreciated.  After  the  retirement 
of  Dr.  Frazier,  Dr.  Ashhurst  strenuously  pushed  the  preparation  of  the  organiza- 
tion for  active  duty,  and  by  the  time  orders  were  received  for  its  mobilization 
it  was  in  a  state  of  excellent  preparedness. 

On  September  7,  1917,  the  organization  was  mobilized  at  the  Episcopal 
Hospital  and  Major  Ralph  G.  DeVoe,  Medical  Corps,  United  States  Army  was 
detailed  as  commanding  officer,  assuming  commemd  September  4,  1917.  Captain 
R.  S.  Bromer  was  detailed  as  adjutant. 

On  September  7,  1917,  the  organization  moved  to  the  Concentration  Camp 
of  the  LTnited  States  Army  Ambulance  Service  at  Allentown,  Pa.,  later  called 
Camp  Crane.  Here  two  months  or  more  were  spent  in  equipping  and  training 
the  men.  Instruction  in  first  aid,  Medical  Department  drill,  bandaging,  etc., 
was  routinely  given.  On  November  21st,  the  command  moved  to  Camp  Mills, 
Long  Island,  and  remained  there  until  December  14th,  awaiting  instructions  for 
embarkation.  These  finally  arrived,  after  three  weeks  of  most  severe  weather 
spent  in  the  tents  of  Camp  Mills.  On  the  15th,  the  organization  embarked  on 
the  Leviathan,  the  nurses  included,  they,  in  the  meantime,  having  been  mobilized 
and  ec[uipped  at  Ellis  Island.  The  voyage  was  uneventful  and  on  December  24th, 
at  noon,  Liverpool  was  reached  and  debarkation  immediately  begun.  The  nurses 
were  sent  to  Southampton  on  a  separate  train  from  that  of  the  officers  and  men. 
Southampton  was  reached  midnight  of  December  24th,  the  nurses  being  quai'tered 
at  hotels  and  the  officers  and  men  at  a  rest  camp.     On  December  25th,  the  former 

214 


were  sent  to  Le  Havre  on  one  of  the  British  hospital  ships,  the  Warilda  and  on 
December  26th,  the  officers  and  men  crossed  on  a  British  Channel  ship,  the  Mona's 
Queen,  debarking  early  on  the  morning  of  the  27th. 

Work  Overseas 

The  command  remained  at  Le  Havre  imtil  December  29th,  when  the  entire 
personnel  was  sent  by  train  to  Blois,  where  Medical  Casual  Camp  No.  6,  Inter- 
mediate Section  L.  0.  C.  was  then  located. 

Here  during  January,  1918,  the  unit  was  spht  up.  The  Commanding  Officer, 
Major  Ashhurst,  the  adjutant,  quartermaster  and  registrar,  and  about  sixty  men 
were  sent  to  Nantes  where  the  hospital  was  to  be  located  for  prehminary  survey  and 
for  the  purpose  of  pushing  the  work  of  renovation  of  the  seminary  building  to  be  used 
as  a  hospital.  Five  officers  and  thirty  men  were  sent  to  Brest  where  Camp  Hospital 
No.  .31  was  started  and  organized  by  them  in  the  Pont-a-Nezon  Barracks.  Five 
men  were  sent  to  American  Red  Cross  Mihtary  Hospital  No.  5  in  Paris,  and 
thirty-five  men  were  ordered  to  Camp  Hospital  No.  15  at  Coetquiden,  an  artillery 
training  center.  The  nurses  were  distributed  to  Base  Hospital, No.  101  at  St. 
Nazaire,  Camp  Hospital  No.  15  at  Coetquidan,  and  American  Red  Cross  Military 
Hospital  No.  2  in  Paris. 

January,  February  and  Mai-ch,  1918,  were  spent  in  renovating  the  building, 
constructing  new  barracks,  moving  equipment  from  freight  stations  and  docks, 
and  in  securing  additional  equipment  for  a  1,700  bed  hospital. 

The  main  building,  four  stories  high,  was  furnished  with  1,000  beds.  This 
building  had  a  usable  attic,  which  was  remodeled  to  house  the  Medical  Supply 
Department  and  to  provide  space  for  storage  of  patient's  clothing.  The  adapta- 
tion of  tliis  building  required  an  enormous  amount  of  labor  by  men  of  the  unit. 
They  built  seventeen  shacks,  which  accommodated  the  operating  rooms,  X-ray 
department,  large  bath  houses,  receiving  ward,  enhsted  men's  quarters,  and  wards 
aggregating  700  additional  beds.  AU  this  construction  was  accomphshed  with 
great  dispatch  and  by  April,  1918,  the  entire  unit  was  reassembled  and  patients 
were  admitted.  The  first  train  of  patients  received  came  from  American  Red 
Cross  Mihtary  Hospital  No.  1  at  Paris.  After  these  arrivals  the  hospital  was 
soon  filled  and  it  reached  its  full  capacity  dming  and  immediately  after  the  Chateau- 
Thierry  drive.  The  patients  were  almost  entirely  Americans.  Though  a  base 
hospital  situated  far  in  the  rear,  the  majority  were  wounded  men  from  the  fighting 
fine. 

The  work  was  carried  on  actively  throughout  the  remainder  of  the  year. 
Peak  capacity  was  again  reached  during  the  fighting  in  the  Argonne.  Mention 
also  should  be  made  of  the  care  and  assistance  rendered  the  personnel  of  the  Army 
during  the  influenza  epidemic,  wliich  reached  its  height  during  October,  1918. 
These  cases  were  drawn  largely  from  the  gai'rison  of  Nantes,  which  at  times  num- 
bered 11,000  or  more  men,  also  from  the  38th  Division  which  had  been  sent  immedi- 
ately on  debarkation  to  biUets  in  the  "south  of  Nantes"  biUeting  area. 

In  July,  1918,  the  hospital  became  a  part  of  the  hospital  center  of  Nantes. 
The  large  hospital  project  known  as  the  Grand  Blottereau,  located  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  city  was  occupied  at  this  time  by  Base  Hospitals  Nos.  11,  38  and  216, 
and  the  whole  center  was  placed  under  command  of  Colonel  Thomas  J.  Kirk- 
patrick  of  the  Regular  Army  Medical  Corps. 

21.5 


Early  in  October,  1918.  the  hospital  was  further  expanded  by  the  acquisition 
of  the  Ecole  Normale,  a  normal  school  building  owned  and  turned  over  gratuitously 
by  the  Department  of  the  Loire  Inferieure  to  the  Medical  Department  of  the 
Army.  It  was  equipped  and  furnished  as  a  hospital  for  officers  and  designed  for 
reception  of  medical  cases  and  convalescent  surgical  patients.  It  was  operated 
as  an  annex  to  Base  Hospital  No.  34  and  Major,  later  Lieutenant  Colonel,  A.  J. 
Ostheimer  was  placed  in  immediate  charge. 

During  the  fu-st  half  of  the  year  under  careful  guidance  of  Colonel  DeVoe, 
the  Commanding  Officer,  the  organization  of  the  various  administrative  departments 
of  the  hospital  was  perfected  and  all  showed  themselves  fully  equal  to  the  strain 
thrown  upon  them  during  the  heavy  work  of  the  Argonne  drive  and  the  influenza  epi- 
demic. The  adjutant's  office  was  organized  and  run  by  Captain  Ralph  S.  Bromer,  M. 
C. ;  the  registrar's  office  by  Captain  John  P.  Jones;  the  Medical  Supply  Department 
by  First  Lieutenant,  later  Captain,  B.  F.  Buzby;  the  Mess  Department,  by  First 
Lieutenant,  later  Captain,  Malcolm  G.  Douglas;  Sanitary  Corps  and  the  Quarter- 
master's Department  by  Captain  Raphael  I.  Levin,  Q.  M.  C.  Especial  mention 
should  be  made  of  the  supply  by  the  latter  department  of  the  entire  garrison  of 
Nantes  from  the  very  beginning  of  the  hospital  until  the  organization  in  June, 
1918,  of  Quartermaster  Depot  No.  2,  Base  Section  No.  1,  on  the  Isle  of  St.  Anne 
in  Nantes.  This  threw  extra  strain  and  labor  upon  the  officer  in  charge  and  the 
men  of  this  department. 

The  professional  services  were  early  organized  by  Colonel  Ashhurst  in  charge 
of  the  Surgical  Service,  Major  Carson  of  the  Medical  Service,  Captain  Moore  in 
the  CliiuccJ  and  Pathological  Laboratory  and  Captain  Bromer  in  the  X-ray 
Laboratory.     Changes  in  these  departments  will  be  mentioned  later. 

The  American  Red  Cross  sent  as  its  first  representative.  Captain  Chas.  G. 
Petrie,  who  began  during  April  the  organization  of  a  service  which  later  grew  to 
large  proportions.  In  July  Captain  Louis  H.  Fead  arrived  to  replace  Captain 
Petrie,  who  was  transferred  to  the  Grand  Blottereau.  Under  his  direction,  a 
canteen  was  started,  magazines,  books,  etc.,  were  distributed  to  the  patients, 
regular  moving-picture  shows  were  held,  a  Home  Communication  Service  was 
established,  a  large  recreation  hut  was  built,  where  different  show  troupes  gave  many 
and  varied  entertainments,  dances  for  the  enlisted  men  were  held  and  numerous 
comforts  suppUed  the  nurses.  A  Y.  W.  C.  A.  representative  was  also  continuously 
assigned  to  the  nurses'  quarters  to  provide  all  recreation  and  entertainment  possible. 

The  main  hospital  building  and  the  ground  occupied  by  the  adjoining  barracks 
was  originally  a  seminary  for  priests.  Additional  space  was  soon  required  and  on 
the  street  immediately  opposite  the  east  entrance,  a  large  riding  school  was  acquired 
as  a  quartermaster  store  and  warehouse.  On  this  same  street  a  house  was  obtained 
as  quarters  for  the  female  civilian  employes.  Two  large  chateaux  were  rented 
to  house  the  nursing  personnel.  The  officer  personnel  was  billeted  in  private 
homes  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  hospital. 

Activities  After  the  Armistice 

With  the  signing  of  the  armistice  the  nature  of  the  work  of  the  hospital  changed. 
Its  situation  in  proximity  to  the  base  port  of  St.  Nazaire  and  within  easy 
rail  connection  with  Brest,  put  it  in  direct  line  for  the  evacuation  of  the  sick  and 
wounded  to  the  United  States.     The  work  of  evacuation  was  early  started  and 

216 


convoys  were  received  and  forwarded  as  rapidly  as  patients  could  be  prepared  and 
reequip{)ed  for  the  trip  home.  The  organization  was  not  destined,  however,  long  to 
remain  in  this  work.  In  pursuance  of  the  policy  of  the  chief  surgeon's  office  for 
the  early  return  of  the  hospitals  fkst  sent  over,  word  was  unofficially  received 
Christmas  Eve,  1918,  of  the  hospital's  return  as  soon  as  its  relief  arrived.  On 
January  2d,  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  36  reached  Nantes  and  preparations 
were  rushed  for  the  transfer  of  the  hospital  to  that  organization.  This  was  accom- 
plished January  16,  1918,  and  the  command  was  prepared  for  embarkation.  After 
linal  inspections  were  made  and  the  unit  officially  reported  ready,  it  yet  had  sevei'al 
weeks  to  wait  until  orders  to  move  arrived.  The  officers  finally  left  Nantes, 
March  23d,  the  nurses  soon  after,  and  the  enlisted  men  with  three  officers  April 
2d.  They  all  ultimately  reached  the  United  States  and  the  organization  was 
finally  demobilized  April  29th,  at  Camp  Dix,  N.  J.  The  transport  bringing  the 
officers  home  was  the  Pretoria,  one  of  the  ships  turned  over  by  the  Germans,  after 
the  ai'mistice.  The  nurses  crossed  on  the  George  W  ushington  and  the  enlisted  men 
on  the  Walter  A.  Lackenbach. 

Major  A.  P.  C.  Ashhurst,  the  Director  of  the  Unit,  was  promoted  colonel  and 
was  assigned  surgical  consultant  of  the  important  hospital  centers  of  Nantes, 
Savenay  and  St.  Nazaire.  During  the  course  of  the  organization's  existence  in 
the  A.  E.  F.,  Major  R.  G.  DeVoe,  the  Commanding  Officer,  was  promoted  colonel 
and  was  placed  in  connnand  of  the  Nantes  Hospital  Center.  Major  Emory  G.  Alex- 
ander became  Surgical  Director  of  the  Unit,  Captain  Ralph  S.  Bromer  was  promoted 
Lieutenant  Colonel  and  assumed  command  of  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  36,  the 
organization  sent  to  replace  Base  Hospital  No.  34.  Major  Rutherford  L.  John 
was  made  Chief  Orthopedic  Surgeon  of  the  Nantes  Center  and  Major  John  P. 
Jones  became  Chief  of  Surgical  Service  of  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  36.  Captain 
John  W.  Moore  was  promoted  major  and  placed  in  charge  of  the  laboratories  of 
the  Nantes  Center,  and  Miss  Katharine  Brown,  Chief  Nurse ,  was  made  supervisor 
of  nursing  for  the  same. 

While  in  service  in  the  A.  E.  F.,  Reserve  Nurse  AHce  Ireland  died  at  St. 
Nazaire,  Base  Hospital  No.  101,  of  pneumonia.  Private  Joseph  F.  Covert  died 
of  septicemia  at  Camp  Hospital  No.  15,  and  Private  James  L.  Murray  of  influenza 
at  Base  Hospital  No.  34,  A.  E.  F. 

The  hospital  furnished  its  quota  of  "teams"  for  front  line  work,  as  the  organiza- 
tions of  surgeons,  nurses  and  orderlies  sent  from  base  hospitals  in  the  rear  to  front 
line  hospitals  were  caUed.  The  fust  of  these  sent  out  was  Surgical  Team  No.  23, 
headed  by  Colonel  Astley  P.  C.  Ashhurst,  M.  C.  He  had  with  him  as  his  assistant 
Captain  Henry  S.  Kerchner  and  Nurses  Margarita  Andrews,  Ethel  P.  Kandle  and 
Grace  E.  Stephens,  and  Privates  Winsor  Josselyn  and  Joseph  E.  Miles.  They 
left  Nantes,  early  in  April,  1918,  going  to  Crevecoeur-le-Grand  where  they  served 
with  Auto  Corps  No.  6  of  the  French  Army  until  July.  On  July  18th,  they  arrived 
at  the  American  Red  Cross  Hospital  No.  1,  Neuilly  sur  Seine,  Paris  and  remained 
there  until  August  14th.  They  were  then  transferred  to  Evacuation  Hospital 
No.  6,  American  Army  serving  with  it  during  the  Argonne  Campaign.  On  Novem- 
ber 18th,  Colonel  Ashhurst  was  transferred  to  Savenay  as  consultant  in  surgery 
and  Major  Emory  G.  Alexander,  M.  C.  was  sent  to  refieve  him. 

Surgical  Team  No.  24  was  composed  of  Major  Chas.  D.  Lockwood,  M.  C, 
Captain  Irvine  M.  Boykin,  M.  C,  and  Captain  Louis  W.  Frank,  M.  C.     The 

217 


nurses  and  enlisted  men  composing  it  were  Nm-ses  Anna  Behman  and  Katherine 
Holler  and  Sergeants  Horace  B.  Austin  and  Harry  G.  Bostick.  This  team 
served  with  the  American  Army  in  the  Champagne  and  the  Argonne  sector,  being 
stationed  with  several  American  evacuation  hospitals. 

During  the  course  of  the  summer  a  gas  and  shock  team  in  charge  of  First 
Lieutenant,  later  Captain  Boyal  E.  Durham,  M.  C.  was  dispatched  to  the  front. 
The  nursing  and  enlisted  personnel  of  these  teams  routinely  consisting  of  one  each. 
Nurse  Jane  D.  Nicholson  and  Private  WiUiam  ^^ogel  were  detailed  for  the  duty. 
It  was  first  sent  to  the  central  laboratory  at  Dijon  for  instruction  purposes  and 
from  there  was  sent  to  the  front,  serving  with  one  of  the  American  evacuation 
hospitals.  No.  8,  dming  the  Argonne  Drive. 

During  the  course  of  the  latter  drive,  the  second  team  was  broken  up,  Major 
Lockwood,  Captain  Frank  and  Miss  Holler  formed  the  nucleus  of  one,  and  Captain 
Boykin,  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  other  with  Lieutenant  Simon  and  Miss  Behman. 

Immediately  after  the  termination  of  hostilities  the  various  teams  of  the 
A.  E.  F.  were  returned  to  their  respective  organizations.  During  late  November 
and  early  December  all  the  personnel  returned  to  Nantes,  and  was  re-attached  to 
the  hospital  for  return  to  the  United  States. 

BASE  HOSPITAL  NO.  .38  U.  S.  A. 
By  Colonel  W.  M.  L.  Coplin 

War  is  the  summation  of  all  tragedies, — the  pinnacle  of  all  follies,  the  abysmal 
depth  of  all  horrors;  the  conjoined,  coordinate,  contemporaneous  supremacy  of 
flame  and  famine,  of  holocaust  and  hate,  of  disease,  disaster  and  death,  of  slaughter 
and  starvation.  It  is  the  insanity,  the  infanticidal,  homicidal,  suicidal  mania  of 
nations — the  darkness  of  doomsday  out  of  wliich  shines  but  one  lone  star,  red — 
and  purple-rimmed — the  light  of  the  Samaritan  who  feeds  and  clothes,  arrests  bleed- 
ing, binds  wounds,  bears  anesthetic,  sedative,  and  opiate,  nurses  with  tender  hand, 
brings  water  to  lips  athirst  and  dying,  wipes  off  the  sweat  of  agony,  takes  the  last 
faltering  message  to  loved  ones  at  home  and,  when  comes  the  end,  closes  staring 
eyes,  composes  limbs,  enshrouds  and  coffins,  covers  with  the  flag  which  the  soldier 
loved  and  for  which  he  died,  and  bears  the  fallen  victim  to  his  last  rest,  his  dream- 
less sleep  of  peace  eternal.  These  purveyors  of  mercy  and  kindness, — all  out  of 
harmony  with  the  fields  in  which  they  labor — amid  scenes  no  pen  can  describe, 
ply  their  caUing  from  sheU-torn  trench  to  bomb-wrecked  hospital  far  in  the  rear, 
along  lines  of  communication,  at  ports  of  embarkation,  on  hospital  ships  in  port 
and  at  sea,  imtil,  at  last,  the  restored  soldier  rests  on  the  bosom  of  loved  ones  at 
Jiome,  or  bivouacs  forever  on  Fame's  eternal  camping  ground. 

Much,  if  not  most  of  this  work  was  done  by  those  who  enlisted  to  serve  in  base 
hospitals.  Officers,  nurses  and  hospital  corps  men — often  detailed  from  an  original 
base  hospital — at  one  time  or  another  served  in  every  position  from  firing  line  back 
through  the  apparently  unending  labyrinth  of  "communications."  To  bear  its 
share  of  the  burden  Base  Hospital  No.  38  of  the  Jelferson  Medical  College  and  Hos- 
pital was  organized. 

Founded  in  1825,  and  nearing  the  centenary  of  its  existence,  the  work  was 
not  new  to  the  institution  which,  through  almost  one  hundred  years,  had  sent  its 
graduates  to  every  battlefield  and  into  every  disaster  in  the  nation's  history,  had 

218 


given  Silas  Weir  Mitchell  and  William  Williams  Keen  to  the  work  of  the  great 
Civil  conflict,  and  in  the  World  War  its  graduates  to  the  number  of  1, 162,  while  more 
than  370  undergraduates  worked  in  every  professional  capacity  from  Surgeon 
General  Merritte  W.  Ireland  (Class  of  1891),  to  the  humblest  positions  in  the 
service  of  their  country. 

Organization 

The  Jefferson  Medical  College  Base  Hospital,  organized  under  the  direction 
of  the  American  Red  Cross  and  known  as  Base  Hospital  No.  38,  was  rendered  pos- 
sible by  the  generous  contributions  of  Adeline  Pepper  Gibson  and  Henry  S.  Gibson. 
Organization  was  begun  May  3,  1917.  Before  the  summer  had  ended  officers 
and  enlisted  men  had  been  selected,  necessary  commissions  obtained  and  most  of 
the  preUminary  work  completed.  The  personnel,  included  thirty -five  officers, 
100  nurses,  five  civilians,  and  200  enlisted  men. 

Major  W.  M.  L.  Coplin  was  designated  Director,  and  Chief  of  the  Laboratory 
Division;  Major  J.  Norman  Henry,  Ciiief  of  the  Medical  Division  and  Major 
Charles  F.  Nassau,  Chief  of  the  Surgical  Division.  Major  John  S.  Lambie,  M.  C, 
U.  S.  A.,  was  later  detailed  as  executive  officer. 

MOBIUZATION   AND    TRAINING 

The  organization  was  mobilized  October  15.  1917,  and  went  immediately  into 
training  at  the  2d  Regiment  Armory,  Philadelphia.  The  novitiate  in  Philadelphia 
extended  from  the  date  of  mobilization  to  June  21,  1918,  when  tlie  unit  embarked 
for  France.  During  this  period  of  preparation  it  was  decided,  at  the  suggestion 
of  the  director,  to  inaugurate  a  new  and  hitlierto  untried  plan  of  preparing  enlisted 
men  for  hospital  duty.  It  had  previously  been  the  custom  to  assemble  tlie  per- 
sonnel of  base  hospitals  at  some  training  camp,  for  example,  AUentown,  where 
military'  and  certain  didactic  instruction  could  advantageously  be  given. 
Obviously  the  functions  wliich  hospital  corps  men  ai'e  supposed  to  perform  differ 
materially  from  those  of  any  other  miUtary  unit.  Necessary  though  a  knowledge  of 
policing  and  military  drill  may  be,  the  men  should  know  something  of  hospital 
organization  and  the  care  of  patients;  consequently  it  was  decided  to  institute 
two  courses  of  instruction — didactic  and  practical. 

The  former  was  inaugurated  (October  29,  1917)  by  an  introductory  lecture  by 
William  W.  Keen,  M.D.,  Sc.  D.,  LL.D.,  Hon.  F.R.C.S.  (England  and  Edin.) 
Emeritus  Professor  of  Surgery,  at  the  Jefferson  Medical  College,  in  which  he  out- 
lined the  history  of  hospital  organization  and  duties  as  he  knew  them  in  Philadel- 
phia and  in  army  hospitals  during  the  Civil  War.  This  was  followed  by  lectures 
given  by  members  of  the  staff  and  others,  covering  problems  of  hospital  admin- 
istration, the  care  of  patients,  treatment  of  injured,  transportation,  sanitary  science, 
antisepsis  and  on  other  subjects  bearing  directly  upon  the  functions  of  base  hospitals. 

Through  the  courtesy  and  cordial  cooperation  of  the  Jefferson  Hospital, 
Pennsylvania,  St.  Agnes,  St.  Joseph's,  Philadelphia  General,  Philadelphia  Hospital 
for  Contagious  Diseases,  Frankford,  Episcopal,  Lankenau,  Presbyterian  and 
Samaritan  hospitals,  valuable  instruction  was  given  to  small  groups  of  men  de- 
tailed to  the  institutions  named.  They  were  assigned  to  laboratory,  operating 
room,  dispensary,  ward,  and  accident  room,  and  saw  useful  practical  service.  The 
courses  were  continued  throughout  most  of  the  winter,  thus  affording  the  men  an 

219 


extended  knowledge  of  the  work  they  would  be  called  upon  to  perform.  Con- 
currently, officers  improved  in  every  possible  way  their  knowledge  by  special  work 
in  laboratories.  X-ray  departments,  surgical  and  medical  clinics,  and  the  specialties. 
Some  of  the  officers  were  detailed  to  the  Rockefeller  Institute,  New  York,  for 
special  training. 

Equipment 

To  the  foundation  of  §50,000  given  by  Adeline  Pepper  Gibson  and  Henry  S. 
Gibson,  generous  citizens  of  Philadelphia,  contributions  by  others — including  $5,000 
given  by  Mrs.  Thtmias  P.  Hunter  for  operating  rooms,  brought  the  total  to  $79,- 
992.39,  practically  all  of  which  was  expended  for  equipment.  In  addition  to  cash 
contributions  many  gifts  were  made  directly.  These  included  an  ambulance  by  the 
residents  of  Logan,  another  by  employes  of  the  Philadelphia  Rapid  Transit  Com- 
pany, another  by  the  Philadelphia  Teachers'  Association,  another  by  the  West 
Philadelphia  Auxiliary  No.  1  of  the  American  Red  Cross,  another  by  the  Fotterall 
Square  Association  and  one  given  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  H.  Lea — a  total  of  six 
ambulances.  Through  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Norman  L.  Barr  and  Mr.  William  C. 
Haddock,  Jr.,  and  their  friends,  a  delivery  truck  was  supplied.  The  American 
Red  Cross,  Washington,  D.  C,  gave  a  carload  of  dressings;  the  local  Red  Cross  and 
many  auxiharies  aided  also.  The  Emergency  Aid  assisted  generously.  The  con- 
tributions including  cash  of  $79,992..39,  a  special  fund  given  nurses  $8,001.54*,  and 
supplies  valued  at  $34,.318.58,  make  a  total  value  of  $I22,312.5L 

Service  in  the  American  E.kpeditionary  Forces 

On  June  21,  1918,  six  officers  and  192  enlisted  men  under  the  command  of 
Lieutenant  Colonel  John  S.  Lambie,  M.  C,  LT.  S.  A.,  embarked  on  the  S.  S. 
Nopalxn,  New  York,  and  twenty-nine  officers  under  the  command  of  Major  Coplin, 
boarded  the  S.  S.  President  Grant.  The  latter,  on  account  of  an  accident  to  the 
refrigeration  plant,  was  compelled  to  return,  sailing  finally  on  June  30,  1918. 
Passengers  on  the  S.  S.  Nopaiin  landed  at  Brest  July  5th,  left  July  10th,  and  arrived 
at  Nantes,  France  July  11th;  on  July  17th  they  were  joined  by  the  remaining 
officers.  The  nursing  corps  had  sailed  from  New  York  on  May  18th,  and  upon 
arrival  in  France  the  nurses  were  assigned  to  duty  in  base  hospitals  at  Nantes,  or  to 
stations  nearer  the  line  of  combat. 

Location 

At  Nantes,  a  quaint  and  beautiful  city  on  the  Loire,  designated  as  one  of  the 
American  hospital  centers,  was  also  stationed  Base  Hospital  No.  34,  which,  at  the 
time  "38"  arrived,  was  receiving  patients.  Base  Hospital  No.  38  was  located 
in  the  Grand  Blottereaii  which  was  later  to  receive  three  other  hospital 
organizations.  The  Grand  Blottereau  is  a  park  surrounding  what  had  been  a  small 
gem  of  a  chateau  with  its  exquisite  grounds,  partly  wooded,  containing  tall  trees, 
veritable  monarchs,  small  shrubs  and  liedges,  and  all  intervening  types  of  woodland 
growth.  Along  one  side  extended  a  beautiful  walled  road  of  rural  France,  no 
longer  in  good  condition.  On  another  side  was  a  small  tributary  of  the  Loire,  and 
just  beyond  the  slowly  moving  majestic  river.     On  another  side  were  the  botanical 

*This  embraced  gifts  specifically  for  nurses,  and  is  not  included  in  the  Director's  reports. 
All  other  contributions  have  been  accounted  for  to  the  American  Red  Cross,  Washington,  D.  C. 

220 


and  agricultural  gardens  of  Nantes,  and  off  from  a  corner  the  town  of  Doulon, 
really  a  part  of  the  historic  old  city. 

The  Hospital  in  France 

Physically,  the  plant  included  twenty-one  wards,  also  diet  kitchens,  per- 
sonnel barracks  and  mess  hall,  officers'  barracks  and  mess  hall,  nurses'  barracks 
and  mess  hall,  ablution  sheds  and  barracks,  receiving  wards,  quartermaster  supply 
buildings,  mess  supply  building,  operating  pavilion,  and  laboratory,  a  total  of 
about  iifly  buildings,  ail  of  temporary  construction.  They  were  supplied  with 
electricity  and  running  water,  and  an  emergency  sewage  system  was  installed 
which  became  inadequate  on  account  of  the  unexpected  number  of  patients  and 
the  unanticipated  floods  which  inundated  that  region  of  France  and  impeded 
drainage.  The  original  barracks  were  constructed  of  composition  board,  felt  roof 
and  concrete  floors,  with  adequate  window  space.  The  overflow,  amounting  to 
more  than  2,000  patients,  administered  to  by  the  organization,  was  sheltered  in 
tents  erected  on  a  contiguous  section  of  the  park.  The  extraordinary  rains  of 
1918  in  France  rendered  the  soil  so  soft  that  the  temporary  roads  soon  became  a 
veritable  mud-plant  through  which  officers,  nurses,  convalescents  and  enlisted 
men  waded  for  weeks;  part  of  the  plain  was  under  water  for  many  days,  but  the 
hospital,  more  fortunate  than  one  of  its  neighbors,  was  not  reached  by  the  high 
water. 

The  buildings  which  "38"  was  to  occupy  were  only  partly  completed  when 
the  organization  arrived;  officers  and  enlisted  men  proceeded  to  assist  in  the 
construction.  As  early  as  July  22d,  1.32  sick  and  injured  from  the  Soissons 
front  were  received  and  cared  for,  although  the  liuildings  were  not  finished 
until  several  weeks  later.  By  September  over  1,000  patients  had  been 
admitted.  It  was  originally  contemplated  that  for  each  base  hospital  pro- 
vision for  500  patients  would  be  adequate.  Before  leaving  the  United  States 
the  personnel  had  been  increased  to  that  of  a  thousand-bed  base,  shortly  after 
arrival  in  France  it  became  obvious  that  it  might  at  any  time  be  required  to  shelter 
2,000  incapacitated  soldiers,  and  early  in  November,  1918,  the  daily  census  included 
2,412  patients.  It  is  believed,  however,  that  every  possible  attention  was  given 
and  that  the  enormous  expansion  did  not  weaken  the  efficiency  of  the  organization, 
notwithstanding  the  fact  that,  at  one  time,  only  ten  officers  remained  at  the  base, 
three  of  whom  were  largely  occupied  in  administrative  capacities. 

Because  of  pressure  at  other  hospitals  and  the  urgent  demand  for  nurses,  practi- 
cally all  of  those  belonging  to  the  unit  had  been  transferred  to  needy  centers  at 
Nantes  and  elsewhere  in  France;  therefore,  shortly  after  "38"  was  placed  in  opera- 
tion. Miss  Clara  Melville,  Chief  Nurse,  had  only  seven  nurses  to  assist  in  operating 
rooms  and  to  care  for  approximately  1,000  seriously  wounded  and  sick  soldiers; 
later  the  number  reached  more  than  2,000.  Nevertheless  it  must  be  universally 
recognized  that  the  depletion  of  nurses  was  one  thing  from  which  the  organization 
suffered  intensely;  the  loyal  and  unflagging  devotion  of  officers  and  enlisted  men 
did  much  to  ameliorate  conditions,  but  in  a  great  hospital,  containing  many  seriously 
ill  and  wounded,  no  one  fills  the  place  of  a  properly  trained  nurse.  Our  nurses 
were  performing  more  important  duties  with  operating  teams  at  the  front,  in  hos- 
pitals on  the  field  and  along  the  line  of  comnumication,  and  on  hospital  trains,  so 
that  whatever  the  original  organization  may  have  suffered,  the  benefits  to  the 

221 


service  in  the  A.  E.  F.  were  no  doubt  greater;  consequently  our  loss  was  borne 
though  less  patiently  than  would  have  been  decorous. 

Detached  Duty 

Shortly  after  arriving  in  France,  and  in  common  with  all  other  organizations 
which  included  highly  trained  specialists,  we  suffered  severe  losses  from  detach- 
ment of  important  officers  to  more  active,  and  it  was  beUeved  more  important, 
duties  nearer  the  front  and  elsewhere  in  the  stricken  country.  Indeed  some  highly 
efficient  men  had  been  detached  before  Base  Hospital  No.  38  left  the  United  States. 

Originally  Captain  J.  Torrence  Rugh  was  chosen  for  the  orthopedic  division 
of  Base  Hospital  No.  38.  The  Surgeon  General's  office  requested  his  release  as  an 
orthopedist  of  established  repute  was  needed  to  direct  the  proper  care  of  enlisted 
men  in  tliis  countiy.  Reluctantly  the  release  was  granted,  his  work  was  weU 
done,  and  his  promotions  continuous  to  and  including  the  rank  of  Colonel. 

Captain  E.  J.  G.  Beardsley,  who  had  been  a  member  of  the  Medical  Reserve 
Corps  since  1909,  was  also  transferred  to  a  larger  field.  The  Surgeon  General's 
office  recognized  in  him  a  man  of  unusual  attainments,  a  capable  teacher  and  an 
exi^erienced  clinician.  He  was  detailed  to  the  Army  Medical  School,  later  to  train- 
ing camps,  became  Chief  of  Medical  Service,  Base  Hospital  No.  89,  Camp  Sheridan, 
and  joined  the  A.  E.  F.  in  France.  His  promotions  passed  through  the  grades  of 
Captain,  Major  and  Lieutenant  Colonel. 

Captain  George  E.  Price  preceded  the  unit  and  was  on  duty  as  consulting 
neurologist  in  Paris;  later  succeeded  by  Major  M.  A.  Biu-ns,  who  was  also  detached 
for  pennanent  duty  in  the  capital  city. 

Major  Thomas  C.  Stellwagen  had  also  sailed  in  advance  of  "38,"  and  was 
on  observation  duty  at  Queen's  Hospital,  Sidcup,  England;  later  transferred  to 
Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1,  to  Field  Hospital  No.  27,  acting  as  surgeon  for  non- 
transportable  cases,  to  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  5,  with  Field  Hospital  No.  112, 
and  for  three  months  served  with  Mobile  Hospital  No.  4.  After  the  armistice 
he  resumed  duty  at  Base  Hospital  No.  38  as  Chief  of  the  Department  of  Oral  and 
Plastic  Surgery. 

Major  W.  M.  L.  Coplin,  Director,  and  Chief  of  the  Laboratory  Division,  later 
Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Colonel,  was  detailed  to  Headquarters,  Laboratory  Service, 
A.  E.  F.,  Dijon,  later  becoming  Laboratory  Officer,  Hospital  Center,  Beaune; 
December,  1918  transferred  to  the  3d  Army  as  Director  of  Laboratories,  accom- 
panying the  Army  of  Occupation  and  having  charge  of  twenty-seven  laboratories, 
with  headquarters  at  Coblenz,  Germany. 

Major  J.  Norman  Hem-y,  Chief  of  the  Medical  Division,  was  detailed  to  the 
Army  Sanitary  School  at  Langres,  August  19,1918,  to  headquarters  at  Toul,  to 
the  89th  Division  where  there  were  unusual  opportunities  for  studying  the  prob- 
lems of  a  division  in  action.  After  his  return  early  in  October,  he  became  Com- 
manding Officer  of  Base  Hospital  No.  38. 

Major  Charles  F.  Nassau  left  the  Base  Hospital  early  in  July,  1918,  for  ob- 
servation duty  in  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1,  at  Toul,  to  the  Red  Cross  Hospital 
in  Paris,  where  he  was  joined  by  other  members  of  the  operating  team  consisting 
of  Captain  Mark  D.  Hoyt,  Lieutenant  Louis  D.  Englerth,  Miss  Amanda  Boyer, 
R.  N.,  and  Privates  Edward  G.  Huth  and  Herbert  W.  Duke.  From  Paris  Major 
Nassau  went  to  Evreux,  American  Red  Cross  Hospital  No.  109;  in  September  to 

222 


Evacuation  Hospital  No.  7,  Souilly;  to  Mobile  Hospital  No.  1,  Esnes,  returning 
to  SouiUy,  and  after  the  armistice  resumed  his  position  as  Chief  Surgeon 
with  "38." 

Captains  Frank  H.  Hustead  and  Charles  E.  Hays  joined  Major  Stellwagen 
in  the  assignments  detailed  above  and  served  in  the  Argonne  and  St.  Mihiel  drives. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  John  S.  Lambie  detailed  by  the  Medical  Department 
as  Executive  Officer  of  Base  Hospital  No.  .38,  left  the  organization  on  September  2, 
1918,  becoming  commanding  officer  of  the  hospital  center  at  Puy  de  Dome  and  later 
inspector  of  hospitals  in  the  A.  E.  F.  Major  John  B.  Lownian  was  left  in  command, 
but  shortly  thereafter  on  account  of  illness,  was  relieved  by  Major  J.  Norman 
Henry,  who  became  Commanding  Officer,  and  continued  in  this  service  until  Novem- 
ber 22,  1918,  when  Major  Lowman  returned  and  resumed  command. 

Major  John  B.  Forst  passed  through  tlic  St.  Mihiel  and  Argonne  offensives 
with  Mobile  Hospital  No.  2,  serving  as  Ophthalmologist  with  this  organization  on 
the  Meuse,  returning  to  the  base  in  October.  He  was  in  command  of  Base  Hos- 
pital No.  38  when  the  patients  were  turned  over  to  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  31, 
returned  with  the  unit  and  was  mustered  out  with  the  boys  at  Camp  Dix, 
New  Jersey,  April,  1919. 

Captains  Borzell,  Burns,  Hays,  Mohler,  Musser  and  Tyson  at  different  times 
were  off  on  observation  duty  or  on  other  details. 

Our  Heroic  Dead 

Every  great  adventure  has  its  tragedy  and  the  experience  of  Base  Hospital 
No.  38  was  no  exception.  Wliile  in  line  of  duty  the  call  to  higher  reward  was 
answered  by  live  members  of  tlie  unit.  Every  death  was  due  to  the  stress  of  ac- 
tivities upon  which  the  worker  was  engaged.  The  nurses  in  travel  to  detailed 
stations  or  on  duty,  a  physician  going  from  ward  to  sick-bed  under  war  conditions 
where  the  comforts  of  a  modern  hospital  or  of  a  home  were  not  available;  enlisted 
men  dying  from  disease — all  falling  in  line  of  duty.  In  each  instance  it  is  reason- 
able to  believe  that,  had  the  unfortunate  one  avoided  the  rigors  of  war  and  the 
hardships  of  service,  life  might  have  been  spared.  They  are  heroes  and  heroines 
who  fell  outside  the  glamour  of  attack  and  screeching  shell,  but  none  the  less 
gave  their  lives  for  the  cause. 

AdeUne  Pepper  Gibson,  benefactress  of  Base  Hospital  No.  38,  while  on  active 
duty  contracted  pneumonia  and  died  at  Nantes,  January  10,  1919.  Through 
the  many  trying  days  of  effort,  Mrs.  Gibson  gave  unsparingly  of  all  those  things 
worth  while.  There  was  no  opportunity  to  do  good  that  was  too  laborious,  no 
time  of  need  when  her  interest  was  not  aroused  and  her  helping  hand  was  not  ex- 
tended, no  weariness  of  body  that  arrested  her  enduring  endeavor,  no  situation 
she  did  not  see,  and  seeing  act.  To  officers  and  men,  to  nurses  and  patients  often 
she  brought  cheer  and  sunshine  where  before  existed  despair  and  gloom.  Her  life 
with  us  was  one  continuing  period  of  smUing,  patient,  helpfulness,  and  her  passing 
weighed  upon  us  as  an  unforgettable  sorrow  of  our  adventure.  A  stranger  to  all 
the  wearying  sadness  of  hospital  life  imder  the  shadow  of  grim  war,  the  things 
she  did  and  the  way  she  did  them  won  the  hearts  of  all.  There  was  a  noble  sin- 
cerity in  her  life  best  known  to  those  near  enough  to  see  the  warp  and  woof  of  the 
cloth  of  gold  woven  in  the  loom  of  duty  before  which  she  daily  and  hourly  cast 
life's  flying  shuttle.     A  world  peopled  by  such  souls  would  be  sunshine  and  cheer, 

223 


without  pain  or  sorrow — a  veritable  paradise.  A  history  of  Base  Hospital  No.  38 
is  being  published  as  a  fitting  memorial  to  our  lamented  benefactress. 

Captain  M.  Mauney  came  to  the  organization  a  stranger,  detailed  by  the 
Surgeon  General's  office  when  the  personnel  was  increased.  He  endeared  himself 
to  all  the  men  with  whom  he  worked  and  was  faithful,  devoted,  serious  minded  and 
capable.  During  the  influenza  epidemic  he  continued  at  work  in  the  wards  when 
he  should  have  been  in  bed.  and  it  is  the  feeling  of  those  about  him  that  his  devotion 
to  duty  made  certain  the  tragedy  of  his  death  which  resulted  from  pneumonia  on 
November  1,  1918. 

Meryl  Grace  Phillips  died  May  18, 1918,  of  pneumonia,  the  day  her  companions 
sailed  for  France.  She  was  a  graduate  of  the  Williamsport  Hospital,  an  accom- 
plished nurse,  a  woman  of  unusual  attainments  and  possessed  a  delightful  per- 
sonality. 

Nellie  Jane  Ward  died  on  July  5,  1918  of  pneumonia  contracted  while  on  duty 
at  Chaumont,  France.  Because  of  her  attainments  and  superior  qualifications 
Miss  Ward  had  been  assigned  to  the  work  at  Chaumont.  She  was  a  graduate  of 
the  Massachusetts  General  Hospital,  long  known  ff)r  the  high  grade  of  women 
prepared  in  its  halls. 

Kenneth  B.  Charlton  of  Washington,  D.  C,  a  member  of  the  enlisted  per- 
sonnel, while  home  on  leave,  was  stricken  with  pneumonia  and  died  in  the  Walter 
Reed  Hospital,  Washington,  D.  C,  January  1,'},  1918. 

Kenneth  J.  Ellis  of  Philadelphia,  an  original  member  of  the  unit,  contracted 
pneumonia  while  training,  and  died  in  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  Philadelphia, 
March  7,  1918.  Both  Charlton  and  Ellis  were  men  of  the  nobler  type,  esteemed  by 
all  who  knew  them  and  popular  among  their  fellows.  Their  memory  will  ever 
be  with  us. 

Summary  of  Work  Done 

Aside  from  the  nearly  9,000  patients  who  passed  through  operating  rooms, 
wards  and  convalescent  camp,  the  officers,  nurses  and  men  of  Base  Hospital  No. 
38  administered  to  the  sick  and  injured  at  the  bases  at  Nantes,  St.  Nazaire,  Dijon, 
Beaune,  Langres,  Saumur,  Paris,  Dancourt,  Evreux,  Esnes,  Souilly,  LaTouche, 
Euverzin,  Louey,  Chaumont,  Toul,  in  the  Argonne  and  St.  Mihiel  drives,  and 
after  the  armistice,  with  the  3d  Army  at  Prum,  Trier,  Mayen,  Neuenahr,  Ehren- 
breitstein,  Coblenz  and  elsewhere — a  continuous  line  of  faithful  workers  extend- 
ing from  the  parent  institution  in  Philadelphia  across  paths  of  communication, 
to  bases  in  Europe,  to  the  battle-fields  of  stricken  France  and  Belgium,  and  beyond 
to  the  remotest  outposts  of  the  Army  of  Occupation  along  the  Rhine,  and  in  the 
bridge-head  area  to  the  most  advanced  relief  station  in  Germany. 

A  SKETCH  OF  THE  SERVICE  OF  HOSPITAL  UNIT  A 

John  H.  Jopson,  M.D. 

Hospital  Unit  A,  the  first  of  the  Red  Cross  units  of  this  type  to  be  authorized 
by  the  Red  Cross,  was  organized  and  equipped  by  the  Presbyterian  Hospital  of 
Philadelphia,  as  its  contribution  to  the  sanitary  service  of  the  United  States  Army 
during  the  World  War.  It  was  felt  that  a  unit  of  this  character  was  a  wise  addition 
to  the  considerable  number  of  base  hospitals  already  under  process  of  organiza- 

224 


A  Surgical  Dressing  /?< 


tion  at  other  hospitals  in  Philadelphia,  some  of  which,  especially  the  Hospital  of 
the  University  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  had  drawn  heavily 
on  the  personnel  of  the  Presbyterian  Hospital  staff. 

The  organization  of  the  unit  was  authorized  by  the  Red  Cross,  and  guaianteed 
by  the  board  of  managers  of  the  hospital  early  in  the  spring  of  1917.  The  officers 
as  originally  selected  were  all  connected  with,  or  had  served  as  members  of  the 
staff  of  the  Presbyterian  Hospital,  some  as  visiting  physicians  and  surgeons  in  the 
house,  others  in  the  same  capacity  in  the  dispensary,  and  the  juniors  as  recent 
internes.  The  nurses  were  all  graduates  of  the  training  school  of  the  same  insti- 
tution, including  the  Chief  Nurse,  Miss  Kate  Liddle.  The  enlisted  men  were  from 
Philadelphia  and  the  vicinity,  and  were  selected  by  Dr.  Henry  P.  Brown,  Jr.,  one 
of  the  original  officers  of  the  unit,  who  was  transferred  to  the  77th  Division 
before  the  unit  was  mobilized.  The  equipment  conformed  to  that  prescribed 
by  the  Red  Cross  for  this  type  of  organization.  While  awaiting  mobilization, 
a  number  of  the  officers  were  called  to  active  service,  and  assigned  to  the 
training  camps  for  medical  officers  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  and  Fort  Benjamin  Har- 
rison. The  writer,  who  was  director  of  the  unit,  was  included  in  the  second  class 
of  observers  at  the  War  Demonstration  Hospital  of  the  Rockefeller  Institute  in 
September,  1917,  where  Dr.  Alexis  Carrel  had  started  his  course  of  instruction  in 
wound  sterihzation  and  treatment  to  which  officers  were  assigned  for  a  two  weeks' 
course  of  instruction.  This  course  was  a  most  convincing  demonstration  of  the 
value  of  the  Carrel  method.  The  cUnical  and  laboratory  instruction  as  given 
by  Dr.  Carrel  and  his  associates,  some  of  whom  had  extended  practical  experience 
in  the  sanitary  organizations  of  the  French  Army,  was  carried  on  with  a  freshness 
and  enthusiasm  that  was  contagious. 

225 


The  unit  was  mobilized  at  the  Presbyterian  Hospital  on  November  6,  1917, 
and  three  days  later  proceeded  to  Fort  Porter,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  for  equipment  and 
training,  preparatory  to  service  overseas.  Three  of  the  officers  had  been  transferred 
from  the  training  camps  to  other  organizations,  or  to  service  with  troops,  and 
their  places  were  taken  by  others  assigned  by  the  Surgeon  General.  The  twelve 
medical  officers  ordered  to  Fort  Porter  included  Major  John  H.  Jopson  as  Com- 
manding Officer,  Captain  John  Speese,  Captain  Charles  A.  Fife,  Captain  CUfford 

B.  Farr,  and  First  Lieutenants  Albert  G.  Mitchell,  Ralph  W.  Walker,  Douglas 
N.  Forman,  Douglas  P.  Murphy,  George  K.  Tweddell,  Percy  D.  Moulton,  WilUam 

C.  Powell  and  Walter  R.  Holmes.   Lieutenant  Mitchell  was  Adjutant.   There  were 
forty-seven  enlisted  men. 

The  twenty-one  nurses  were  assembled  at  ElUs  Island  in  charge  of  Miss 
Kate  Liddle,  Chief  Nurse. 

In  addition  to  Hospital  L^nit  A,  there  were  assembled  at  Fort  Porter,  Hos- 
pital Units  F  and  K,  from  the  Harlem  Hospital,  New  York  and  Council  Bluffs.  Iowa, 
respectively,  under  the  command  of  Majors  Neff  and  MacRae.  The  station  was 
under  the  command  of  Major  T.  D.  Woodson  ot  the  Regular  Army  Medical  Corps. 

The  units  remained  in  training  at  Fort  Porter  until  January  10,  1918,  when  they 
were  ordered  to  Camp  Merritt,  New  Jersey,  and  on  January  15,  1918,  left  there  for 
the  port  of  embarkation,  Hoboken,  N.  J.,  and  embarked  and  sailed  the  same  day  on 
the  Cunard  Line  S.  S.  Carpalhia,  officially  designated  in  orders  as  Transport  509. 
The  Nashville,  Term.,  Unit  S  was  also  on  board,  under  command  of  Major 
Barr.  There  were  all  told  about  2,000  troops  on  board,  nearly  100  officers  and 
84  nurses.  The  commanding  officer  of  troops  was  Colonel  Symmonds,  of  the 
Cavalry  Corps  of  the  United  States  Army.  Two  days  later  stop  was  made  at 
Halifax,  N.  S.,  to  join  a  convoy  of  seven  vessels  which  was  made  up  there,  and 
which  left  January  19,  1918,  under  the  escort  of  U.  S.  S.  San  Diego  and  the  British 
converted  cruiser  Vklorian. 

The  commanding  officer  of  Unit  A  was  transport  sui'geon.  After  the  first 
three  days  out  the  sanitary  arrangements  were  satisfactory,  although  the  presence 
of  so  many  newly  enlisted  men  necessitated  constant  vigilance  until  they  could 
be  brought  into  famiUarity  with  their  surroundings.  The  ship  was  filled  to 
capacity  and  there  were  double  tiers  of  bunks  on  both  lower  decks.  There  were 
three  rooms  below  decks  available  as  hospitals  with  accommodations  for  fifty- 
eight  patients,  and  the  cases  of  illness  developing  on  board  were  at  once  segregated 
when  indicated,  and  admitted  to  one  or  the  other  of  these  hospitals  according  to 
the  nature  of  the  disease.  They  were  fairly  well  filled  during  the  voyage  and  the 
cases  of  contagion  included  influenza,  measles  and  mumps,  and  one  case  of  German 
measles.  Ten  men  were  landed  at  Hahfax,  N.  S.,  according  to  instructions, 
cases  of  contagious  illness  of  the  above  types,  and  sent  to  the  military  hospital. 
The  severe  epidemic  of  influenza,  which  led  to  such  high  mortahty  and  morbidity 
on  the  transports,  had  not  as  yet  appeared,  and  the  cases  of  this  form  observed 
were  mostly  ot  a  mild  type  and  few  in  number.  There  were  eighty-nine  cases  of 
all  types  of  disease  and  injury  treated  in  hospital  and  quarters  during  the  voyage 
and  of  these,  thirteen  were  classified  as  influenza.  There  were  eleven  cases  of 
measles  and  twenty-one  of  mumps.  Twenty-six  cases  remaining  in  hospital  on 
arrival  at  Glasgow  on  January  30th,  were  transferred  to  the  hospital  at  that  port. 
These  were  mostly  cases  of  mild  contagion  of  the  above  types.     One  case  of  in- 

226 


sanity  developed  during  the  voyage.  The  presence  of  a  large  number  of  medical 
officers  on  the  ship  rendered  it  possible  to  conduct  the  inspections,  to  administer 
the  hospitals,  and  to  run  the  dispensary,  which  was  at  once  established,  in  a  thorough 
and  satisfactory  manner.  Special  dispensaries  for  treatment  under  specialists 
were  conducted,  and  the  services  of  oculists,  aurists,  and  surgeons  were  freely 
drawn  upon  at  all  times.     One  death  occurred  during  the  voyage. 

The  entire  convoy  made  the  trip  across  safely.  No  submarines  were  sighted, 
and  although  there  was  some  excitement  when  a  strange  ship  was  sighted,  and  was 
pursued  and  called  on  to  lay  to  by  a  shot  from  one  of  the  cruisers,  no  enemy  was 
seen.  An  extreme  northern  course  was  followed,  and  the  escort  of  destroyers  was 
met  three  days  out  from  land.  The  convoy  then  divided,  two,  including  the 
Carpalhia,  making  for  tdasgow,  the  remainder  for  Liverpool. 

The  unit  landed  at  Glasgow  on  January  30,  1918,  and  proceeded  to  Win- 
chester Rest  Camp  wdiere  it  remained  until  February  3d,  when  it  embarked  at 
Southampton  and  landed  at  Le  Havre,  France,  the  following  day,  February  4, 
1918.  The  same  evening  the  enlisted  men,  under  the  command  of  the  Adjutant, 
Lieutenant  Mitchell,  were  ordered  to  Base  Hospital  No.  18  at  Bazoilles  sur  Meuse, 
which  was  the  John  Hopkins  Unit,  and  the  following  day  the  remaining  officers, 
eleven  in  number,  were  ordered  to  the  casual  officers'  camp  at  Blois.  It  was, 
perhaps,  unfortunate  that  the  original  idea  of  the  Red  Cross  and  the  Surgeon 
General's  office  as  to  the  function  of  units  of  this  type  could  not  have  been  better 
understood  and  carried  out  at  this  time. 

These  units,  while  small,  were  so  selected  as  to  be  capable  of  taking  over  a 
small  hospital,  or  to  reenforce  a  large  one.  It  was  also  considered  an  advantage 
to  secure  groups  of  men  accustomed  to  working  in  cooperation  in  civil  life.  Where 
an  emergency  requires  the  quick  induction  of  a  Red  Cross  unit  into  active  service, 
there  can  be  little  doubt  as  to  the  wisdom  of  such  a  method  of  organization.  It 
is  quite  otherwise  when  time  permits  of  building  up  and  training  a  personnel 
winnowed  out  after  experience  in  existing  military  hospitals. 

In  common  with  some  of  the  other  hospital  units  arriving  in  France  at  this 
time,  LTnit  A  did  not  function  as  a  united  organization  after  its  arrival.  The 
enlisted  men  were  attached  to  Base  Hospital  No.  18.  This  hospital  had  at  this 
time  an  abundant  supply  of  its  own  officers  and  nurses.  L'nit  A  nurses,  originally 
assigned  there,  were  at  once  sent  back  to  Paris  and  distributed  among  Red  Cross 
Hospitals  Nos.  1,  2  and  3  in  that  city.  After  a  few  days  in  Blois,  the  officers 
who  had  been  ordered  there  were  sent  to  various  stations,  including  Tours,  Langres 
and  Paris.  The  history  of  the  unit  was  thereafter  merged  with  that  of  the  various 
organizations  to  which  officers  and  men  were  ordered.  The  enUsted  men  remained 
at  Bazoilles  throughout  the  war,  and  returned  to  the  United  States  with  Base 
Hospital  No.  18  in  February,  1919. 

Their  first  commanding  officer  was  jNIajor  George  Edwards,  and  later,  when 
the  hospital  group  was  constructed  at  this  place.  Colonel  Elmer  Dean.  One  of 
the  first  hospitals  to  go  overseas,  and  functioning  most  of  the  time  as  a  base.  No.  18 
was  utilized  as  an  evacuation  hospital  during  the  Argonne-Meuse  offensive,  and 
was  at  all  times  one  of  the  most  active  organizations  on  the  line  of  communications. 
The  enlisted  members  of  Unit  A  earned,  by  their  deportment  and  work,  the  highest 
praise  from  their  commanding  officers  at  this  hospital,  and  Major  Edwards  was 
always  most  enthusiastic  over  their  work,  and  pronounced  them  as  among  the 


finest  ho  had  ever  commanded.  A  number  of  them,  including  Atlee,  Coleman, 
Mellor,  Teal  and  Brice,  were  promoted  to  sergeants.  Teter,  who  died,  and  Brewster 
were  corporals. 

The  writer  was  on  temporary  duty  at  this  hospital  during  February  and  March 
of  1918.  On  April  3d,  he  proceeded  to  Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1  at  Scbastopol 
near  Toul,  with  the  first  group  of  observers,  six  in  number,  assigned  there  for 
instruction  in  front  line  surgery.  Ordered  to  assemble  a  team  and  remain  there, 
he  secured  the  services  of  four  of  his  associate  officers  of  Unit  A,  Captain  Speese 
and  Lieutenants  Walker,  Murphy  and  Holmes,  and  of  two  of  the  nurses.  Miss 
Addams  and  Miss  Barnsley,  and  two  orderlies  of  the  same  unit.  Walters  and 
.[ohnson.  His  team  remained  on  duty  at  this  place  until  after  the  armistice. 
Captain  Speese  soon  headed  a  team  of  his  own  and  went  through  most  of  the 
engagements  of  the  American  Army  with  one  or  the  other  of  the  evacuation  hos- 
pitals or  mobile  units,  being  finally  Chief  of  the  Surgical  Service  in  Mobile 
Hospital  No.  8. 

Evacuation  Hospital  No.  1,  the  first  to  be  formed  in  the  American  Army, 
and  the  first  to  take  its  place  in  the  line,  originally  behind  the  Fiist  Division  in 
th(!  St.  Mihiel  sector,  was,  in  the  spring  and  summer  of  1918.  the  chief  instruction 
center  of  operators  in  the  Army  in  France.  A  large  number  of  officers  who  after- 
ward themselves  became  the  heads  of,  or  members  of  operating  teams,  as  well  as 
many  X-ray  and  laboratory  speciaUsts,  were  assigned  here  for  observation,  usually 
for  a  two  weeks'  period. 

The  hospital,  organized  at  Fort  Riley,  was  commanded  at  various  times 
by  Major  Davis  and  Colonels  Gosman,  Hanner  and  Marrow,  the  greater  part 
of  the  time  by  Colonel  Gosman,  and  was  at  all  times  a  model  of  administrative 
efficiency.  The  surgery  was  under  the  direction  of  Colonel  John  H.  Gibbon  during 
most  of  the  period  of  activity,  and  this  hospital  was  the  first  to  receive  systematic 
evacuations  of  freshly  wounded  soldiers  from  the  American  Line.  The  original 
operating  staff  at  this  time  (April,  1918)  was  composed  of  Pool,  Heuer,  and 
McWilliams,  and  later  Vaughan  and  Jopson  and  their  assistants,  while  many 
teams  were  added  for  temporary  duty  before  the  St.  Mihiel  Drive,  for  which  this 
hospital  was  designated  as  one  of  the  main  ones  for  the  reception  of  severely 
wounded.  Twenty-six  teams  were  on  duty  with  Evacuation  No.  1  and  Mobile 
Hospital  No.  3  during  the  drive  in  September.  Later  Percy,  Dorrance,  Heyd 
and  Hetzel  operated  for  long  periods  at  this  station.  The  surgery  was  moulded 
by  and  modeled  after  the  teacliings  and  practice  of  the  leading  French,  Belgian 
and  British  operators,  under  whom  the  first  operators  here  had  been  trained. 

The  location  of  the  hospital  nine  miles  behind  the  line  on  the  ^'erdan  road  was 
a  favorable  one  for  the  speedy  reception  of  freslily  wounded  soldiers,  and  the  type 
of  buildings  in  which  it  was  housed,  a  French  cavalry  barracks,  was  well  adapted 
to  the  definitive  treatment  of  the  wounded.  It  was  not  a  mobile  type  of  con- 
struction, but  th3  necessity  of  moving  did  not  develop. 

In  regard  to  technique  and  methods  of  instruction,  which  latter,  it  is  generally 
agreed,  are  better  carried  out  in  the  technical  branches  of  a  military  surgeon's 
education  in  the  field,  it  suffices  to  say  that  the  methods  of  the  clinics  and  hospitals 
of  DePage,  WiUems,  and  LeMaistre,  in  regard  to  debridement,  primary  and 
secondary  suture,  were  taught  and  practised,  as  far  as  the  exigencies  of  the  military 
situation  permitted.     The  sterihzation  of  unclosed  and  grossly  infected  wounds 

228 


by  the  Canel  metliod  was  at  all  times  employed,  and  with  the  most  satisfactory 
results,  and  to  tnosi  of  the  observers  was  an  eiilif;lit(<iinient  and  revelation.  The 
results  as  tabulated  in  monthly  reports  for  the  c;iii<'f  Consultant,  showed  that  the 
results  of  primary  and  secondary  suture,  joint  closure,  and  other  radical  inno- 
vations of  the  l')elj;ian  and  French  schools.  c(juld  be  duplicated  by  American 
surgeons.  The  Carrel  method,  at  lirst  condemned  as  a  tedious  and  impracticable 
measure  in  front  line  work,  was  not  only  shown  to  be  a  life-saving  but  a  time- 
saving  measure,  ('aptain  Theodore  C.  Beebe,  in  charge  of  the  laboratory,  and 
Captain  Lockwood,  Director  of  the  X-ray  department,  were  responsible  for  the 
training  of  many  officers  in  these  specialties.  The  fact  that  almost  50  per  cent 
of  the  officers  of  Hospital  llnit  A  served  at  this  hospital  renders  proper  this  resume 
of  its  work. 

Of  the  remaining  ofiicers,  Farr  was  attached  to  the  Chemical  Warfare  Service, 
Fife  was  at  the  Attending  Surgeon's  office  in  Paris,  later  attached  to  Evacuation 
Hospital  No.  4  and  finally  Chief  of  the  Medical  Service  at  Base  Hospital  No.  31 
at  Nantes.  Moulton  was  at  the  aviation  center  at  Isidun,  Forman  and  Tweddell 
were  at  Tours,  and  Powell  was  with  the  10th  (By.)  Engineers.  Mitchell  was 
Medical  Chief  at  the  B(>d  Cross  Hospital  at  Neufchateau,  and  later  with  the  19th 
Machine  (!un  BattaUon  (Rainbow  Division),  during  the  St.  Mihiel  and  Meuse- 
Argonne  offensives,  and  with  the  Army  of  Occupation.  Nearly  all  received  promotion. 
The  head  nurse.  Miss  Liddle,  was  Chief  Nurse  at  Base  Hospital  No.  202  at 
Orleans  in  the  latter  part  of  1918  and  several  of  the  unit  nurses  joined  her  there.  Up 
to  that  time,  in  common  with  the  other  nurses  except  those  on  duty  at  Evacuation 
Hospital  No.  1,  she  had  enjoyed  an  active  and  useful  service  in  the  Red  Cross 
hospitals  in  Paris.  One  of  our  nurses,  Miss  Jeanette  Watkins,  was  decorated  with 
the  Medaille  d'  Honneur  by  the  French  for  notable  services  during  the  influenza 
epidemic. 

The  unit  lost  one  member  by  death,  Corporal  Horace  E.  Teter,  who  died  at 
Base  Hospital  No.  18,  in  March,  1918,  of  pneumonia.  He  was  a  fine  soldier, 
extremely  efficient,  and  popular  with  the  entire  unit. 

In  conclusion  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  point  out  that  a  unit  of  this  size  could 
be  organized  in  peace  times  along  the  lines  which  have  been  found  so  adaptable 
for  mobile  warfare,  namely  as  a  mobile  hospital.  The  rapid  rise  in  favor  of  this 
type  of  hospital,  the  smaller  number  of  officers,  the  limited  equipment  as  compared 
with  a  base  hospital,  and  the  ability  to  utilize  it  either  in  civil  or  military  emergencies 
suggests  it  as  a  good  type  upon  which  to  model  a  certain  number  of  emergency 
organizations.  The  average  hospital  could  build  up  from  its  staff  a  skeleton 
organization  along  the  lines  of  a  mobile  hospital,  staffed  by  young  but  experienced 
surgeons,  capable  of  sustaining  the  severe  strain  thrown  upon  them  during  periods 
of  active  fighting,  or  the  occasional  emergencies  or  great  disaster  in  times  of  peace, 
and  due  to  natural  causes.  In  fact,  the  second  mobile  hospital  in  the  American 
Army,  Mobile  Hospital  No.  1  (Mobile  Hospital  No.  39  was  the  first),  was  staffed 
in  the  main  by  Hospital  Unit  A. 

RED  CROSS  GENERAL  HOSPITAL  No.  1 

Previous  to  the  entry  of  the  L^nited  States  into  the  war  a  portion  of  the 
Medico-Chirurgical  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  had  been  taken  over  by  the  City  and 
condemned  to  be  torn  down  to  make  room  for  the  Parkway,  the  remaining  portion 

229 


of  the  buildings  having  been  acquired  by  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  Upon 
the  declaration  of  war  it  was  deemed  inadvisable  to  curtail  any  hospital  accom- 
modation then  in  existence,  and  the  City  and  University  then  agreed  to  allow  the 
buildings  to  remain  intact  until  the  termination  of  the  war,  or  as  long  as  they  might 
be  required  for  military  purposes. 

The  National  Red  Cross  therefore  agreed  to  take  over  the  entire  hospital 
and  maintain  it  for  the  Navy  under  the  designation  of  Red  Cross  General  Hospital 
No.  1.  It  was  turned  over  to  the  Navy  on  June  21,  1917.  Captain  Frank  Ander- 
son, M.  C,  V.  S.  N.,  was  placed  in  command  and  shortly  afterwards  Lieutenant 
Thomas  M.  Kelly,  M.  C,  U.  S.  N.  R.,  was  ordered  as  his  assistant.  It  was  the 
intention  of  the  Navy  Department  to  use  what  accommodation  might  be  required 
by  the  Navy  and  gradually  eliminate  the  civil  patients  to  make  room  for  those  of 
the  Navy. 

No  change  was  made  in  the  organization  or  general  administration  of  the 
hospital.  The  professional  and  nursing  staffs  continued  in  their  duties  as  before 
the  transfer,  and  likewise  the  same  civil  employees  were  retained. 

During  its  occupancy  by  the  Navy  the  two  commissioned  naval  medical 
officers  above  mentioned,  together  with  a  pharmacist,  were  attached  to  the  hospital 
for  purposes  of  naval  administration,  and  in  all  about  seventy  naval  hospital  corps 
recruits  were  sent  there  from  time  to  time  for  training  and  instruction.  Fourteen 
graduate  trained  nurses,  assisted  by  about  thirty  undergraduates  of  the  Medico- 
Chirurgical  training  school  for  nurses,  performed  all  the  nursing  duties  of  the 
hospital  for  both  civil  and  Navy  patients. 

David  Milne,  who  had  for  some  years  been  treasurer  of  the  Medico- 
Cliirurgical  Hospital,  consented  to  continue  in  the  same  office  when  it  became  a 
Red  Cross  hospital  and  was  appointed  by  the  National  Red  Cross  as  its  financial 
representative  for  the  institution. 

During  the  ten  months  of  its  existence  as  a  Red  Cross  hospital,  about  450  naval 
patients  were  under  treatment,  the  average  at  any  one  time  being  about  fifty. 
The  great  majority  of  these  patients  were  such  cases  as  occur  in  the  ordinary 
service  of  peace  times;  only  a  few  had  seen  service  on  the  other  side  in  the  war 
area.  As  the  full  capacity  of  the  hospital  was  not  required  by  the  Navy,  it  was 
possible  to  continue  the  admission  of  civil  patients.  Emergency  and  accident 
cases  especially  were  accepted  and  in  this  way  valuable  service  was  rendered  to 
the  civil  population  of  the  neighborhood  as  well  as  to  the  Navy. 

With  the  increasing  accommodation  afl'orded  by  the  regular  naval  hospitals 
of  the  Philadelphia  Station,  the  necessity  for  maintaining  this  Red  Cross  hospital 
no  longer  existed,  and,  therefore,  on  IVlay  1,  1918,  all  naval  patients  were  with- 
di'awn  and  its  use  by  the  Navy  was  discontinued. 

The  most  willing  and  conscientious  professional  attention  was  at  aU  times 
rendered  to  the  patients  by  the  medical  and  surgical  staff  of  the  hospital,  and  it 
was  to  their  regret  that  a  greater  demand  could  not  have  been  made  upon  their 
time  and  services. 

Apart  from  the  strictly  professional  work  much  was  done  for  the  comfort  and 
entertainment  of  the  men  by  the  social  service  committee  of  the  hospital.  Extra 
clothing  was  fiberally  provided,  a  recreation  room  was  fitted  up  for  use  by  convales- 
cents, a  piano  and  phonograph  contributed,  and  diversion  furnished  by  theatre 
parties  and  automobile  tours. 

230 


PHILADELPHIA  ARSENALS 


]HE  two  arsenals  in  the  city,  the  Frankford  Arsenal  and  the 
Schuyklill  Arsenal,  were  old  established  government  works 
when  the  World  War  broke  out. 

With  very  little  delay  the  personnel  was  increased, 
new  buildings  erected  and — new  problems  solved. 

Some  interesting  developments  occurred.  For  ex- 
ample, before  the  War  the  opticed  departments  of  the 
Frankford  Arsenal  purchased  its  finest  glass  from  Ger- 
many. Wlien  the  supply  there  was  cut  off,  the  necessary 
material  was  secured  from  France.  FinaUy,  when  the 
marine  warfare  made  it  difficult  to  get  the  glass  with  any  degree  of  satisfaction, 
it  was  found  that  it  was  quite  possible  to  get  an  equally  high  grade  glass  at 
Pittsburgh,  Penn. 

THE  FRANKFORD  ARSENAL 
Ry  L.  W.  Roddy 

The  Frankford  Arsenal  Reservation,  located  in  the  northeastern  section  of 
Philadelphia,  comprises  an  area  of  91.5  acres,  and  is  a  portion  of  a  tract  of  land 
which  was  transferred  by  patent  from  John,  Thomas  and  Richard  Penn, 
proprietaries,  to  Andrew  Hamilton  on  May  19,  1742. 

The  territory  on  which  the  arsenal  reservation  is  now  situated  was  sold  and 
resold  at  various  dates  until  the  United  States  Government  made  an  original  pur- 
chase of  some  twenty  acres  thirty-four  perches  in  1816.  A  final  purchase  of  twenty- 
three  and  a  fraction  acres  was  made  in  March,  1917. 

That  portion  of  the  present  arsenal  reservation  which  was  first  acquired  by 
the  United  States  Government  as  above  described  is  located  on  the  Rridge  Street 
side  of  the  grounds  and  extends  from  the  Frankford  Creek  along  Rridge  Street  to 
Tacony  Street. 

Arrowheads  and  other  Indian  relics  have  been  found  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Frankford  Creek,  showing  that  Indians  had  a  camp  there.  They 
lived  there  as  late  as  1755  and  inspired  such  names  as  Tacony,  Wissinoming, 
Tacawana,  Wingohocking,  etc. 

The  Frankford  Arsenal  was  established  under  the  general  authority  providing 
depots  to  be  estabUshed  in  various  parts  of  the  country  as  contained  in  Section  9 
of  the  Act  of  Congress  February  8,  1815,  viz.:  "That  to  insure  system  and  uni- 
formity in  the  different  public  armories,  they  are  hereby  placed  under  the  direction 
of  the  Ordnance  Department;  and  the  colonel  of  the  Ordnance  Department,  under 
the  direction  of  the  secretary  for  the  Department  of  War,  is  hereby  authorized  to 
establish  depots  of  arms,  ammunition,  and  ordnance  stores  in  such  parts  of  the 
United  States  and  in  such  number  as  may  be  deemed  necessary." 

The  first  commanding  officer  of  the  arsenal  was  Captain  Joseph  H.  Rees, 
Ordnance  Department,  who  took  command  in  1816.  Since  that  time  it  has  been 
under  command  of  officers  of  the  Ordnance  Department. 

231 


An  interesting  event  associated  with  its  early  history  was  a  visit  by  General 
Lafayette,  described  as  follows: 

"On  the  26th  of  September,  1824,  the  1st  City  Troop  left  the  town  (Philadel- 
phia) and  at  Holmesburg  it  was  joined  by  the  2d  City  Troop  and  the  1st  and  3d 
County  Troops;  the  whole  squadron  being  under  command  of  Captain  J.  R.  C. 
Smith,  of  the  1st  City  Troop. 

"The  next  day  at  Morrisville,  where  the  governor  had  delivered  an  eloquent 
address  of  welcome  to  Lafayette,  they  were  joined  by  the  2d  County  Troop  and 
the  Bucks  County  Troop.  They  met  and  escorted  General  Lafayette  and  Governor 
Schultze  to  Frankford,  where  they  slept  for  the  night  at  the  United  States  Arsenal. 
The  people  of  Frankford  were  very  much  disappointed  at  the  escort  arriving  when 
it  was  yet  too  light  for  illumination  and  still  too  dark  to  give  a  favorable  view  of 
the  procession. 

"Lafayette  visited  the  village  the  next  morning  and  was  received  by  Isaac 
Worrel,  town  clerk,  who  made  a  speech  of  welcome  in  behalf  of  the  borough 
authorities." 

When  the  arsenal  was  first  established  it  was  in  the  town  of  Whitehall,  which 
was  subsequently  merged  into  the  borough  of  Frankford  and  in  1850  the  whole 
incorporated  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 

From  1816  to  the  war  with  Mexico,  the  work  that  was  done  at  this  arsenal 
consisted  chiefly  in  the  repair  of  artillery  and  infantry  equipments,  and  the  manu- 
facture of  various  component  parts  of  ammunition  and  ordnance  articles. 

Dming  this  period  the  arsenal  was  also  used  as  a  place  of  receipt,  storage  and 
distribution. 

The  work  at  the  arsenal  seems  to  have  gone  smoothly  along  during  the  first 
tliirty  years  of  its  existence,  except  for  a  short  time  in  May,  1844,  when  it  was 
suspended  on  account  of  a  riot  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 

Dming  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  the  operations  assumed  formidable  pro- 
portions,   the  plant  and  working  force  being  correspondingly  increased. 

From  1866  to  the  Spanish- American  War  the  work  was  confined  to  the  manu- 
facture of  the  service  ammunition. 

By  1894  the  importance  of  the  arsenal  as  a  place  of  storage  was  greatly 
reduced,  there  being  only  a  few  articles  stored  here,  such  as  rifles,  carbines,  fight 
cavalry  sabers,  non-commissioned  officers'  swords,  horse  artillery  swords,  field 
guns  and  caissons^  gatfing  guns,  nitre,  etc.  The  capacity  of  the  smaU  arms  ammuni- 
tion plant  at  that  time  was  about  75,000  rounds  per  day. 

The  output  of  aU  the  Frankford  Arsenal  departments  was  greatly  increased 
during  the  Spanish-American  War,  aU  working  at  least  two  shifts. 

The  history  of  the  arsenal  from  about  1894  to  1912  may  be  briefly  divided 
into  three  classes  of  work,  namely,  the  manufacture  of  small  arms  ammunition, 
artillery  ammunition,  and  instruments  for  fire  control. 

Small  Arms  Ammunition  Department 

Prior  to  the  entrance  of  the  United  States  into  the  war,  the  only  government 
operated  plant  in  the  United  States  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  small  arms 
ammunition  was  located  at  Frankford  Arsenal.  For  several  years  the  manufactur- 
ers of  sporting  ammunition  were  given  contracts  each  year  by  the  government  for 
a  small  amount  of  .30  caliber  baU  cartridges,  so  that  they  might  be  trained  in  the 

232 


International. 


Slioii  ill  irliich  Shi'lh  were  mwle. 


manufacture  of  military  ammunition.  The  placing  and  inspection  of  these 
contracts  was  under  the  supervision  of  the  commanding  officer,  Frankford 
Arsenal. 

After  the  European  War  broke  out,  the  capacity  of  private  manufacturers 
for  production  of  military  ammunition  was  greatly  increased,  due  to  the  fact  that 
large  orders  were  received  from  the  Allies.  As  these  contracts  were  practically 
completed  when  the  United  States  entered  the  war,  it  was  made  possible  for  these 
companies  to  contract  with  our  own  government  for  large  quantities  of  military 
ammunition.  The  fust  contracts  were  let  by  the  Frankford  Arsenal,  and  this 
arsenal  was  responsible  for  the  organization  of  the  inspection  personnel,  and  equip- 
ment at  their  plants. 

Major  John  E.  Munroe  was  appointed  inspector  of  small  arms  ammunition. 
Major  Munroe  at  that  time  was  also  the  officer  in  charge  of  the  Small  Arms  Ammu- 
nition Department  at  this  arsenal.  As  it  was  inadvisable  to  cripple  the  private 
manufacturers  by  commissioning  officers  from  their  personnel,  commissions  were 
given  to  technically  trained  men,  and  over  fifty  reserve  officers  and  a  large  number 
of  civilians  were  instructed,  in  the  Small  Arms  Ammunition  Department  at  this 
arsenal,  in  the  manufacture  and  inspection  of  military  ammunition.  The  product 
of  the  Frankford  Arsenal  was  also  used  as  standard,  and  blueprints,  specifications, 
gauges,  samples  and  information  were  furnished  to  private  companies,  without 
which  it  would  have  been  practicaUy  impossible  for  them  to  obtain  an  early  pro- 
duction of  large  quantities  of  the  desired  ammunition.  The  instructions  included 
the  study  of  operations  on  .30  and  .45  caliber  cartridges,  ballistic  tests  and  proof 
house  equipment,  nomenclature,  operations,  repair  and  care  of  rifles,  pistols, 
revolvers  and  machine  guns,  and  army  correspondence,  personnel  and  property. 

233 


About  the  middle  of  October,  1917,  the  office  of  the  inspector  of  small  arms  ammuni- 
tion was  moved  to  Washington,  and  Major  Munroe  was  transferred  to  Washington 
as  chief  inspector.  The  inspection  of  small  arms  ammunition  at  this  arsenal  was 
then  placed  under  the  supervision  of  Captain  H.  S.  Mcllvain,  who  had  charge  of 
inspection  until  the  1st  of  June,  when  Captain  Albrecht,  Army  Inspector  of 
Ordnance,  representing  the  Inspection  Division,  was  stationed  at  Frankford  Arsenal, 
with  Captain  Wilkins  as  his  assistant.  They  had  charge  of  the  production  and 
inspection  of  small  arms  ammunition  until  November  1,  1918,  when  it  was  found 
advisable  to  return  the  production  and  inspection  to  the  officer  in  charge  of  the 
Small  Arms  Ammunition  Department,  Major  Wm.  B.  Doe.  There  were  frequent 
revisions  of  specifications  for  the  manufacture  of  such  ammunition  during  the  war, 
either  to  insure  better  quahty  or  to  increase  production. 

Exhaustive  tests  were  conducted  at  the  Springfi(>ld  Armory  of  ammunition 
manufactured  by  the  Frankford  Arsenal,  National  Brass  &  Copper  Tube  Co.,  U.  S. 
Cartridge  Co.,  Winchester  Bepeating  Arms  Co.,  Western  Cartridge  Co.,  Bemington 
Arms  U.M.C.  Co.,  and  Peters  Cartridge  Co.  The  result  of  these  tests  proved  that 
Frankford  Arsenal  ammunition  was  superior  to  all  other  ammunition.  It  was  there- 
fore decided  by  the  Ordnance  Department  that  Frankford  Arsenal  should  manufac- 
ture the  special  aircraft  ammunition  (the  .30  caliber  aircraft  service,  tracer, 
incendiary  and  armor  piercing)  required  for  machine  guns  for  army  and  navy 
airplanes.  It  was  vital  that  this  anmnuiition  should  be  more  perfect,  if  possible, 
than  any  ammunition  heretofore  manufactured,  as  failures  of  the  cartridges  might 
cause  the  loss  of  the  aviator's  life  or  an  airplane,  and  give  military  advantage  to  the 
enemy.  During  the  year  1918  the  quahty  of  the  ammunition  manufactured  by  the 
Small  Arms  Ammunition  Department  at  this  arsenal  was  unsurpassed  by  any  other 


finishing  Shells. 
234 


inanul'acluier,  and  lepurls  bruuglit  back  fiuiii  France  bear  Uiis  out.  Andrew 
Hallowell,  of  the  Small  Arms  Department,  spent  several  months  in  France  and 
England  visiting  various  testing  stations,  airdromes  and  factories,  and  he  frequently 
asked  aviators  and  other  users  of  ammunition  what  ammunition  they  preferred, 
and  the  reply  was,  "Frankford  Arsenal." 

There  follows  a  tabulation  showing  production  of  small  arms  ammunition 
throughout  the  United  States  during  the  war,  these  records  being  taken  from  the 
reports  of  the  Inspection  Division,  Ordnance  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Total  Accepted 

Up  to  Up  to 

Jan.  1,  1918  Nov.  11,  1918 

All  types  small  arms 351,117,928  3,349,930,200 

.30  caliber  ball  cartridges  (all  classes) 251,405,600  2,492,902,900 

.45  caliber  pistol  ball 36,010,784  308,426,200 

Aircraft  .30  caliber  service 29,725,800 

.30  caUber  tracer 25,249,500 

.30  cahber  incendiary 13,759,500 

.30  cahber  armor  piercing 4,370,400 

.30  cahber  ball  cartridges  (all  classes) 15,543,800  44,987,400 

.45  caUber  pistol  ball 3,600,000  26,400,000 

The  following  figures  give  the  production  of  small  arms  ammunition  at  Frank- 
ford  Arsenal  during  the  war: 

Total  Accepted  from  4-1-17 

Up  to  Up  to 

Jan.  1,  1918         Dec.  1,  1918 

.30  cahber  ball  cartridges  (all  classes) 90,174,820  173,637,908 

.45  cahber  pistol  ball 5,618,230  13,392,670 

Aircraft  .30  cahber 

Tracer 9,500  22,971,860 

Incendiary 15,943,829 

Armor  piercing 365,860  5,707,501 

Total 96,168,410  231,753,768 

The  total  production  of  the  Small  Arms  Ammunition  Department  from  Jan- 
uary, 1917,  to  November,  1918,  inclusive,  was  231,753,768  cartridges  of  all  types. 
In  addition  to  this  amount,  the  Small  Arms  Ammunition  Department  produced 
a  large  number  of  miscellaneous  items  and  components,  such  as  20-grain  and 
110-grain  primers,  primer  bodies,  powder  bags,  .30  and  .45  caliber  primers,  .30 
cahber  cartridge  clips,  bandoleers,  gas  checks,  pressure  cylinders,  tracer  gilding 
metal  cups,  serrated  and  base  slugs  for  incendiary  cartridges,  and  so  forth. 

The  production  during  the  Spanish  War  was  37,000,000  cartridges,  and  it 
will  therefore  be  noted  that  during  the  World  War  the  production  of  the  Small  Arms 
Department  was  approximately  six  times  as  great.  The  maximum  production  was 
obtained  the  last  few  months  of  the  war,  and  the  highest  total  production  for  two 
consecutive  months  was  for  August  and  September  of  1918,  with  an  average  per 
month  of  13,223,450  cartridges.    It  is  thought  that  this  rate  of  production  would 

235 


International. 

Girl  niunilion  worhrt:  u/  Frankjord  Arsenal. 


have  been  increased  in  October  and 
November,  except  for  the  severe  in- 
fluenza epidemic  which  was  prevalent 
in  I'hiladelpliia  during  October  and 
production  was  consequently  reduced 
1.000.000  rounds.  The  average  month- 
ly production  for  1918  was  12,325,000 
rounds,  as  compared  with  the  average 
monthly  production  of  10,685,000 
rounds  in  1917,  for  the  nine  months 
after  this  country  declared  war.  In 
March  and  April,  1918,  production 
fell  off  due  to  the  change  from  the 
manufacture  of  special  aircraft  ammu- 
nition (tracer,  incendiary  and  armor 
])iercing),  which  change  necessitated 
new  and  additional  operations;  the 
training  of  new  employees;  and  the 
development  of  these  types  of  ammu- 
nition on  a  manufacturing  basis. 

Three  new  frame  buildings  and  some 
additional  equipment  were  available  for 
the  loading  of  the  special  bullets  with  the  tracer  mixture,  phosphorus  and  other 
components  required  for  aircraft  ammunition,  but  no  new  equipment  and  buildings 
were  available  for  the  manufacture  of  the  cartridge  case,  which  was  the  same  as 
the  cartridge  case  used  in  the  regular'  service  ammunition,  with  the  exception  that 
tlie  primer  had  to  be  crimped  into  the  case.  As  no  machinery  was  available  for  this 
crimping  operation,  it  was  necessary  to  take  hall  of  the  venting  and  sizing  machines 
and  tool  them,  thereby  handicapping  the  production  of  cases  for  several  months 
until  crimping  machines  were  received. 

The  manufacture  of  tracer  bullets  on  a  production  basis  was  started  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1918,  in  two  of  the  frame  buildings  and  a  third  building  was  available  for 
the  manufacture  of  incendiary  bullets  in  June,  1918. 

During  the  entire  period  of  the  war  there  were  many  difficulties  and  obstacles 
encountered  in  increasing  production,  such  as  scarcity  of  labor,  both  skilled  and  un- 
skilled, delay  in  obtaining  necessary  macliinery,  tools,  equipment  and  buildings, 
frequent  orders  from  Washington  which  changed  the  types  of  ammunition  to  be 
given  preference  in  manufacturing,  and  the  change  to  the  special  aircraft 
ammunition. 

The  Ordnance  Department  placed  several  contracts  with  outside  manufac- 
turers for  the  production  of  special  aircraft  ammunition,  but  as  these  manufacturers 
were  unable  to  satisfactorily  furnish  the  quality  and  quantity  of  ammunition  re- 
quired, it  was  necessary  to  rely  almost  entirely  upon  this  arsenal  to  produce  this 
very  important  ammunition.  In  spite  of  the  above  mentioned  difficulties,  the 
SmaU  Arms  Department  produced  not  only  the  amount  which  it  had  originally 
promised,  but  also  the  additional  amount  required  due  to  the  failure  of  outside 
sources. 

The  Small  Arms  Department  started  a  second  or  night  shift  on  December  4, 

236 


International. 

Gauging  'i-lnch  cases  before  packing. 


1917,  and  on  March  26,  1917,  both 
shifts  were  changed  from  an  eight 
hour  to  a  ten  hour  basis.  For  several 
months  the  second  or  night  shift 
worked  four  hours  on  Saturday  after- 
noon, but  on  February  9,  1918,  the 
Saturday  afternoon  work  was  discon- 
tinued. 

The  total  number  of  employees 
in  the  Small  Arms  Department  at  the 
start  of  the  war  in  April,  1917,  was 
1,101,  and  in  November,  1918,  when 
the  armistice  was  signed,  there  were 
2,654  employees.  When  it  is  taken 
into  consideration  that  the  manufac- 
ture of  military  ammunition  requires 
trained  employees,  the  magnitude  of 
the  task  of  training  the  new  employees 
is  appreciated.  That  it  was  possible  to 
train  these  new  employees  quickly 
and  correctly  was  due  to  the  loyalty 
and  interest  of  the  old  employees  in 
the  Small  Arms  Department.  During 
the  war  the  morale  of  the  employees  was  of  the  highest  order;  they  always  had 
for  their  motto:  "More  and  better  ammunition." 

As  the  war  progressed,  operations  which  had  previously  been  performed  by 
men  were  performed  by  female  operators,  thereby  releasing  all  available  men  for 
the  Army.  It  was  the  policy  of  the  Small  Arms  Department  to  ask  exemption 
only  for  those  male  employees  who,  because  of  the  nature  of  their  work,  could  not 
be  spared. 

Edward  L.  Uhl  was  the  civilian  head  of  the  Small  Arms  Department  from 
March  26,  1917,  to  October  15,  1917,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  H.  B.  Yande- 
grift  of  the  Small  Arms  Department. 

A.  H.  HalloweU  was  the  civilian  head  of  the  night  shift  for  several  months. 
He  was  transferred  to  the  day  shift  as  assistant  to  Mr.  Vandegrift  and  was  sent 
to  France  in  August  for  three  months  as  the  arsenal  representative  of  the  manu- 
facturers' association.  Mr.  HalloweU  visited  various  arsenals  and  ammunition 
factories  in  France  and  England,  and  also  visited  testing  stations  and  airdromes. 

W.  Rowley  succeeded  Mr.  HalloweU  as  civilian  head  of  the  night  shift. 

The  following  foremen  were  in  charge  of  the  small  arms  shops  during  the  war : 

Day  Shift  Night  Shift 

G.  P.  Kappler Box,  gauging  and  packing C.  H.  Gibbs 

J.  Matthews Loading — bullet  assemble J.  Costello 

M.  F.  Cleary Case  shop J.  Wilhelm 

Thomas  Hess Draw  press  shop Harry  Penn 

Wm.  Ashworth Blanking  and  cupping  shop Harry  Penn 

W.  C.  Smith Tool  and  machine C.  Robinson 


237 


Chas.  McCann Sorting  shop 

J.  G.  Schneering Proof  house C.  F.  Hogue 

H.  F.  Schwind Tracer  shop S.  Cariiss 

C.  Partridge Incendiary  shop R.  S.  Wolford 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Lionel  D.  Van  Aken  (then  major)  succeeded  Colonel 
Munroe  in  October,  1917,  and  was  in  charge  of  the  Small  Arms  Department  until 
April,  1918,  at  which  time  Colonel  Van  Aken  was  transferred  to  the  production 
division  for  duty. 

Major  W.  B.  Doe  (then  captain)  succeeded  Colonel  Van  Aken  in  April,  1918. 

The  following  officers  were  assigned  to  duty  in  the  Small  Arms  Department: 
Capt.  R.  Fenton  Fisher,  Capt.  Thomas  L.  Page,  Capt.  Julius  M.  Lonn,  Capt. 
Seymour  P.  Houghton,  Capt.  Dwight  F.  Morss,  Capt.  Harold  S.  Wilkins,  1st 
Lieut.  E.  P.  Harris,  1st  Lieut.  Nicholas  V.  S.  IMumford.  2d  Lieut.  Lee  H.  Williams. 

The  following  officers  were  assigned  to  duty  in  the  Small  Arms  Department 
for  a  few  months:  Major  Julian  S.  Gravely,  Major  S.  A.  Sten  Hammar,  Capt. 
H.  S.  Mcllvain,  Capt.  John  H.  Buckley,  Capt.  Joseph  F.  Sees,  Capt.  H.  B.  Allen, 
1st  Lieut.  Alvin  R.  Whitlock. 

Artillery  Ammu.mtion  Department 

The  entrance  of  the  United  States  into  the  European  War  in  April,  1917, 
found  the  organization  in  the  Artillery  Ammunition  Department  greatly  depleted 
of  experienced  shop  superintendents  and  foremen,  as  the  flood  of  ordnance  work 
which  came  to  this  country  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  in  191 1  caused  commercial 
manufacturers  throughout  the  country,  who  undertook  this  work  without  any 
previous  experience,  to  search  for  men  acquainted  with  this  type  of  work.  These 
commercial  establishments  paid,  in  many  instances,  more  money  than  such  em- 
ployees were  receiving  at  this  arsenal.  The  result  was  that  the  Artillery  Ammuni- 
tion Department  lost  practically  all  of  its  experienced  men,  especially  those  en- 
gaged here  for  any  length  of  time  in  an  executive  capacity.  Immediately  after 
war  was  declared  steps  were  taken  to  have  a  suitable  tool  and  gauge  design  depart- 
ment estabhshed  at  this  arsenal. 

In  the  late  spring  of  1918  the  new  addition  to  the  fuze  shop  was  completed, 
and  many  machines  from  the  old  fuze  shop  were  moved  and  relocated  in  the  new 
fuze  shop,  the  old  fuze  shop  having  been  too  crowded  with  machines  for  satisfac- 
tory operation.  Production  of  combination  time  fuzes  for  the  months  of  April, 
May,  June,  July,  August  and  September  of  1917  amounted  to  84,000  fuzes.  On  or 
about  September  8,  1917,  there  was  a  serious  explosion  of  the  dryhouses  and 
powder  blending  houses,  together  with  a  large  quantity  of  primers  and  various 
other  components  necessary  for  the  manufacture  of  fuzes  and  complete  rounds 
of  artillery  ammunition,  and  this  seriously  affected  the  production  of  fuzes  during 
the  months  of  October  and  November  and  December  of  1917  and  January  of  1918, 
when  production  was  cut  down  to  26,000  combination  time  fuzes  for  the  four 
months.  However,  during  that  period  arrangements  were  made  with  the  DuPont 
Company  to  load  and  dry  primers  and  detonators,  and  with  the  Artillery  Fuze 
Company  to  load  time  train  rings.  This  permitted  the  resumption  of  the  assembly 
of  fuzes  in  February,  1918.  Production  from  then  on  to  the  first  of  November, 
1918,  was  155,000.     In  October  of  1918,  the  last  month  of  the  war,  production 

238 


International. 


Working  on  (he  larger  guns. 


reached  a  total  of  35,000  for  the  month.  During  this  period,  in  conjunction  with 
the  manufacture  of  combination  time  fuzes,  there  was  also  carried  on  the  manu- 
facture of  base  detonating  fuzes  and  miscellaneous  primers. 

In  connection  with  the  Artillery  Department  short  sketches  might  be  given 
of  the  shrapnel  shop,  case  shop,  forge  shop,  primer  shop,  assembling  shop,  and  so 
forth,  the  same  as  has  been  given  relative  to  the  fuze  shop,  but  owing  to  the  desire 
to  condense  this  article  as  much  as  possible  this  will  be  omitted. 

It  is  thought  it  may  be  interesting,  however,  to  the  reader  to  know  that  loaded 
artillery  ammunition  was  produced  at  this  arsenal  at  the  rate  of  100,000  rounds 
per  month  at  one  time  during  the  war. 

The  Artillery  Department  was  very  ably  handled  by  Major  Joseph  H.  Pelot, 
the  officer  in  charge. 

Instrument  Department 

The  Instrument  Department  was  from  the  beginning  of  the  war  until  May 
1.3,  1918,  under  the  supervision  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Harry  K.  Rutherford.  On 
that  date  he  was  reheved  from  duty  in  the  Instrument  Department  and  assigned 
as  officer  in  charge  of  production  and  the  management  of  the  Instrument  Depart- 
ment was  placed  under  the  control  of  Captain  W.  C.  Hamilton. 

The  articles  manufactured  by  the  Instrument  Department,  Frankford  Arsencd, 
are  panoramic  sights,  quadrants,  telescopic  sights,  drill  cartridges,  plotting  boards, 
range  finders,  gun  sights,  fuze  setters,  telescopes,  tools,  fixtures,  etc.  Repairs  to 
vEirious  instruments  sent  in  from  the  service  are  also  made. 

239 


Stock  Department 

At  the  beginning  of  the  war  Major  Bricker  was  in  charge  of  the  Stock  Depart- 
ment, and  his  force  was  increased  somewhat  to  take  care  of  the  increased  amount 
of  material  delivered.  Jimes  Gill  was  in  charge  of  the  Receiving  and  Stock- 
keeping  departments,  and  Peter  Sullivan  was  the  Chief  Stock  Clerk. 

Major  Bricker  was  relieved  in  June  and  Major  G.  B.  McClellan,  formerly 
Mayor  of  New  York  City,  took  charge.  Major  McClellan  was  soon  relieved  by 
Captain  W.  W.  Newcomb,  who  took  up  his  duties  in  the  Stock  Department  in 
July.  In  February  Captain  Newcomb  was  relieved  and  Captain  J.  A.  Stone  as- 
signed to  take  charge  of  this  department. 

Administrative  Department 

The  Administrative  Department  of  the  arsenal  during  the  period  of  the  war 
may  be  briefly  described  as  follows: 

Colonel  George  Montgomery  was  Commanding  Officer  of  the  arsenal  until 
March  of  1918,  when  he  was  relieved,  and  Colonel  Samuel  Hof  was  detailed  as 
Connnanding  Officer.  Major  Bricker  (now  colonel)  was  the  officer  in  charge  of 
Administration  Division  at  the  begining  of  hostilities.  He  was  superseded  by 
Major  G.  B.  McClellan,  who  served  in  that  capacity  but  a  short  time,  when  he 
was  superseded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  P.  J.  O'Shaughnessy.  L.  W.  Boody 
served  as  Chief  Clerk  of  the  arsenal  throughout  the  period  of  the  war. 

At  the  beginning  of  hostilities  a  certain  number  of  reserve  officers,  upon  their 
appointment  in  the  Ordnance  Department,  were  sent  to  the  Frankford  Arsenal 
for  instruction  in  War  Department  and  Ordnance  Department  regulations,  admin- 
istrative methods,  property  accountabihty,  etc.  Lewis  W.  Boody,  Chief  Clerk  of 
the  arsenal,  was  first  assigned  as  instructor  and  performed  such  duty  for  some 
time,  or  until  the  appointment  of  Captain  (now  Lieutenant  Colonel)  W.  F. 
Bowley. 

The  disbursing  office  of  the  arsenal  during  the  months  from  April,  1917,  to 
November,  1918,  inclusive,  expended — for  material  and  labor — $10,463,463.61. 

In  regard  to  the  personnel  of  the  arsenal,  from  a  general  point  of  view,  it  is 
thought  that  the  most  interesting  development  is  the  extent  to  which  women  were 
utilized  to  fill  positions  formerly  occupied  by  men.  On  March  1,  1917,  just  before 
the  expansion  which  occurred,  and  when  it  was  clear  that  war  was  imminent, 
there  were  employed  at  Frankford  Arsenal  3,238  employees — 2,372  men  and  866 
women ;  the  men  constituted  73  per  cent  of  the  total  and  the  women  27  per  cent. 
On  November  1,  1918,  when  the  activities  of  the  arsenal  were  almost  at  the  highest 
point,  there  were  6,174  employees,  not  including  the  100  inspectors  then  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Philadelphia  District  Ordnance  Office.  Of  these  6,174  there 
were  3,784  men  and  2,390  women;  the  men  at  this  time  constituting  only  61  per 
cent  of  the  total  and  the  women  39  per  cent.  « 

The  labor  situation  at  this  arsenal  was  not  as  bad  as  at  other  places,  due  to 
the  large  number  of  old  and  steady  employees  who  acted  as  an  example  to  the 
newer  ones,  and  there  was  a  very  small  turn-over,  so  far  as  labor  was  concerned. 
For  the  last  six  months  of  the  war  the  turn-over  was  not  more  than  8  per  cent 
per  month. 

240 


WORK  AT  SCHUYLKILL  ARSENAL. 
By  Clarence  M.  Rusk 

Exeniit.ive  Assistant,  Q.  M.  C. 

By  Act  of  Congress  April  2,  1794,  it  was  directed  that  "three  or  four  Arsenals 
with  magazines  shall  be  estabhshed  in  such  places  as  would  best  accommodate  the 
military  forces  of  the  United  States."  The  present  site  of  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal 
was  purchased  soon  thereafter,  and  the  foundation  stone  was  laid  in  the 
year  1800.  In  1802,  it  was  reported  to  Congress  that  the  cost  of  tlie  buildings 
at  "the  laboratory,"  or  barracks,  as 
the  buildings  were  called,  was  up  to 
that  time  (they  being  unfinished) 
1152,608.02.  The  buildings  were  fin- 
ished in  1806.  There  were  four  large 
storehouses  of  brick  set  at  some  dis- 
tances apart,  three  stories  high,  and 
forming  a  hollow  squai-e.  There  were 
also  on  the  premises  several  other 
buildings,  including  a  brick  house 
for  the  residence  of  the  Commanding 
Officer,  a  powder  magazine,  and  other 
smaller  constructions.  The  Grays 
Ferry  Road  buildings  were  in  use  for 
storage  as  early  as  1806. 

For  more  than  one  hundred  years 
this  estabUshment  has  been  used  as  a 
place  of  manufacture  for  supplies  for 
the  Army,  in  which  nearly  everything 
coimected  with  the  comfort  of  the 
soldier,  his  uniform,  bedding,  blankets, 
tentage,  were  prepared  and  stored. 
Coats,  trousers,  breeches,  overcoats,  stockings,  shoes,  gloves,  caps  and  hats,  etc., 
have  been  manufactured  here  in  immense  quantities  or  purchased  from  contrac- 
tors, cuid  inspected  and  stored  in  the  warehouses. 

A  writer  of  the  early  80's  says  of  the  Arsenal : 

"  For  many  years  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  was  a  great  workshop,  at  which'cloth 
and  other  material  for  clothing,  etc.,  were  cut  and  made  up  on  the  premises  or 
delivered  to  tailors  and  tailoresses  outside,  who  made  them  up  and  delivered  them. 
Frequently  from  700  to  1,200  women  were  employed  at  this  work,  and  from  100  to 
1.50  men.  During  the  Rebellion  the  disbursements  at  this  depot  were  from  $20,- 
000,000  to  $35,000,000  a  year.  The  amount  of  property  in  storage  is  frequently 
very  large  and  valuable.     The  area  of  the  ground  is  eight  acres." 

Thus,  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  continued  its  work  along  general  lines.  It  was 
used  as  a  supply  base  during  the  Spanish-American  War,  and  with  the  entrance 
of  America  into  the  World  War  was  developed  to  its  present  size. 

In  1917  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal,  located  at  2620  Grays  Ferry  Road,  comprised 
twenty-two  buildings,  with  a  gross  floor  capacity  of  1,265,175  square  feet. 

The  twenty-one  buildings  of  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  at  the  present  writing 

241 


iif   Frank    \V.    Buliler.    Stonlpy    Co- 

Main  Entrance. 


Courtesy  Day  &  Zimmermann,  Inc.,  Engineer.^ 

Airplane  Vie>i\  U.  S.  Army  Supply  Base.  Greenwich  Point. 

(1920)  are  occupied  by  the  Salvage  Division  of  the  Army,  the  Factory  Operating 
Division  and  the  Finance  and  Transportation  Services. 

The  expansion  of  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  activities  under  a  Depot  Quarter- 
master during  the  World  War  included  the  General  Quartermaster  Interior  Depot, 
21st  Street  and  Oregon  Avenue,  leased  from  the  Girard  Estate,  comprising  60.7 
acres.  The  work  there  started  in  February,  1918,  and  the  first  stores  were  moved 
in  about  May,  1918. 

When  completed  the  buildings  numbered  thirty-two..  The  five  main  ware- 
houses had  a  total  of  912,000  square  feet  of  storage  space. 

Under  the  supervision  of  the  zone  supply  ofiBcer,  the  following  warehouses, 
etc.,  were  included  in  this  zone: 

Pillsburgh  Storage  Warehouses,  40th  and  Butler  streets,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Ford  Building,  Broad  Street  and  Lehigh  Avenue,  on  lease  the  third,  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  seventh 
and  eighth  floors,  comprising  38,300  square  feet  per  floor.  Used  for  reserve  storage  supphes, 
equipment,    subsistence,    etc. 

Reed  Street  Factory,  26th  and  Reed  streets,  on  lease,  a  five-story  and  basement  fireproof 
building  was  entirely  used  for  manufacturing,  inspection,  baling,  offices,  etc. 

Commercial  Museum,  34th  and  Spruce  streets,  leased  at  SI  per  year,  one  story  high,  but 
equivalent  in  storage  space  to  a  three-story  building. 

Port  Storage.  Pier  No.  78,  south  wharves,  was  not  used  until  after  the  armistice.  Nearby 
were  four  warehouses  with  a  total  area  of  271,000  square  feet. 

Pier  38,  comprising  194,698  square  feet,  leased  during  the  war.  Pier  No.  57  was  also  used 
in  the  beginning  and  there  was  some  loading  at  Greenwich  Point. 

In  February,  1918,  Pittsburgh  was  made  an  independent  depot  and  in  June,  1918,  again 
transferred  to  the  jurisdiction  of  Philadelphia  General  Supply  Depot. 

242 


New  Construction 

At  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal,  the  following  improvements  to  meet  war-time 
work  were  made.  A  new  garage  was  built  at  a  cost  of  $13,182.  A  new 
elevator  was  installed  in  No.  3  Building  at  an  approximate  cost  of  .S7,800.  Two 
new  fast  freight  elevators  in  special  new  brick  towers  were  installed  at  a  cost  of 
$33,804,  one  in  each  end  of  Building  No.  10.  A  new  three-story  temporary  office 
building  was  erected  at  a  total  cost  of  approximately  $10,571. 

Previous  to  the  outbreak  of  the  World  War,  the  organization  of  the  Depot 
Quartermaster  at  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  was  as  follows: 

Adminislralive  Division — IVlail  and  Record  Branch;  Personnel  and  Miscellaneous  Brancli. 
Finance  and  Accounting  Division — Finance  Branch;  Accounting  Branch. 
Supplies  Division — Supplies  Branch;  Purchasing  Branch;  Transportation   Branch;   Manu- 
facturing Branch  (only  depot  to  have  this). 

At  the  beginning  of  the  war  the  Arsenal  was  in  charge  of  Colonel  M.  Gray 
ZaUnske,  who  was  succeeded  in  turn  by  Benedict  !\1.  Holden,  a  civilian,  in  April, 
1918,  Colonel  Edmond  R.  Tompkins.  Q.  M.  C,  in  November,  1918,  and  Colonel 
J.  M.  Houston.  Q.  M.  C,  in  July.  1919. 

The  organization  as  perfected  by  C.  M.  Rusk,  Executive  Assistant,  who  was  in 
charge  of  Administration  August  1,  1918,  was  as  follows  and  indicates  the 
stupendous  task  and  intricate  detail  of  quartermaster  operations: 

QUARTERMASTER   CORPS,   U.   S.   A. 
Philadelphia  Depot. 

Index 

Depot  Quarlerniaster — Executive  Secretary — Executive  Officer 

Division  Branch  Section 

Administrative Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Control 

Communications Post    Office,    Central    Filing,    Messenger 

Service. 

Publishing Printing,  Contract  Printing. 

Office  Service Stenographic 

Cemeterial 

Personnel Administrative Personnel,  Publications.  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Commissioned 

Enlisted 

Civilian 

Departmental 

Methods  Control Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Oixrating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Investigations 

Statistical 

Audits 

Procurements Administrative Personnel,  Publications,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Purchase Contractors'  Service,  Industrial  Informa- 
tion, Contract  Preparation,  Advertising. 

243 


Procurements Raw  Materials Production  Records,  Coal,  Cotton,  Min- 
erals and  Metals,  Leather  and  Rubber, 
Miscellaneous. 

Manufacturing  Materials ..  Contract  Analysis,    Production   Records, 

Raw  Material  Requirements,  Stock 
Maintenance  Distribution. 

Manufactured  Proflucts 

Inspection Inspection,  Laboratory. 

Stores Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Tiuie  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 
Order  Entering  and  Regis- 
tering Stock  Maintenance 

Order  Service Inventory,  Domestic,  Foreign. 

Warehouse Receiving,  Placement,  Packing,  Shipping. 

Labor  

Property Property    Accounts,    Audits,    Depot    In- 
voicing. 
Sales  and  Issues Office  Supply  and  Equipment. 

Conservation  and  Reclama- 
tion  Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Receiving  and  Sorting 

Salvage 

Clothing  Repair 

Hat  Repair 

Shoe  Repair • . 

Laundries  and  Dry  Clean- 
ing  

Tents,  Tentage,  Cots,  etc 

Warehouse 

Finance  and  Accounts  Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 
Apportionments  and  Money 

Accounts Apportionments,    and    Money    Accounts, 

Cost  Accounting. 

Cash Cash  and  Sales,  Payroll  Audit. 

Voucher Vendors'    Invoice,   Vouchers   Audit,   Ex- 
pense Account,   Miscellaneous  Service. 

Plant  Service Administrative Personnel,  PubUcation,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Building  Design 

Construction  and  Repair 

Permanent  Equipment 

Power,  Heat  and  Light 

Plant  Supplies 

Plant  Equipment 

Plant  Protection Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Service. 

Fire  Protection 

Depot  Watch 

Quartermaster  Detachment 

Safety  Engineering 

Plant  Inspection 

Medical Dispensary. 

Policing Janitors. 

244 


Transportation Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  OlTice  Service. 

Inbound  Freight Inward  B/L. 

<  )utbound  Freight Outward  B/L. 

Transportation  Order Depot  Service,   Contractors'  Service. 

Motor  Transport Motor  Service,  Procurement,  Maintenance. 

Depot  .ManufacturiuK Administrative Personnel,  Publication,  Time  and  Payroll, 

Operating  Cost,  Office  Services. 
Operating 

Correspondence    School,    Quartermaster    Officers'    Reserve    Corps 

The  Correspondence  School  for  Reserve  Officers  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps 
was  established  by  authority  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  began  operations 
at  Philadelphia  on  April  1,  1917.  This  division  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps 
School  was  organized  for  the  purpose  of  instructing  persons  holding  com- 
missions in  the  Quartermaster  section  of  the  Officers'  Reserve  Corps,  both  on  active 
and  inactive  list. 

Instruction  was  imparted  by  mail.  The  students  were  given  certain  assign- 
ments for  study  and  professional  reading.  Examinations  or  problems  on  the  sub- 
ject studied  were  then  sent  to  the  student  officers,  who  answered  the  questions  and 
returned  all  papers  to  the  School.  The  instructors  at  the  School  corrected  the 
student's  paper,  making  such  pertinent  remarks  thereon  as  called  for.  The  papers 
were  then  graded  and  returned  to  the  student,  together  with  an  approved  solution 
made  up  by  the  instructors.  As  soon  as  the  student  turned  in  a  set  of  papers  he 
was  given  the  next  series.  A  record  was  kept  of  the  percentage  attained  by  each 
student.  All  quartermaster  reserve  officers  were  encouraged  to  avail  themselves 
of  this  course  and  about  75  per  cent  did  so. 

Mail,   Telegrams  and  Messenger  Service 

During  the  war  period  4,000  pieces  of  mail  were  received  daily  and  upwards 
of  6,000  pieces  were  sent  from  the  arsenal.  As  speed  was  a  matter  of  the  greatest 
importance  the  telegraph  service  was  also  heavily  used. 

A  messenger  service  which  made  possible  direct  communication  with  all  de- 
partments was  early  installed.  From  a  central  point  four  branch  stations  were 
established,  each  branch  having  a  separate  service  to  all  sections;  at  one  time  there 
were  twelve  branches. 

Transportation  Facilities  Within  the  Depot 

Thirty-nine  small  electric  tractors  were  used  to  haul  the  317  foin--wheel  trailers 
and  two  Troy  trailers.  Three  light  Dodge  trucks  and  two  light  Dodge  busses, 
twelve  touring  cars,  thirty  cargo  trucks,  and  one  electric  truck  were  also  included 
in  the  equipment  and  were  daily  called  upon  for  heavy  service. 

Printing  Plant 

Previous  to  1916  the  annual  expenditures  for  depot  printing,  exclusive  of 
multigraph,  mimeograph  and  similar  duplicating  devices,  did  not  exceed  $4,000. 
Upon  the  mobilization  of  troops  to  patrol  the  Mexican  border,  local  requirements 
for  this  class  of  work  increased  approximately  300  per  cent.  A  job  press  was 
thereupon  installed,  the  saving  by  which  reimbursed  the  department  for  its  cost 

245 


in  the  first  year  of  operation.  Later,  the  faciUties  of  a  printing  plant  were  in- 
cluded; large  automatic  feeder  presses  and  accessories  were  installed,  and  resulted 
in  a  saving  of  50  per  cent  on  what  the  printing  bills  otherwise  would  have  been. 

Zone  Storage  Operations 
growth    and    expansion    of    the    supplies    division 

April  6,  1917,  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  with  Germany,  the  Supplies  Division 
was  one  of  the  three  main  divisions,  comprising  the  Philadelphia  Depot  of  the 
Quartermaster  Corps,  with  approximately  ninety-six  monthly  employees  and 
296  per  diem  employees.  This  number  included  the  Manufacturing  Branch,  of 
whom  forty -five  were  employed  in  the  office. 

The  following  branches  comprised  the  SuppUes  Division:  Administrative, 
Requisition,  Stock  Maintenance,  Property,  Invoicing,  Transportation,  and  Manu- 
facturing. The  Supplies  Division  also  attended  to  the  duties  of  receiving,  shipping 
and  warehousing  all  supplies,  making  sales  to  officers  and  the  militia  and  the  super- 
vision of  laborers,  carpenters,  painters  and  watchmen.  By  the  ^Oib  of  April 
the  depot  had  increased  its  personnel  as  follows:  Factory,  1,381;  labor,  212; 
clerks  and  inspectors,  mechanics,  etc.,  606;  a  total  of  2,199. 

Philadelphia   the   Main   Clothing  Supply    Depot 

Previous  to  1917,  the  Philadelphia  Depot  was  known  as  the  main  clothing 
depot  for  the  supply  of  the  Army,  including  the  furnishing  of  chevrons  and 
ornaments,  flags,  colors,  guidons  and  equipage  to  all  posts  and  recruiting  stations, 
and  to  the  Eastern  Department.  It  was  also  the  source  of  supply  for  tableware  and 
kitchen  utensils  for  all  posts  in  the  Northeastern,  Eastern,  Southern  and  Central 
Departments,  excepting  posts  in  Kansas,  Nebraska,  Colorado,  Wyoming,  North 
and  South  Dakota  and  Missouri. 

In  addition  to  the  above  equipment,  the  Philadelphia  Depot  also  supplied  all 
band  instruments  and  band  instrument  supplies  to  the  entire  Army. 

All  requisitions  for  clothing  and  equipage  supplies  were  forwarded  direct  to 
the  Philadelphia  Depot,  and  the  distribution  was  efi'ected  entirely  from  this  city. 

The  three  Disciplinary  Barracks,  located  at  Fort  Jay,  New  York,  Fort 
Leavenworth,  Kansas,  and  Alcatriz  Island,  Cal.,  also  depended  on  Philadelphia 
Depot  for  supply  of  such  prisoners'  clothing  as  was  not  manufactured  at  the 
prisons,  Fort  Jay  forwarding  their  requisitions  through  the  Eastern  Department; 
Fort  Leavenworth,  being  independent,  through  the  Q.  M.  G.  0.;  and  Alcatriz 
Island,  through  the  San  Francisco  Depot. 

Being  an  independent  station,  directly  under  the  supervision  of  the  Quarter- 
master General,  numerous  requisitions  for  the  replenishing  of  stocks  of  clothing 
and  equipage  at  New  York,  St.  Louis,  Fort  Sam  Houston  and  San  Francisco  were 
forwarded  to  the  Philadelphia  Depot  from  time  to  time. 

Stocks  of  supplies  at  the  Philadelphia  Depot  had  been  considerably  drawn 
upon,  due  to  the  mobilization  on  the  Mexican  border  in  June,  1916,  and  practically 
the  entire  stock  of  the  Field  Supply  Depot  No.  1  was  depleted  by  the  spring  of  1917. 

In  April,  1917,  after  the  declaration  of  war  the  number  of  requisitions  received 
averaged  about  120  daily  and  increased  until  the  requisitions  numbered  150  daily, 
each  containing  increased  quantities  of  supplies. 

246 


Storage  Capacity — Schuylkill  Arsenal 

In  April,  1917,  the  storage  capacity  of  the  Philadelphia  Depot  consisted  of 
3,017,966  cubic  feet,  scattered  over  eight  buildings: 

Number  op  Shops,  Storehouses,  Quarters  and  Other  Public  Buildings  on  the  Grounds 

April  ],  1917.  and  Their  Use 
Shops 

5-A  Building Manufacturers  of  clothing  and  sponging  plant 

2  Building Manufacturers  of  flags  and  tentage 

11-A  Shed Carpenter  and  box  shop 

9  Tin  and  paint  shops 

1  Basement,  cooperage  repairs 

21  Blacksmith  shop 

Storehouses 

5-A     Building — Basement  and  second  floor  Storage  of  materials 

2  Building — Basement Storage  of  equipage 

1         Building General  storehouse 

3  Building — Basement General  storehouse 

First  floor Dispensary  and  general  storehouse 

Second  floor Storehouse 

Third  floor General  storehouse 

4  Building Storehouse  and  inspections 

5  Building General  storehouse 

10  Building General  storehouse 

12  Building General  storehouse 

6  Building— Basement General  storehouse 

First  floor Inspections,  laboratory 

Second  floor Museum 

8        Building — (old  magazine) Stable  and  general  storehouses 

Quarters 

No.  1  ?4'-A OlBcers  quarters 

No.  2     -A Officers  quarters 

Other  Buildings 
7  Boiler  House 

14  Oil  House 

15  Scale  Shed 

16  Main  Office 

17  Gate  House 

With  the  acquisition  of  the  Inland  and  Pier  78  warehouses,  and  other  points, 
the  carload  storage  capacity  increased  tenfold,  until  approximately  30,000,000 
cubic  feet  were  avadlable  for  storage  purposes. 

Some  idea  of  the  magnitude  of  the  work  may  be  had  from  the  figures  showing 
the  yardage  received  and  issued  or  stored. 

Melton  O.  D 16  and  20  ounces 

Melton  0.  D 30  and  32  ounces 

Shirting  flannel 

Cloth  cotton  O.  D 

Duck,  khaki 12.4  ounces 

Duck,  khaki 8  ounces 

Duck,  shelter  tent 

247 


1917 

1918 

7.246,501 

12,893,669 

4,477.013 

5,232,913 

6,716,316 

11.963,191 

19,454,430 

15,265,657 

9,411,437 

20,432,926 

5,779,967 

9,218,643 

6,957,857 

9,890,474 

Reserve  Stock  of  Subsistence 

In  June,  1918,  arrangements  were  made  by  the  Q.  M.  G.  0.  for  storage  of 
reserve  stocks  of  subsistence  of  45,000,000  rations  to  be  divided  among  Philadelphia, 
Baltimore  and  Newport  News.  Shipments  here  arrived  at  the  rate  of  twenty 
carloads  per  day  and  required  200,000  square  feet  of  warehouse  space.  This  was 
the  first  instance  in  the  history  of  Philadelphia  Depot  that  it  handled  subsistence 
in  such  quantities,  as  it  had  always  been  known  as  a  clothing  depot. 

Value  of  Production 

Depot  Factory  Reed  SI.  Factory 

Clothing .<;13,389,028.09  .$4,315,568.37 

Chevrons 258,192.00  

Flags 339,634.49  132,068.84 

Tents 7,832,313.28  


$21,819,177.86        $4,447,6.37,21 
Total $26,266,815,07 

The  Largest  Shipment  During  the  W.\r 

The  largest  shipment  made  during  the  war  on  one  requisition  was  in  Janu- 
ary, 1918,  in  favor  of  the  Expeditionary  Forces,  and  called  for  the  bulk  of  the 
subsistence  at  that  time  at  the  Philadelphia  Depot.  This  shipment  consisted  of 
105  carloads  and  1,600  truckloads,  and  was  completed  in  ten  days. 

The  second  largest  shipment  also  covered  an  overseas  requisition  and  was  made 
about  July  25,  1918,  consisting  of  102  cars  and  completed  in  ten  days.  Itemized 
list  of  this  requisition  is  as  follows: 

400,000  undershirts,  wool;  600,000  underdrawers,  wool;  2,960,000  pairs  stockings,  wool,  light 
weight;  1,500,000  pairs  stockings,  wool,  heavy  weight;  75,000  overcoats;  375,000  trousers,  wool; 
3,000,000  pairs  gloves,  wool;   125,000  coats,  wool;   100,000  jumpers,  denim. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  all  band  instruments  from  the  American  Expedi- 
tionary Force  were  returned  to  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  for  storage  or  sale.  In- 
deed, the  salvage  department  of  the  arsenal  has  always  been  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant branches  of  the  service,  and  during  the  period  of  the  war  handled  5,096,538 
articles,  of  which  2,219,491  were  reissued. 

To!VNAGE  Handled  at  the  Arsenal 

F.  Y.  1914 9,708  tons  F.  Y.  1918 719,512  tons 

F.  Y.  1915 8,511  tons  F.  Y,  1919 487,929  tons 

F.  Y.  1916 12,950  tons  F.  Y.  1920 405,970  tons 

F.  Y.  1917 36.400  tons  F.  Y.  1921 (Estimated)   300,000  tons 

Expenditures  at  the  arsenal  during  the  period  of  the  war  amounted  to 
$.318,753,837.42. 

Personnel 

In  1917,  six  officers  were  on  duty  at  the  Schuylkill  Arsenal  and  1,815  civilians 
were  employed.  These  numbers  increased  in  1918  to  140  officers  and  9,827  civilians. 
With  the  signing  of  the  armistice,  the  policy  of  retrenchment  decreased  this  number 
to  sixty-five  officers  and  4,025  civOians.  On  January  1,  1920,  a  further  reduction 
of  personnel  decreased  the  number  to  nineteen  officers  and  2,800  civilians. 

248 


ARMY  CASUALTY  LIST 

HE  following  names  of  Philadelphians,  who  died  while 
serving  with  the  United  States  Army,  were  copied  from 
the  list  issued  by  the  Government  for  use  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  French  Government  Memorial  Certificates. 
It  was  the  most  authentic  and  inclusive  list  available  at 
the  date  of  its  pubUcation. 

The   Government   has   appropriated   several   million 
dollars  to  check  up  all  lists  so  that  as  quickly  as  possible 
all   men — and   women — who   were   killed   in   action,    or 
died  of  wounds  or  from  other  causes,  will  be  properly  listed. 
At  the  same  time  the  records  of  all  who  were  wounded,  or  who  were  sent  for 
treatment  to  hospitals,  will  be  listed. 

When  the  records  are  complete,  the  Usts  will  be  turned  over  to  the  Adjutant 
General  of  the  several  States.  They,  in  turn,  will  no  doubt  list  the  men  and  women 
of  their  respective  commonwealths  according  to  locality. 


Airams,  Albert  L. 
Abrams,  Joseph  A. 
Achterman,  Edward 
Adair,  A. 
Adams,  Earl 
Adams,  Hiram 
Adams,  Thomas  R. 
Afihano,  PasquaJe 
Agostini,  Joseph  E. 
Aitkins,  Charles 
Aitkins,  John 
Akins,  Frank  L. 
Alberts,  John  Archer 
Albrecht,  Carl  J. 
Albridge,  Frank 
Alcope,  Otto 
Alden,  William 
Aleander,  Gail  H. 
Allen,  Alfred  R. 
Allen,  Edward 
Allen,  John  R. 
Allen,  John  J. 
Amandola,  Giovanne 
Amodei,  Anthony 
Anderson,  Harry  U. 
Anderson,  John 
Anderson,  Robert  L. 
Andrews,  John  H. 
Archer,  Edward  T. 
Archer,  Joseph  D. 
Armoo,  Carlo 
Armstrong,  Elmer  H. 
Armstrong,  George  M. 
Arnold,  Harry 


Ashmore,  Donald 
Ashton,  .Mfred  T. 
Ashton,  James  K. 
Aspell,  Rernard 
Astbury,  Thomas  W. 
Attica,  Herman 
Atwood,  Walter 
Auchenbath,  Henry  W. 
Auritsky,  Samuel 
Auritt,  Nathan 
Ayre,  Jr.,  John 

Rackley,  W.  E. 
Railey,  Henry 
Bain,  Joseph 
Bainbridge,  Howard  C. 
Raird,  Joseph  A. 
Raker,  George  B. 
Baker,  Howard  S. 
Balasone,  Pasquale 
Baldrick,  Joseph  J. 
Raldwin,  Jessie  P. 
Ralinsky.  William 
Ballay,  George 
Rallentine,  Samuel  L. 
Rambrick,  Vincet 
Ramford,  Edward  G. 
Ranhof,  Wilham 
Barker,  Edward  J. 
Barnitz,  Reed  \^^ 
Barr,  Edwin 
Barr,  Robert 
Barrett,  William  V. 
Rarron,  John  A. 


Rarry,  James  J. 
Rarry,  John  J. 
Rarry,  Stanley  H. 
Rasile,  Edward  L. 
Raskin,  Andrew 
Rattista,  Ermindo 
Rattles,  Frank 
Rauer,  Frederick  E. 
Rauer,  George  H. 
Bauman,  Frederick 
Rauraeister,  Frederick 
Raumgartner,  Fred.  J. 
Reanchionelle,  G. 
Beatty,  Charles  L. 
Reatty,  George 
Reaumont,  Fred.  A. 
Reckworth,  Eugene 
Redingfield,  Jolin  C. 
Redingfield,  Joliii  J. 
Rehrend,  Charles 
Belfatto,  Fehx 
Rell,  George  E. 
Relli,  Frederick  F. 
Relza,  Michael 
Renedict,  Hyman 
Bender,  John  X. 
Render,  Wilham 
Renischeck,  Clem  M. 
Renner,  Rubin 
Reimicker,  Charles  N. 
Rensing,  Fred  W. 
Rerkowitz,  Louis  R. 
Ressano,  James 
Riddle,  Julian  Cornell 


Rieri,  Otto  J. 
Rilling,  John  L. 
Rilhtt,  Richard  S. 
Birney,  Knox  B. 
Rlack,  Robert  E. 
RIaszkiewicz,  Julian 
Hlein,  Wilham  H. 
filotts,  Domenick 
Rock,  Charles  J. 
Roehn,  Frank  R. 
Roldezar,  Lawrence  J. 
Roles,  Matthew  H. 
Rolte,  Raymond 
Roltersdorf,  Edward  A. 
Holto,  Louis 
Rond,  Mark  V. 
Ronlivare,  William 
Ronsack,  Jr.,  James  A. 
Rooth,  John 
Rorowski,  Theodore 
Rorucki,  Anthony  V. 
Rosbyshill,  William  L. 
Ross,  John  G. 
Bowden,  Frank 
Rowns,  William  H. 
Royer,  John 
Hoyer,  Oscar  D. 
Royle,  Charles  J. 
Rradley,  Charles  D. 
Rradley,  John 
Brady,  Edward  J. 
Brady,  John 
Brady,  Joseph  Henry 
Braham,  Albert 


249 


Braker,  Jr.,  George  E. 
Brantz,  Harry  M. 
Bratcher,  George 
Brawley,  Jr.,  James  C. 
Braxton,  Earl 
Bray,  Harry 
Brazek,  Leon 
Breen,  Bernard  F. 
Brcidenlieki,  John 
Brenner,  P  retleriek 
Brett,  John  J. 
Brewer,  Arthur  S. 
Briggnian,  Charles 
Briggs,  Bichard 
Brinnisholz,  Joseph 
Brhiton,  Howard  A. 
Broielli,  Sylvia  A.  S. 
Bro<;k.  Frank  P. 
Broderiek,  Thomas  J. 
Brogan,  James  J. 
Brooks,  George  M. 
Brown,  Francis 
Brown,  John  F. 
Brown.  Raymond 
Brown,  William  J. 
Brownstein,  Benjamin 
Bruhl,  Martin  M. 
Brunett,  Theodore 
Bryant,  Oscar  S. 
Buchanan,  El  wood  K. 
Buchman,  Harry  G. 
Buchsbaum,  Ralph  T. 
Buchwald,  Fred.  W. 
Buck,  Brinton  S. 
Buckhart,  Nicholas  W. 
Buckius,  \\  illiam 
Buckner,  Albert  W. 
Bunting,  James  S. 
Burger,  George 
Burke,  Peter  J. 
Burley,  Raymond  C. 
Burnett,  Thomas  L. 
Burns,  Harry 
Burns,  James  D. 
Burroughs,  William  E. 
Byrne,  Cornelius  J. 
Byrne,  Engelbert  H. 
Byrne,  M.  P. 
Byrne,  Vincent 
Byrnes,  Joseph  A. 
Bysin,  Harry 

Cabaldo,  Frank  T. 
Cahill  Lawrence  A. 
Cain,  John  W. 
Calhoun,  John  H. 
Callaghan,  James  M. 


Camerote,  Antonio 
Camniarata.  Arthur 
Campbell.  Edward  M. 
Cann,  Samuel 
Cannon.  Antonio 
Canserano,  Basilio 
Cantz,  Edward  J. 
Can\  ate,  \\'illiam 
Capony,  Joseph 
Caramanna,  Salvatore 
Carlile.  Walter  W. 
Carlin,  James  A. 
Carmange,  Michael 
Carmelo,  V. 
Carney,  WilUam  J. 
Caroline,  Robert  E. 
Carpenter,  James  D. 
Carr.  Bernard  A. 
Carr,  Johnson  D. 
Carr.  Thomas  A. 
Carrigan.  Sniythe  B. 
Carrigan.  Thomas  L. 
Carroll,  Ronnie 
Carson,  Frank 
Carson,  John 
Carter,  W  illiam 
Cartin,  Charles 
Casey,  Bernard  J. 
Casey,  Charles  Joseph 
Casey,  Clifton  M. 
Casey,  Harry  Martin 
Cassady,  Samuel  L. 
Cassel,  Frank  B. 
Cassel,  George  H. 
Cassia,  Domenico 
Cassidy,  James  J. 
Cassidy,  Thomas  Jos. 
Castor,  John  H. 
Castrigiana.  Sostino 
Caville,  Francis  Leo 
Chamberlin,  Carl  B. 
Chancier,  Joseph  A. 
Chanen,  Samuel 
Cherry,  Joseph  H. 
Chillis,  Edgar  S. 
Cholerton,  Harry 
Ciccone,  Daniel  J. 
Cimino,  Tony 
Cindis.  John  D. 
Clair,  Frederick  S. 
Clark,  Early  R. 
Clark,  Patrick 
Clark.  William  H. 
Clark.  \\  illiam  J. 
Clark.  W  illiam  Joseph 
Clauser,  Robert  L. 
Cleary,  WilUam  J. 


Cobar,  Peter 
Coccia,  Alphonse 
Cochran,  James  Joseph 
Coen,  John  J. 
Coffan,  Howard  H. 
Cohen,  Morris 
Coleman.  Earnest 
Coleman.  Jai'ies  J. 
Colio.  Guiseppe 
Coll,  James  A. 
Collins,  Frank 
Collins,  Frank  T. 
CoUins,  Hugh  A. 
Collins,  Joseph  B. 
Colliton,  Ignatus  J. 
Comniaker,  Alliert 
Condran,  John  J. 
Conley,  Francis  X. 
Conley,  William  M. 
Conlin.  Andrew  A. 
Conlin,  Matthew 
Connell,  Carl  J. 
Connelly,  Edward  T. 
Connor,  Edgar 
Connor,  William 
Connor,  William  N. 
Conroy,  Harry  J. 
Contriciano,  Frank 
Conway,  Harry  J. 
Conway,  John  H. 
Conway,  Peter  J. 
Cook,  George  D. 
Cook,  Harry  Anthony 
Cooney,  John  Michael 
Cooper,  Joseph  W. 
Corbett.  Francis  W. 
Corcoran.  Daniel  J. 
Cornish,  George  T. 
Corr,  John 
Costello,  Frank  P. 
Costello,  John  A. 
Costigan,  James  Thos. 
Cotter,  WiUiam  P. 
Cotton,  William  O. 
Covelle,  Frederick 
Coyle,  Charles 
Coyle,  Charles  J. 
Coyle,  Joseph  A. 
Coyle,  Samuel  J. 
Coyne,  Charles 
Cozzie,  Victor  A. 
Craig,  George  A. 
Craig,  William  F. 
Crawford,  Francis  J. 
Crawford,  Joseph  P. 
Crawford,  Samuel  W. 
Crispi,  Nicolo 


Crocco,  Jerry 
Crossen,  Joseph  A. 
Crossley,  Harry 
Crowe,  Charles  H. 
Crute,  WiUiam 
Cubler,  Raymond  J. 
Cucinotta,  Pantalione 
Cullen,  Thomas  J. 
Cullen.  Walter  J. 
Cummings,  OrviUe  S. 
(Cunningham.  (Claude  C. 
(Cunningham,  Wm.  M. 
Cupitt,  Harold  D. 
Curran,  John 
Currie,  Richard  J. 
Curry,  WilUam  L. 

D'AUessandi,  Guiseppe 
Daily,  Leonard  J. 
Dakin,  Richard  E. 
Dalbey,  Joseph  L. 
DaUas,  John  M. 
Dal  ton,  Joseph  H. 
Daly,  Edward  J. 
Danig,  George 
Darrell,  John  E. 
Daul,  Joseph  Y. 
Davis,  Earl  R. 
Davis,  Harry  F. 
Davis,  H.  G. 
Davis,  Stanley  D. 
Dawson,  George  A. 
Day,  Joseph  A. 
Day,  Richard  F. 
Decker,  Calvin  W. 
Decker,  Warren  J. 
De  Flavia,  Frank 
Delaney,  Lawrence 
De  Lulla,  Michael 
Dempsey,  John  A. 
Depue,  James  H. 
Desimore,  Generino 
Devenny,  James  V. 
Devine,  George  S. 
DevUn,  Charles  J. 
Dewees,  Charles  G. 
Dewees,  Herbert  K. 
Diamond,  David 
Diamond,  Harry 
Diamond,  Harry  F. 
Diamond,  Thomas  E. 
Dickerson,  George  F. 
Dieterle,  George  J. 
Dietz,  Benjamin  F. 
Dignan,  John  D. 
Di  Marcia,  Guistine 
Dinan,  James  F. 


250 


Di  Nardo,  John  M. 
Dine.  Thomas  L. 
Di  Plaudo,  Antonio 
Di  Pietro,  Constango 
Di  Sciscio,  R. 
Distler,  Walter  H. 
Di  Vito,  Anthony 
Dixon,  William  S. 
Dobbins,  Reiibin 
Dobrowolski,  Bolesaw 
Dolan,  W  illiam  F. 
Doland,  Frank 
Doland,  Morris  J. 
Dolfo,  Anthony 
Dombrouski,  John 
Dominico,  George 
Donaghy,  James  A. 
Donaghy,  John  L. 
Donaghy,  Joseph 
Donahue,  George  M. 
Donahue,  James  J. 
Donald,  George 
Donnelly,  John 
Donnelly,  John  F. 
Donnelly,  William 
Dooley,  Kyrien  J. 
Dooney,  Thomas 
Dougherty,  Charles  J. 
Dougherty,  George 
Dougherty,  George  P. 
Dougherty,  Hugh  F. 
Dougherty,  James  A. 
Dougherty,  Joseph 
Dougherty,  Thomas  F. 
Dougherty,  Wm.  L. 
Dowd,  John  J. 
Doyle,  John  J. 
Doyle,  John  J. 
Downs,  Jr.,  Norton 
Draper,  Arthur  M. 
Druding,  George  J. 
Drum,  Robert  I. 
Dubs,  Valentine 
Dudzik,  Andrew 
Duffel,  Reuben 
Duffy,  Charles  H. 
Duffy,  Frank  J. 
Duffy,  James 
Duffy,  John  1. 
Duffy,  Micliael 
Duffy,  Patrick 
Dugan,  Walter  S. 
Duncan,  Howard 
Duncan,  Jr.,  Joseph  G. 
Dunn,  Howard  K. 
Durando,  Camillo 
Dutill,  Arthur 


Dzikouski,  J. 

Earner,  John  J. 
Eberle,  H.  E. 
Ebner,  Frank 
Eckels,  Lauren  S. 
Eckert,  Henry 
Edgar,  Harry  D. 
Edward,  Joseph  S. 
Egan,  Patrick  J. 
Egerter,  John 
Eidam,  Frank 
Eisele,  John  A. 
Elliott,  Charles  F. 
Elhson,  Asberry 
Emery,  Thomas  F. 
EngUsh,  WilUam  H. 
Entwistle,  Zachary 
Epler,  WiUiam  R. 
Erb,  Frank  E. 
Erb,  Henry  E. 
Erdwein,  William  (i. 
Ernest,  Howard 
Ernst,  WiUiam  A. 
Erpert.  Ike 
Escandel,  Charles  A. 
Esher,  George  W. 
Essing,  Arthur  T. 
Evans,  Jr.,  Charles  T. 
Evans,  Horace  L. 
Evans,  Richard 
Everhart,  Jr.,  E.  E. 

Faber,  William  C. 
Fagan,  Francis 
Fakey,  James  P. 
Fales,  Thomas  B.  W. 
Falls,  Frank 
Fanean,  Bernard  E. 
Fantacona,  Nicholas 
Faracca,  Attiho 
Farrell,  Lewis  A. 
Farrell,  Patrick  J. 
Faunce,  Wilmer 
Faust,  Stephen 
Fay,  John  P. 
Fearn,  Jr.,  Joseph  J. 
Fecca,  Daniel 
Fee,  James 
Ferguson,  Clarence  P. 
Ferguson,  Joseph  S. 
Ferguson,  Robert  J. 
Ferriter,  Joseph 
Ferry,  Alphonseous 
Ferry,  Michael 
Fickerson,  Elmer 
Fiechler,  Jacques 


Fielding,  Louis  H. 

Fields.  Percy 

Fife,  John 

Fineburg.  Joseph 

Fink,  Wilbur  E. 

Finn,  Bernard 

Finnegan,  Michael  G. 

Finnegan,  Thomas  F. 

Fischer,  Benjamin  H. 

Fischer,  Bernard  A. 

Fischer.  Herbert  A. 

Fischer.  John  J. 

Fishburn.  Anion  E. 

Fitzgerald,  Edward 

Fitzgerald,  Harvey  P. 

Fitzharris.  Joseph  C. 

Fitzpatrick,  Louis  H. 

Flanigan,  Thomas 

Fleckal,  Frederick  J. 

Fleisch,  Edward 

Fleming,  James  G. 

Fleming.  Joseph  F. 

Fleming,  \\  illiam 

Fleming,  William 

Fleming,  WiUiam 

Fleming,  Jr.,  WiUiam 

Fleshman.  Albert  N. 

Fletcher.  Arthur 

Fletcher.  Frank 

Florio.  Humbert 

Flynn.  Charles 

Flynn,  John  J. 
Foell,  Harry  R. 
Foley,  Edward  H. 
Foley,  John  J. 
Fontanini,  Charles 
Forbes,  Oliver  D. 
Ford,  Harry  J. 
Ford,  James  J. 
Ford.  William 
Forsyth.  Albert  E. 
Forsyth,  Matthew 
Foss,  Rudolph 
Foster,  Francis 
Foster,  Joseph  P. 
Foster,  Lee  M. 
Foster,  Leon  R. 
Foulke,  Walter  L. 
Fox,  Elmer 
Fox,  Fred  R. 
Fox,  Harry  L. 
Fox,  James 
Fox,  John  H. 
Fox.  Joseph 
Fraim,  John 
Francis,  Joseph 
Francis,  Raymond 


Frank,  Charles 
Frank,  Frederick  J. 
Frank,  Harry 
Frazier,  Edward  P. 
Frederick,  John 
Freed,  John  B. 
Freedman,  Nathan 
Freihofer,  Wm.  A. 
Friedel.  Jr.,  Alexander 
Friedman,  Isidore 
Friel,  Harry 
Fritz,  Stephen  G. 
Fudala.  Fred  J. 
Fuller,  Harry  J. 
FuUerton,  Joseph  P. 
Fulton,  Stewart 
Furlong,  Charles 
Furman,  Thomas  J. 

Gabrack,  Miketar 
Gabriele,  Andrea  F. 
Gabriele,  Joseph 
Gakle,  WaUace  H. 
Galgiordi,  Lugi 
GaUagher,  James  L. 
GaUagher,  John  L. 
Gantz,  Frank  C. 
Garan,  Frank  M. 
Garland,  John  P. 
Garner,  Robert  E. 
Garrity.  Edward  I. 
GaskiU,  Joseph  E. 
Gaskins,  John  F. 
Gaumer,  Albert  H. 
Gavaghan,  James  F. 
Gazzara,  John 
Geever,  Michael  J. 
Geib,  Adolph 
Geiger,  WiUiam  D. 
GeUer,  Sanmel 
GemmeU,  John  J. 
Gerhardt,  Jr.,  George 
Gerngross,  John  A. 
Geyer,  George  H. 
Gibson,  Albert  E. 
Gihotte,  Frank  J. 
GiU)ert,  Noble  H. 
Gilchrist,  Alexander 
Gilland,  John  V. 
GiUen,  Jacob 
GUIen,  Jacob 
GiUen,  Samuel  W. 
GiUespie,  Harry  J. 
GiUespie,  Jerry 
Gillian,  William  M. 
Giordano,  Dominic  N. 
Giordano,  Vincent 


251 


Girmscheid,  Joseph  T. 
Gi\ens,  Horace 
Givens.  John 
Givens,  John  J. 
Glashofer,  Philip 
Glassen,  Andrew  J. 
Glendon,  Martin 
Glenn,  Frank  Peter 
Glentworth,  John  H. 
Godericci,  John 
Godshall,  Walter  M. 
Goering,  Henry  L. 
Gold,  Isaac 
Gold,  Louis 
Golden,  John  J. 
Golden,  Thomas  M. 
Golden,  William  H. 
Goldfus,  Louis  Samuel 
Goldman,  Max 
Goldman,  Wilhani 
Goldstein,  Morris 
Goldstein,  Robert 
Gollmer,  David 
Goonan,  Michael  J. 
Goodridge,  PhiUp  R. 
Gordon,  Louis 
Gordon,  Nathan 
Gordon,  Robert  F. 
Gorman,  Edward  C. 
Gosner,  George  R. 
Goward,  Edward  B.  G. 
Gowen,  Edwin  A. 
Grady,  Jr.,  Michael  J. 
Graff,  John  Charles 
Graham,  John  R. 
Graubert,  Isadore  H. 
Graves,  Warren  V. 
Gray,  Caleb 
Gray,  John  H. 
Greeley,  Edward 
Greeley,  Raymond  E. 
Green,  Cl>Tnan  C. 
Green,  Herbert 
Greenberg,  R. 
Greenway,  Frank  W. 
Greenwood,  Harry  L. 
Greenwood,  John 
Gregory,  John  H. 
Grejber,  John  H. 
Griffin,  Joseph  F. 
Griffin,  Wiffiam  V. 
Grigull,  Otto  E. 
Grimm,  Wilbur  E. 
Grinnan,  Thomas  P. 
Grochowski,  Boleslaw 
Grosholy,  Alfred  C. 
Gross,  Alfred 


Gross,  R. 
Gross,  Russell  C. 
Grosz,  Jacob  C. 
Grout,  Leo  M. 
Grove,  Leroy  R. 
Gruber,  Oscar  H. 
Guida,  Pasquale 
Guihana,  Antonio 
Guinana,  Philip  A. 
Guise,  George  J. 
Gullioyle,  William  F. 
Gunsallus,  Frank  J. 
Gustave,  Stanley 

Haas,  Lawrence  F. 
Hackett,  Earl  T. 
Hackett,  John 
Hagen,  Harold 
Hager,  Harry  S. 
Hagerty,  John  T. 
Haggerty,  Russell  W. 
Hahn,  Harry 
Haidner,  Nicholas  A. 
Haines,  Joseph 
Halbig,  John 
Hale,  Leander 
Hales,  Joseph 
Haley,  James  J. 
Ham,  Timothy 
Hanna,  Eugeness 
Hanrahan,  Stephen  J. 
Hanschumaoker,  A. 
Harmer,  Alfred  D. 
Harms,  John  P. 
Harper,  Frank  V. 
Harr,  Jr.,  Timothy 
Harrington,  Alex.  S. 
Harrington,  Geo.  A. 
Harris,  George  L. 
Harrison,  Ernest  J. 
Harrison,  \\  illiam  J. 
Hart,  Lee  J. 
Hartman,  Wiffiam  R. 
Hassen,  Daniel  L. 
Hasson,  William  J. 
Hastie,  \\illiam  \I. 
Hattal,  Clarence 
Hause,  Joseph  W. 
Hausser,  Ernest  T. 
Havenstine,  Edw.  C. 
Hawthorne,  Emlen 
Healis,  Charles  A. 
Heathcote,  Joseph  A. 
Heckroth,  Vernon  B. 
Heffron,  Joseph 
Heicklen,  Morris 
Heinrich,  Leonard 


Heller,  Nicholas 
Heller,  Samuel  W. 
Hellings,  Charles  H. 
Helms,  C. 

Henderson,  Harry  W. 
Hendricks,  Alfred  Y. 
Hendricks,  John 
Henkele,  Paul 
Henkle,  Albert  W. 
Hennessey,  William  J. 
Henry,  Albert 
Henry,  Howard  H. 
Henry,  James  J. 
Henz,  Harry  R. 
Heppard,  Arthur  J. 
Hepworth,  James  T. 
Herbert,  James  E. 
Herbsleb,  George  R. 
Herkert,  Robert  A. 
Herman,  John  G. 
Hermann,  Fred.  W. 
Hermann,  Paul  M. 
Herrman,  John  G. 
Herron,  Nelson  M. 
Herter,  Harry 
Hess,  Walter 
Hester,  Julian  S. 
Hetherington,  Seth  C. 
Hewson,  Robert  J. 
Hey,  Wilham  S. 
Heyser,  William  E. 
Hickey,  Robert  D. 
Hieke,  Harry  A. 
Higgins,  John  J. 
Higgins,  Jr.,  M.  J. 
Hill,  Frank  E. 
Hill,  William  O. 
Hill  man,  John 
Hinchman,  Charles  S. 
Hinger,  Charles  E. 
Hink,  John  G. 
Hinton,  Leroy  B. 
Hirst,  Thomas  G. 
Hittner,  Edward 
Hockenbury.  Geo.  W. 
Hoeltzel,  Wilbur  R. 
Hoesle,  H.  W.  J.  D. 
Hogan,  James  H. 
Hogarth,  F.  Wilbur 
Holladay,  Harry 
Holland,  Harry  W. 
HoUowell,  John  J. 
Homes,  Felix 
Hone,  Frank  A. 
Hoopes,  George  D. 
Hoopes,  Joseph  E. 
Hooten,  John  J. 


Hoover,  Howard  R. 
Horan,  Thomas  J. 
Horn,  Thomas 
Horsey,  Earl 
Horst,  George 
Houck,  Wiffiam  H. 
Houseknecht,  Chas.  B. 
Houston,  Charles  J. 
Houston,  Henry  H. 
Howley,  James  J. 
Hubacher,  Paul 
Hudson,  Harry  N. 
Hughes,  James  F. 
Hughes,  Joseph  A. 
Hughes,  Norman  D. 
Huling,  Jr.,  Samuel  H. 
Hunter,  George  G. 
Husik,  Benjamin 
Hutchinson,  Robert  E. 

laanelli,  Vincent 
Imhof,  George  H. 
IngersoU,  Harry 
Inverso,  Angelo 
Ireland,  Harry 
Irvine,  Robert  P. 
Irwin,  Leonard  C. 
Irwine,  Wiffiam  J. 
Isett,  Robert  T. 

Jablouowski,  Z. 
Jacebucca,  Nicola 
Jackalitz,  J. 
Jackson,  W.  A. 
Jacobs,  R.  G. 
Jaeoby,  H.  J. 
Jaeger,  F.  J. 
Jamerisan,  Edw.  E. 
Jannacone,  N. 
Jarnett,  Fred  S. 
Jeffrie,  Thomas  E. 
Jeffries,  Charles 
Jenkins,  R. 
Jenks,  J.  A. 
Johnson,  Admiral 
Johnson,  F. 
Johnson,  F.  A. 
Johnson,  Hiram  D. 
Johnson,  John  H. 
Johnson,  L.  F. 
Johnson,  R. 
Johnston,  James  A. 
Jokrus,  Stiney 
Jones,  A.  H. 
Jones,  D.  J. 
Jones,  E.  J. 
Jones,  Frank 


252 


Jones,  Frederick 
Jones,  G. 
Jones,  Harry  L. 
Jones,  S.  A. 
Jones,  Samuel  J. 
Joyce,  Michael  J. 
Junior,  M. 
Junkin,  William  G. 
Junod,  William 
Jusinski,  A. 

Kachuk,  Mike 
Kahl,  Christian 
Kaiser,  William  J. 
Kalb,  Lemuel 
Kamerer,  George  C. 
Kane,  H.  S. 
Kane,  James  P. 
Kane,  Thomas  J. 
Kaperrati,  Anthony 
Karpativa,  Louis 
Kaulker,  George  S. 
Kavis,  W. 
Kazinetz,  Jacob 
Kealey,  James  F. 
Kearney,  Edward  J. 
Keating,  Charles 
Keckhut,  Henry  J. 
Keefe,  Harry  T. 
Keenan,  John 
Keenan,  Joseph  J. 
Keer,  Einar  J. 
Kehoe,  WiUiam  J. 
Kelejian,  Charles  L. 
KeUar,  John 
KeUer,  H.  V. 
KeUer,  Wilham  A. 
Kelley,  George  L. 
Kelley,  John  G. 
Kellman,  Samuel 
Kelly,  Charles  J. 
Kelly,  Christopher 
Kelly,  Edward  J. 
Kelly,  Frank  J. 
Kelly,  James  A. 
Kelly,  James  P. 
Kelly,  John  P. 
Kelly,  Martin  J. 
Kelly,  Michael  J. 
Kelly,  Thomas  W. 
Kelly,  William 
Kennedy,  George  E. 
Kennedy,  John  A. 
Kennedy,  Joseph  D. 
Kenny,  Michael 
Kenworthy,  Charles 
Kenworthy,  E.  M. 


Kerr,  Peter 
Ketterer,  W.  G. 
Kidwell,  S. 
Kilda,  James  A. 
Kimble,  Millard  F. 
Kincade,  Harry  H. 
Kine,  Benjamin 
King,  Aloysius 
King,  Perry  E. 
King,  Robert 
Kinis,  Edgar  H. 
Kinzler,  Ernest  J. 
Kirschman,  Charles  S. 
Kister,  Frank 
Klebe,  John  B. 
Klotz,  Frank  L. 
Kluth,  Wilham  C. 
Knapp,  Charles  A. 
Knapp,  David  A. 
Knight,  Frederick  H. 
Knoff,  Edward  J. 
Knowalski,  Adam  W. 
Knowles,  Austin  L. 
Knox,  Harrison 
Koch,  George 
Koch,  George  D. 
Koch,  Harrison  W. 
Koehler,  Louis  H. 
Kohler,  Charles 
Kolp,  George  B. 
Kolzen,  WiUiam  W. 
Koons,  Dallas  W. 
Kowalski,  Joseph 
Kozaski,  Bolstow 
Krantman,  Nathan 
Krause,  A. 
Krause,  Joseph 
Krauss,  Edward 
Kremens,  D. 
Kreps,  Herbert  L. 
Kriderman,  Morris 
Krimbach,  Herbert 
Krombach,  Herbert  11. 
Krouse,  Louis 
Kubat,  Joe 
Kucinsky,  John 
Kuhl,  Raymond  F. 

La  Fontaine,  E.  J. 
Laflerty,  Daniel  F. 
Laird,  Clinton  \\ . 
Laird,  G.  W. 
Lamb,  J.  J. 
Lambs,  W.  E. 
Lamonica,  Alphonso 
Lanard,  S.  A. 
Landenberger,  T.  T. 


LaiKlman.  Jr.,  L.  E. 
Landolt,  Charles 
Langan,  J.  P. 
Langsdorf,  L. 
Lapczyk,  C. 
Larsen,  B.  E. 
Latney,  Howard  D. 
Latney,  R. 
Laub,  E.  G. 
Law,  James  W. 
Lawler,  William  J. 
Laws,  Joseph  E. 
Laws,  L.  W. 
Lay,  H.  T. 
Layden,  A.  W. 
Leach,  Wilham  J. 
Leahan,  William 
Leek,  L. 
Lee,  G.  W. 
Lee,  James  W. 
Lee,  Richard 
Lee,  Richard  A. 
Lee,  William  J. 
Leedom,  H.  S. 
Leible,  Jules 
Leidy,  Harry 
Leifer,  Jacob 
Leighton,  John  L. 
Leithold,  Frederick 
Lenarty,  Louis  B. 
Lentine,  WiUiam 
Leon,  Harry 
Leonard,  Joseph 
Leonard,  M. 
Leskie,  Charles  E. 
Lessig,  W.  T. 
Levan,  H. 
Lever,  H. 
Lever,  MarshaU  B. 
Lewis,  F. 
Lewis,  Joseph 
Lewis,  W.  T. 
Lichetti,  Jr.,  A.  B. 
Lieberman,  M. 
Limabacher,  \\  in.  G. 
Lipschutz,  L.  J. 
Lipscomb,  D.  W. 
Lister,  Brooks 
Lifschert,  John  II. 
Lloyd,  H.  H. 
Lloyd,  J. 
Lloyd,  \V  illiam  J. 
Lobaccaro,  L. 
Lockhart,  G.  R. 
Lockhart,  J.  S. 
LohmiUer,  J. 
LohrauUer,  L. 


Long,  C.  H. 
Loughram,  P. 
LowTy,  J.  R. 
Lucas,  Charles 
Lucera,  B. 
Lucherdjurg,  E.  L. 
Lumer,  William  J. 
Lunn,  W. 
Lutz,  Albert  P. 
Lynam,  Horace 
Lyons,  G.  L. 
Lyons,  J.  M. 
Lyshon,  W.  J. 
Lytton,  H.  S. 

McAleer,  Albert  A. 
McAnemy,  Joseph  P. 
McArthur,  John  S. 
McAuley,  Robert  J. 
McBride,  John 
McCabe,  Joseph  D. 
McCabe,  Leo  Thomas 
McCabe,  Michael 
McCaffery,  Francis  J. 
McCaffrey,  W.  E. 
McCain,  Harry 
McCaU,  Howard  C. 
McCann,  Henry  J. 
McCann,  John  P. 
McCann,  Thomas  J. 
McCaughan,  F.  M. 
McCaughney,  R.  K. 
McCauley,  Edw.  A. 
McCausland,  Harry  E. 
McClain,  Harry 
McClean,  Alexander 
McCleUan,  John 
McClurg,  Joseph  T. 
McColgan,  Maurice 
McColgan,  Wm.  M. 
McCoUum,  Robert 
McConaghy,  Thomas 
McCoimeU,  Graham 
McConnell,  Thos.  A. 
McCord,  Vernon 
McCormick,  Chas.  A. 
McCormick,  Jos.  F. 
McCrory,  Sanmel 
McCuUough,  Albert  J. 
McCullough,  Robert 
McCunney,  Mark 
McCusker,  George  J. 
McCutcheon,  James 
McDaid,  Thomas  E. 
McDevitt,  Bernard  W. 
McDevitt,  Daniel 
McDonald,  Hugh  D. 


253 


McDonald,  James  B. 
McDonald,  Ronald 
McDonald,  Wni.  J. 
McFetrick,  James  B. 
McGearty,  Walter  M. 
McGee,  Arthm'  J. 
McGinn,  Joseph 
McGinnis,  Ivouis  R. 
McGinty,  Charles 
McGlone,  James 
McGonigle,  James  B. 
McGothan.  \Vm.  R. 
McGrath,  Joseph  A. 
McGreal,  Joseph  H. 
McGuigan,  Eugene  I. 
McGuire,  Joseph  J. 
McHugh,  Joseph 
Mcllvaine,  James 
Mclntyre,  Michael  J. 
McKee,  Joseph  L. 
McKenna,  Edward  P. 
McKenna.  Francis 
McKeon,  Thos.  Jos. 
McKernon,  Chas.  11. 
McLaughlin,  John 
McLean,  George 
McMackin,  John  J. 
McMahon,  John  P. 
McMenamin,  P.  J. 
McNamara,  J.  J. 
McNeamey,  John 
McNeills,  John  J. 
McPeak,  Frank  J. 
McPolin,  John  J. 
McSharry,  Francis  P. 
McTuillan,  Edward 
McVey,  Joseph  A. 
MacArthur,  John  S. 
Machette,  Kirk  W. 
Macken,  Charles 
Madden,  Frank  A. 
Madenford,  Walter 
Magarahan,  James 
Magee,  John  J. 
Maguire,  Francis  A. 
Maher,  Edward  F. 
Mahler,  Leslie  James 
Maleahoka,  Samuel 
Maleczerski,  Louis 
Malloy,  John  L. 
Malloy,  Thomas  B. 
Malone,    Charles  F. 
Malone,  Edward  J. 
Malone,  Roy  W. 
Maloney,  Raymond 
Mancine,  Lawrence 
Mancusi,  Frank 


Manger,  Henry  B. 
Marano,  Frank 
Marauer,  Charles 
Marchesano,  Carl 
Martin,  Edward  T. 
Martin,  John  P. 
Martin,  Robert  J. 
Martin,  Vincent 
Martin.  William 
Maruchella,  Fenlinando 
Massey,  Thomas 
Mastropiese.  Palo 
Matthews,  Arthur  W. 
Mayer,  Andrew  W. 
Maylie,  Jacob  L. 
Mazkewiz,  Louis 
Meaney,  Harry 
Meell,  Geo.  Winfield 
Meisle,  John 
Melick,  Phillip  G. 
Mellon.  James  M. 
Mellory,  Hazzare 
Melvin,  Frank  J. 
Mengel,  Harry 
Mentz,  Morris  B. 
Mercer,  Wilbert 
Mericke,  Stephen 
Merkle,  WiUiam  J. 
Merrian,  Frank 
Merz,  Harold  B. 
Mesteyky,  Josel 
Meyers,  Harvey  F. 
Meyers,  William 
Michalski,  Stephen 
MicheU,  Henry  F. 
MickayUk,  Metrofan 
MidiU,  Angelo 
Mikilkiewich,  Joseph 
Milano,  Joseph  A. 
Milgram,  Nathan 
Miller,  Charles 
Miller,  Charles  S. 
Miller,  Charles  W. 
Miller,  David 
Miller,  Frederick  E. 
Miller,  Frederick  J. 
Miller,  Herbert 
Mingle,  Roy  C. 
Mirarchi,  Frank 
Miszeikis,  V. 
Mlodorzenec,  Joseph 
Mock,  Frank 
Moebius,  Alvin  H. 
Moeckel.  John  E. 
Moffa,  Louis 
Mogerman,  Abraham 
Monaghan,  Charles  P. 


Monahan,  Edward 
Mondelli,  James 
Alondress.  Harry 
Monroe,  Shadrick 
Moonan,  James  F. 
Mooney,  John  P. 
Mooney,  Peter  E. 
Mooney,  William 
Moore,  Clarence  P. 
Moore,  Peter 
Moore,  Russell  H. 
Moore,  Salmage  H. 
Moore,  Samuel 
Moore,  Thomas 
Moore,  William  J. 
Morage,  Joseph  L. 
Morgan,  Ernest  P. 
IVIorgan.  ^^'alter  P. 
Moriarty,  John  Henry 
Morman,  Milton  J. 
Morris,  Franz 
Morris,  Howard  L. 
Morris.  John  F. 
Morris,  John  T. 
Morris,  Raymond  T. 
Morris,  Robert  R. 
Mose,  Oscar  C. 
Mosier,  Everett  B. 
Moss,  G. 

Mount,  Richard  E. 
Moy,  Hugh 
Mulch,  Joseph  Daniel 
MuUerschiven,  A.  M. 
Mullhizer,  James  A. 
Mulrine,  W.  J. 
Mulrine,  Wm.  Joseph 
Munusevitz,  Harry 
^lurphy,  Charles 
Murphy,  James  E. 
Murphy,  John  Henry  . 
Murphy,  John  R. 
Murphy,  Joseph  F. 
Murphy,  Joseph  M. 
Murphy,  Michael 
Murphy,  Thomas 
Murphy,  Thomas 
Murray,  James 
Murray,  John  A. 
Murray,  John  W. 
Murray,  Thomas 
Murtagh,  Michael 
Murtha,  George  B. 
Musto,  Angelo 
Myers,  Harry 
Myers,  John 
Myers,  John 
Myers,  John  E. 


Myers,  William  D. 

Naegle,  Richard  C. 
Nagel,  Harry  T. 
Naimo,  Phillip 
Natale,  Michael 
Nau,  Piers  J. 
Neal,  Thaddeus  P. 
Neinian,  William 
Nelis,  Edward 
Nelson,  Harvey  C. 
Netherington,  Wm. 
Neumann,  Jr.,  William 
Neural  h,  Ernest  C 
Newell,  Harry  G. 
Newman,  Edward 
Newman,  Nelson 
Newman,  WiUiam  F. 
Newns,  James  D. 
Nice,  Eugene 
Nichol,  Clark  B. 
NiehoUs,  George  M. 
Nickerman,  George  E. 
Nickles,  W. 
Nickman,  Sylvan 
Noel,  William  L. 
Nolan,  William  P. 
Noonan,  Thomas  P. 
Noran,  E.  C. 
Norris,  David  J. 
Norton,  William  H. 
Norton,  WUham  J. 
Novak,  Ike 
Nowak,  Edwin  A. 
Nuffer,  Ernest  G. 
Nusbickel,  John 

O'Brien,  William  A. 
Ochinto,  Joseph 
O'Donnell,  Daniel  J. 
O'Donnell,  James  F. 
O'Donnell,  Pet«r 
Oerlemans,  Louis 
Ogden,  Elmer 
Ogilvie,  WiUiam  A. 
O'Hara,  Oliver 
O'Hearn,  WiUiam 
O'Leary,  Charles  X. 
O'Leary,  WiUiam  J. 
OUve,  Antonio 
OUivier,  Alfred 
O'NeiU,  Edward 
O'NeUl,  Francis  E. 
O'Neill,  James 
O'Neill,  Thomas 
O'Riordon.  Jas.  Francis 
OrUcka,  Paul 


254 


Orr,  Jr.,  William  C. 
Osmond,  Raymond  T. 
Ott,  George  H. 
Otto,  Herbert  J. 
Otto,  John  H. 

Pahl.  Carl  O. 
Pahler.  Walter 
Pahls,  Harold  W. 
Painter,  Harold  W. 
Pancoast,  Clatence  S. 
Pangbur,  Irwin 
Pantley,  Wni.  Collins 
Pardini,  Quinto 
Parker,  Howard  E. 
Paroonagian,  I.  T. 
Pasant,  Joseph 
Patterson,  Elmer  E. 
Patterson,  Francis 
Patterson,  John  E. 
Patterson,  Phillip 
Paul,  Archibald  S. 
Paul,  EUwood  G. 
Payne,  Samuel  J. 
Paynter,  WiUiam  M. 
Pearl,  Harold 
Peel,  W  illiam  C. 
Pegg,  William  J. 
Pegram,  Frederick 
Peiffer,  Percival  H. 
Pepper,  Benjamin  F. 
Perine,  Nelson  W. 
Perkins,  William  J. 
Persichetti,  Leonard 
Peslin,  William 
Pessin,  Kolman 
Peters,  Frederick 
Peterson,  Ralph  E. 
Pfeifer,  Francis  J. 
Pflieger,  A.  F. 
Pfrommer,  Wm.  B. 
PhiUips,  Robert  J. 
Pickering,  Clifford 
Pickett,  Norman  O. 
Picone,  James 
Picot,  Herman  M. 
PiUing,  Thomas  J. 
Pleate,  John  A. 
Plews,  William 
Plosky,  Harry 
Plunketf.  Benjamin 
Polenski,  Mike 
Polinski,  Harry 
Polito,  Joseph 
Pollock,  Robert  H. 
Popplewell,  John  D. 
Porco,  Dominico 


Portens,  Francis  I. 
Porter,  Edward  M. 
Potter,  William  A. 
Potts,  John 
Prandie,  Frank  E. 
Prediger,  Heijry  G. 
Price,  Aaron  O. 
I'rince,  Harry  W. 
Pritchard,  H.  E.  P. 
Proctor,  George  W. 
Promondoni,  G. 
Proszez,  John 
Przestselski,  Wolph 
I'taskiewicz,  S. 
I'udlock,  Joseph 
Pugh,  Jr.,  John 
Purcell.  WiUiam  A. 
Putz,  Frederick 

Quinn,  Jr.,  James  J. 
(.)uinn,  John  H.  B. 
Quinn,  William  F. 
Quintard,  Alfred  L. 

Rados,  Castos 
Raebiger,  Adolph 
Raffo,  Joseph 
RahhiU,  WiUiam  J. 
Raistrick,  WiUiam  A. 
Ranson,  WiUiam  F. 
Rasmussen,  H.  P. 
Ratajack,  Ignacy 
Rath,  George  R. 
Raylould,  Daniel  W. 
Read,  John  J. 
Reale,  Angelo 
Reape,  Wilham  J. 
Redding,  James 
Redman,  Charles  H. 
Redner,  Howard  B. 
Reese,  Edward  Henry 
Reif,  Harry  PhiUip 
Reilly,  Joseph  John 
Reinhart,  Frank  W. 
Reis,  Byron  C. 
Reitz,  Joseph 
Reivich,  Herman  M. 
Rende,  Gennaro 
ReveU,  Edward  J. 
Reveney,  John  W. 
Reynolds,  .Stephen  W. 
Reynolds,  Stevens 
Re.x,  Albert  C. 
Richard,  George  F. 
Richards,  Thomas  M. 
Richardson,  Stephen 
Richter,  Frank  C. 


Riley,  John 
Risso,  Theophilio 
Ritchie,  Robert 
Rizzo,  Charles 
Roach,  Walter 
Robbins.  Gordon  E. 
Roberts,  John  E. 
Roberts,  Leon 
Robertson,  Claude  R. 
Robinson,  Robert 
Robinson,  Walter 
Roche,  Edward 
Roche,  Jr.,  W  m.  F. 
Rochelman.  .Mphonsc 
Rock,  William  C. 
Roetz,  Stephen 
Rogers,  Rernard  F. 
Rogers,  Harry  Tuttle 
Roivelto,  Secore 
Ronser,  Charles  O. 
Rooney,  WiUiam  A. 
Rorke,  Richard  J. 
Rosenfeld,  James 
Ross,  James  S. 
Ross,  John  N. 
Rote,  Charles 
Rothnian,  Charles  H. 
Rothman,  G.  G. 
Ruchola,  Walter 
Ruff,  Frank  A. 
RusseU,  Leo  R. 
Ryan,  Harold  A. 
Ryan,  Stephen  F. 
Ryder,  Thomas  A. 

Saalfrank,  F.  W. 
Sabari,  R. 
Sabulis,  A. 
Sack,  Kabe 
Sadler,  Albert  H. 
Sailer,  John 
Salatsky,  M. 
Salesky,  M. 
SaUese,  G. 
Saltman,  Abraham 
Salvador,  W.  H. 
Salzee,  WiUiam  W. 
Sampson,  George 
Samules,  David 
Sandora,  J. 
Sandrow,  Harry 
Sandy,  M.  W. 
Sargen,  M. 
Sargosky,  Harry  M. 
Sarnkowski,  J. 
Sat  tier,  Walter  L. 
Sauberblatt,  D. 


Sauer,  Spencer  H. 

Sault,  David 

Saunders,  F.  D. 

Savage,  Arthur  W. 

Saylor,  Herman  P. 

Sayre,  Frank  D. 

Scanlon,  John  A. 

Schaaf,  Otto  F. 

Schanbaur,  August  C. 

Schase,  Jesse  E. 

Schaub,  Charles  E. 

Scher,  Joseph  A. 

Schiavi,  Pasquale 

Schiavone,  Charles  A. 

Schick,  Charles  A. 

Schiking,  Albert 

Schindler,  William  C. 

Schlossberg,  David 

Schlossberg,  Max 

Schmidt,  Alfred  J. 

Schmidt,  WiUiam  H. 

Schmitt,  Harry  R. 

Schneid,  Frank 

Schneider,  P.  A. 

SehneU,  C.  H. 

Schommer,  Frank  T. 

.Schontz,  Fred  S. 

Schoonover,  Edward  J. 

Schully,  J.  T. 

Schumaker,  George  R. 

Schun,  Joseph  A. 

Schwartz,  Benjamin 

Schwartz,  E.  D. 
Schwartz,  S. 
Schwartzman,  Harry 
Schweiker,  Wm.  H. 
Sciloi,  M. 
Scott,  C.  R. 
Scott,  Joseph  T. 
Seeger,  C. 
Segal,  Jacob 
Segal,  Samuel 
Segall,  Arthur  R. 
SeiberUch,  L.  W. 
Seifert,  Frank  E. 
Seltzer,  Joseph 
Servinski,  Stanislaw 
Shagren,  Andrew  C. 
Shamoff,  Alexander 
Shanton,  Donald  T. 
Sharkey,  Frank 
Shawn,  Samuel  C. 
Sherman,  Max 
Shepherd.son,  Geo.  P. 
Sheppnian,  John  R. 
Sherlock,  William  D. 
ShetzUne,  W.  T. 


255 


Shiver,  Charles  H. 
Shulnian,  S. 
Shute,  Nathan 
Sibel,  W. 
Sibel,  William 
Sievers,  William  A. 
Simcoe,  John  J. 
Simcox,  Howard  L. 
Simmons,  C.  H. 
Simon,  D. 
Simon,  H.  G. 
Simpson,  Charles  M. 
Simpson,  George  L. 
Simpson,  John  O. 
Simpson,  Paul  H. 
Siner,  F.  C. 
Siner,  G.  Wesley 
Singer,  Henry  F. 
Sinlowitz.  Morris 
Skinker,  Alexander  R. 
Skivmont,  A. 
Slander,  Felix 
Slane,  Francis  Joseph 
Slatcher,  C.  S. 
Slater,  H. 

Sloan,  Benjamin  H. 
Sloan,  David  A. 
Slook,  G.  H. 
Slugman,  Max 
Snialley,  Alfred  P. 
Smalley,  Jr.,  A.  P. 
Smith,  Albert 
Smith,  B.  V. 
Smith,  Charles  C. 
Smith,  Charles  W. 
Smith,  E. 
Smith,  E.  A. 
Smith,  E.  F. 
Smith,  Frank 
Smith,  Frank 
Smith,  H.  P. 
Smith,  James 
Smith,  James  M. 
Smith,  P.  J. 
Smith,  W. 
Smith,  W.  E. 
Smith,  W.  M. 
Snyder,  Wm.  Miller 
Solly,  Robert  W. 
Solomon,  Samuel 
Somma,  R. 
Souder,  E.  R. 
Spare,  E.  D. 
Speck,  Gerald 
Sperling,  H. 
Spielberg,  H. 
Spirite,  Peter 


Spiro,  J. 
Spitzer.  B.  H. 
Stahl,  J.  W. 
Stange.  Leonard  J. 
Stanley,  W.  H. 
Starkey,  W.  Harold 
Stasidi,  S. 
Stead,  E.  Z. 
Steever,  S.  K. 
Stein,  Jacob 
Stein.  Louis 
Steinmetz,  II.  M. 
Stellar,  Vincent 
Stengel,  Daniel  S. 
Stern,  Milton 
Stevens,  Joseph 
Stevenson,  Elmer  H. 
Stewart,  Clark 
Stewart,  J.  T. 
Stinson,  J.  T. 
Stoe,  A.  J. 
Stone,  John 
Stork,  James  L. 
Stratson,  John 
Straugh,  Fred  R. 
Street,  Abram 
Sturma,  Jr.,  William 
Sukalsky,  Sanmel 
Suplee,  Charles 
Suplee,  Edward  F. 
Suplee,  Howard  R. 
Susson,  Samuel 
Sutton,  Marshall  H. 
Swank,  Tebley  T. 
Swartley,  Rolland  W. 
Swiaski,  Alexander 
Swobod,  William  J. 
Swolboda,  W.  J. 
Sykes,  Gomer 

Tadlock,  Ray  H. 
Tamborella,  Michael 
Tarbett,  John  M. 
Taylor,  Amos  R. 
Taylor,  George  M. 
Taylor,  Lewis  A. 
Taylor,  Richard  S. 
Taylor,  Samuel  J. 
Taylor,  WilUam  E. 
Tenanova,  Samuel 
Teter,  Horace  E. 
Thai,  Morris 
Thomas,  Bernard 
Thomas,  Harry  H. 
Thompson,  Albert  L. 
Thompson,  William 
Thompson,  William  C. 


Tiedeken,  Theodore  F. 
Tiefentaylor,  Jas.  J. 
Tighe.  James  T. 
Tindley,  John 
Tinline,  James  H. 
Tirico,  T. 
Tisot,  Rene 
Toramano,  Dominic 
Torco,  John 
Townsend,  David  G. 
Tracy,  Leroy  S. 
Traflicano,  Benjamin 
Trautman,  Gustave  J. 
Travers,  William  H. 
Trebino,  Frank  M. 
Trengrove,  Raymond 
Triplett,  Norman 
Trojan,  Peter 
Trotta,  Samuel  J. 
Trotter,  Thomas  J. 
Truss,  Jules  J. 
Tuck,  Ernest 
Tumas,  Anthony  F. 
Turkan,  Albert  A. 
Turner,  George  A. 
Turner,  W.  J. 

Llleary,  Edward  II. 
Lllrich,  John  A. 
Updike,  Jolm 
LIpton,  William 
LIrnanis,  Francis 

Vail,  Neal 
Vandergrift,  Jesse 
Vandiver,  Thomas  Del 
Van  Dusen,  E.  Thorpe 
Vandyke,  Edward  J. 
Van  Luvanee,  Jos.  A. 
Vasello,  Joseph 
Ventura,  Michael  C. 
Venziele,  John 
Vere,  Frank  J. 
Veton,  Jacob 
Vetrona,  Michaelo 
Viscusi,  Girolania 
Voipe,  Alexander 

Wagner,  Alfred 
Wagner,  John 
Walker,  Harry 
Walker,  Jacob  C. 
Wallace,  Samuel 
Walls,  J. 
Walsh,  J. 
W  alsh,  John  F. 
Walthour,  Taylor  E. 


Waltman,  Norman 
Wankmiller,  Frank 
Wanner,  Alfreil  H. 
Waples,  J.  Douglass 
Ward,  Andrew  J. 
Warren,  Arthur  J. 
Warrick,  Lin  wood 
Warrick,  Thomas 
Warriner,  Herbert 
Warushok,  John 
Wasser,  /Charles  R. 
Waterhouse,  Chas.  M. 
Waters,  George  James 
Watson,  Charles  E. 
Watson,  James  C. 
Watson,  John  S. 
Watson,  Joseph  J. 
Watt,  Graham  B. 
Weber,  Alfred 
Weber,  George  J. 
Weber,  Joseph  H. 
Weber,  StillweU  E. 
Webster,  Thomas  S. 
Weer,  Milton  R. 
Weight,  Charles  E. 
Weisbrod,  Harry 
\\'eiss,  Richard  G. 
\\eiss,  Richard  J. 
W  ells,  Andrew  J. 
Wells,  Walter 
Welsh,  Jr.,  John  II. 
W  elsh,  Jolm  WiUiams 
\\'entz,  Lemuel  K. 
Werrukove,  Louis 
West,  Dennis 
West,  Gordon  B. 
Wethersline,  Harry  H. 
Weyersburg,  Walter 
Whaley,  Robert  A. 
Wheatley,  Richard 
White,  Albert  B. 
\\'hite,  James 
White,  John 
White,  WiUiam  T. 
Whitehurst,  William 
Whiteside,  Gus 
Whitson,  George  F. 
Whorowski,  Zigmont 
Wiegand,  Walter  J. 
Wilkinson,  Edward 
Wilkinson,  John  B. 
Wilkinson,  Joseph  M. 
Willowitch.  Frank 
Wilson,  Arthui 
Wilson,  Arthur  H. 
Wilson,  David 
Wilson,  John  P.  C, 


256 


Wilson,  Louis  M. 
Wilson,  William  C. 
Wine,  William  E. 
Winnals,  Walter  E. 
Winston,  Erskin 
Witsil,  Earle 
Wolf,  George  R. 
Wolf,  Horace  J. 


Wolfe,  Frederick  P. 
Wolpert,  John  .1. 
Wood,  T.  E. 
Wood,  William 
Work,  Jr.,  John  W. 
Worthington,  Frank  E. 
Wright,  Reuben  O. 
\\'right,  William  M. 


Wrigley,  Charles  E. 
\\  yborski,  Charles  C. 
Wyoitka,  Antonio 

Yaimuzzi,  Guiseppe 
Yarak,  John 
Yearsley,  Edward  F. 
Yekle,  Joseph  O. 


Young,  Adolph  L. 

Zack,  Peter 
Zakaroska,  Paul  P. 
Zaun, Jacob 
Zeissing,  Dan 
Ziegler,  Conrad  W. 
Zuendel,  William  H. 


Memorial  W'rcdlhs.  'JSIh  Dirixioii  Parade. 


257 


REPORT  ON  WAR  ACTIVITIES  FOURTH  NAVAL  DISTRICT 
April  6,  1917  to  February  1,  1919 

George  F.  Cooper,  Captain,  U.  S.  N. 

James  A.  Campbell,  Jr.,  Lieutenant-Commander,  U.  S.  N.  (Ret.) 

Frank  J.  Gorman,  Ensign,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F. 

^^^^^§^^Z^  MBUED  with  the  spirit  of  patriotism  which  inspired  the 
^  "     founders  of  the  nation  assembled  nearly  a  century  and 

a  half  ago  in  this  city,  the  history  of  the  Fourth  Naval 
District  reads  true  to  the  high  ideals  of  Americanism 
enunciated  when  this  nation  was  born  and  upholds  to 
the  fullest  the  best  traditions  of  the  naval  service. 

From  a  civilian  population,  peace-loving  by  Quaker 
teachings,  there  was  created  a  commissioned  and  enlisted 
personnel  second  to  none,  representatives  of  which  found 
their  way  by  the  ever-changing  needs  of  the  service 
into  every  branch  of  its  activities,  afloat  and  ashore,  at  home  and  abroad.  There 
were  given  to  the  Navy  without  stint  man  power,  money  and  possessions,  that  the 
war  might  be  prosecuted  to  a  successful  conclusion.  Even  industrial  activity 
which  had  its  inception  and  its  existence  in  peaceful  pursuits  was  converted  to 
war-time  needs  and  the  Navy  was  the  recipient  of  this  bounty  and  cooperation. 

On  the  Atlantic  Coast,  from  Barnegat  on  the  north  to  Assateague  on  the 
south  and  backward  into  the  great  industrial,  mining  and  manufacturing  cities, 
and  from  the  largest  to  the  smallest  centers  of  population,  the  people  stood  staunchly 
behind  the  Navy;  no  call  was  unanswered. 

Men  in  every  walk  of  hfe  dropped  their  normal  pursuits  and  the  flower  of 
young  manhood  forsook  institutions  of  education  to  don  the  Navy  blue.  And 
wherever  assigned  and  to  whatever  duty,  they  acquitted  themselves  honorably, 
ably  and  without  flinching. 

The  intensive  activities  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District  may  be  properly  said 
to  have  had  their  origin  in  the  promulgation  to  the  naval  service  of  the  President's 
Neutrality  Proclamations  of  August  4  and  5,  1914.  These  were  contained  in  the 
Navy  Department's  General  Order  No.  11,3  of  August  7th,  of  the  same  year. 

The  necessity  for  subdivision  of  control  of  naval  activities  naturally  prompted 
the  system  of  district  organization.  In  making  the  territorial  limitations  of  naval 
districts,  the  established  navy  yards  were  considered  in  conjunction  with  the 
natural  water-ways,  the  ports  that  were  to  be  defended,  and  that  were  to  be  utilized 
for  offensive  military  purposes. 

The  careful  study  and  investigation  made  of  the  subject  were  embodied  in 
concrete  form  in  the  regulations  for  the  government  of  the  naval  districts  of  the 
United  States,  which  were  made  effective  by  the  promulgation  to  the  naval  ser- 
vice of  the  Department's  General  Order  No.  36  on  August  20,  1909.  As  far  as  it 
was  possible,  each  district  contained  one  port  of  recognized  importance,  and  one 
estabhshed  navy  yard. 

258 


The  Fourth  District  embraced  the  coast-line  from  Barnegat  Light,  N.  J., 
south  to  Chincoteague  Inlet  in  Virginia,  and  the  Delaware  Bay  and  Biver.  At  the 
junction  of  the  Delaware  and  Schuylkill  rivers,  and  at  the  southernmost  extremity 
of  the  city  of  Philadelphia  was  located  the  important  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard, 
protected  from  attack,  as  was  the  city  itself,  by  land  forts  on  both  banks  of  the 
Delaware,  manned  by  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps  of  the  United  States  Army. 

The  Fourth  Naval  District's  northern  boundary  extended  in  a  general  nortli- 
westerly  direction  from  Barnegat  to  Trenton,  where  it  intersected  the  boundary 
line  of  Pennsylvania,  which  line  became  the  boundary  of  the  district,  so  that  the 
entire  State  was  included  with  the  exception  of  a  small  section  bordering  on  Lake 
Erie. 

The  district  was  made  to  include  also  the  entire  State  of  Delaware  and  a 
rectangular  portion  of  Maryland  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  southern  boundary 
of  Delaware,  on  the  east  by  the  coast-line,  and  on  the  southwest  by  a  line  drawn 
from  the  southwestern  corner  of  the  State  of  Delaware  southeastward  to  Assa- 
teague.  These  boundaries  remained  fixed,  with  slight  changes,  until  the  end  of 
the  war. 

Before  there  was  even  an  intimatiim  of  the  great  Eumi^ean  coTiflict,  and  many 
years  before  there  was  any  thought  that  the  United  States  would  be  engaged  in  it, 
preliminary  information  and  tentative  plans  were  formulated  by  the  Navy  Depart- 
ment for  the  utilization  of  properties  ashore  and  equipment  afloat  as  auxiliaries  to 
the  regular  naval  establishment. 

The  several  commandants  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District,  prior  to  the  war, 
had  in  their  possession  descriptions  of  coast-guard  stations  and  (jf  lighthouses. 


Photo  by   Keplogle. 


Delaware  Hirer  i-ronl. 
259, 


Photo   by   Replogle. 


Navy  1  ard.  lookiiKj  east,  Ocluher.  1917 . 


with  comments  as  to  tlieir  availability  in  time  of  war  as  naval  patrol  bases  and 
as  visual  signal  and  reporting  stations. 

Data  were  collected  and  corrected  from  time  to  time  as  to  the  vessels  habitually 
found  in  the  district  with  a  view  to  their  conversion  and  employment  in  harbor 
entrance  and  off  shore  patrol  duties,  in  mine-sweeping  and  in  other  necesseuy 
naval  purposes.  Plans  for  arming  these  auxiliaries,  for  strengthening  their  decks 
for  gun  mounts,  for  fitting  magazines  and  necessary  other  incidental  changes  in 
their  construction  and  equipment  were  perfected  and  standardized. 

Later  on,  when  logical  preparedness  dictated  more  advanced  steps  in  this 
direction,  owners  of  power-boats  constructed  craft  along  the  standard  lines  as 
indicated  by  the  Navy  Department.  In  fact,  the  ultimate  utilization  of  pleasure 
boats  in  the  event  of  war  had  a  marked  elTect  upon  the  designs  of  large  sized  power- 
boats constructed  within  recent  years. 

Inland  water  routes  were  investigated  and  charted  and  their  availability  in 
war  times  reported  upon.  The  resources  of  local  ship  repair  yards,  and  particularly 
those  equipped  with  docking  facilities,  ship  chandleries,  wrecking  companies  and 
the  locations  of  wharves  and  docks,  with  depths  of  approaches  thereto,  were  care- 
fully catcJogued  for  ready  reference  in  war  time. 

Undefended  harbors  and  possible  landing  places  were  surveyed  with  a  view 

260 


to  their  defense  by  mines  and  mobile  forces.  Anchorages  suitable  for  the  use  of 
district  patrol  vessels  of  deeper  draft  were  gone  over,  while  minor  inlets  and  refuges 
for  small  craft  that  might  serve  an  enemy  purpose  were  not  neglected.  Most 
careful  consideration  was  given  to  the  telephone  and  telegraph  facilities  within  the 
naval  district,  and  what  changes  would  be  necessary  to  adapt  these  systems  to 
strategic  naval  use  with  particular  reference  to  the  extensions  necessary  to  cover 
outlying  points  adequately. 

The  collection  of  information  as  to  privately  owned  and  amateur  operated 
radio  stations  proved  to  be  a  considerable  task,  as  it  was  not  realized  until  this  in- 
vestigation was  concluded  how  widespread  the  amateur  interest  had  become  in  radio 
telegraphy.  It  was  found  that  hundreds  of  these  stations  with  small  antennffi  were 
scattered  through  the  district,  not  any  of  them  of  a  considerable  range,  but  all  of 
them  a  detriment  to  the  smooth  and  perfect  operation  of  war-controlled  radio,  and 
capable  of  being  of  service  to  the  enemy  if  operated  by  alien  enemies. 

Statistics  as  to  pilots,  tug  captains  and  local  mariners,  information  as  to 
hospitals,  both  municipal  and  private,  and  their  availability  for  treatment  of 
navy  personnel,  all  found  a  place  in  the  comprehensive  pre-war  data. 

Last,  but  most  important,  as  the  plans  of  the  district  took  shape,  there  were  ap- 
proved tentative  complements  of  personnel  and  plans  for  its  distribution  through- 
out the  Fourth  Naval  District  in  connection  with  possible  war-time  requirements. 

So  that  there  might  be  a  minimum  of  duplicated  defensive  effort,  the  Com- 
manding OfBcer  of  the  Artillery  District  of  the  Delaware,  comprising  the  fortifica- 
tions at  Fort  DuPont,  Delaware;  Fort  jMott,  New  Jersey;  and  Fort  Delaware, 
Delaware,  furnished  the  Commandant  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District  with  charts, 
plans,  and  data  indicating  the  arcs  of  gun  fire,  the  areas  covered  by  searclilights, 
and  other  necessary  information  concerning  the  defensive  and  offensive  characteris- 
tics of  the  posts  under  liis  command. 

The  presence  in  the  port  of  Philadelphia  of  the  interned  German  ships  Prinz 
Oskar  and  Rhaelia,  and  of  the  Austrian  steamship  Franconia,  and  the  operations 
of  the  commercial  radio  stations  at  Cape  May  and  on  the  Wanamaker  Building, 
and  of  the  transatlantic  station  at  Tuckerton,  N.  J.,  imposed  upon  the  Navy 
the  necessity  of  carrying  out  the  instructions  contained  in  the  orders  of  the  Secre- 
tary dated  January  1,  1915,  and  as  subsequently  modified  April  21,  1915  and 
March  3,  1916. 

These  instructions  prohibited  the  transmission  of  any  information  by  radio 
that  might  be  considered  as  unneutral  in  character.  It  prohibited  the  receipt  or 
transmission  of  cipher  or  code  messages  from  ship  stations  of  belligerent  nations 
by  any  radio  shore  station.  Communication  of  any  character  with  warships 
or  beUigerent  nations  was  prohibited  except  calls  of  distress,  messages  relating  to 
weather,  or  hydrographic  information.  Operating  companies  were  charged  with 
the  responsibility  for  the  enforcement  of  these  regulations  where  such  companies 
were  neutral,  but  in  the  case  of  the  transatlantic  station  at  Tuckerton  which 
operated  with  certain  other  commercial  stations  in  Germany,  navy  censors  were 
stationed  to  prevent  the  transmission  of  unneutral  matter  between  that  country 
and  the  United  States.  Lieutenant  E.  A.  Lichtenstein,  U.  S.  N.,  was  assigned  to 
this  duty. 

The  first  officer  ordered  to  duty  in  the  Fourth  Naval  District  in  connection 
with  the  enforcement  of  the  President's  Neutrality  Proclamation  was  Lieutenant 

261 


Charles  H.  Bullock,  U.  S.  N.,  who  reported  January  12,  1916.  This  officer  was  made 
responsible  for  the  inspection  and  sealing  of  radio  outfits  on  board  belligerent  aiul 
neutral  vessels  arriving  at  the  port  of  Philadelphia,  and  for  the  suppression  of 
unneutral  activities  of  the  amateur  and  commercial  stations  in  the  district.  Of 
the  latter  there  were  two,  one  on  the  Wanamaker  Building,  Philadelphia,  the  other 
the  Marconi  Station  at  Cape  May,  N.  J.  In  addition,  he  was  charged  with  the 
inspection,  at  least  once  a  week,  of  the  German  steamers  Prin:  Otikur  and 
RImeliu,  and  the  Austrian  steamer  Franconia. 

The  work  rapidly  assumed  larger  proportions  and  [inasmuch  as  Lieutenant 
Bullock  was  also  in  charge  of  the  Hydrographic  Office,  Lieutenant  H.  H.  Porter, 
U.  S.  N.  (Ret.),  and  Ensign  Earl  W.  Jukes,  U.  S.  N.  (Ret.),  were  assigned  to  the 
duties  of  the  neutrality  enforcement,  and  made  their  headquarters  at  the  branch 
hydrographic  office. 

In  1916  Captain  Robert  L.  Russell,  U.  S.  N.,  was  Commandant  of  the  Fourth 
Naval  District,  and  of  the  Navy  Yard,  Philadelphia,  as  well.  In  October  of  that 
year  the  district  pre-war  activities  became  so  numerous  that  Ensign  Jukes  was 
detached  from  the  branch  hydrographic  office,  and  was  ordered  as  aide  to  the  com- 
mandant of  the  Fourth  Naval  District.  George  W.  Carney,  who  had  previously 
been  designated  as  Chief  Clerk  to  the  Commandant  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District, 
assisted  materially  in  the  preparation  of  the  revised  plans  and  the  statistics  found 
necessary  by  the  changed  conditions  due  to  later  developments.    The  necessary 


Photo  by  Replogle. 


A  Dry  Duck  at  the  Navy  Yard,  October,  1H17. 
262 


clerical  assistance  at  that  time  did  not  keep  pace  with  the  rapid  increase  of  work 
and  John  Heisler.  chief  clerk  to  the  Commandant  of  the  Navy  Yard,  cooperated 
with  the  district  force  by  placing  his  clerical  organization  at  its  disposal  whenever 
possible. 

The  plans  for  the  use  of  physical  property  and  floating  equipment  were 
practically  completed,  and  toward  the  end  of  the  year  the  war  slate,  which 
embraced  the  assignment  of  reserve  and  retired  officers  to  war  duty  was  com- 
pleted after  frequent  conferences  with  Captain  G.  R.  Marvell,  U.  S.  N.,  who  was 
then   Director  of  Naval  Districts,  with  headquarters  in  Washington. 

Utihzation  of  coast-guard  stations  was  the  subject  of  considerable  correspon- 
dence between  the  Commandant  and  Captain  F.  S.  Boskerch,  U.  S.C.G.,  with  head- 
quarters at  Atlantic  City,  and  who  was  in  charge  of  the  coast-guard  stations  located 
within  the  district. 

The  necessity  for  control  over  and  censorship  of  radio  activities  was  early 
recognized,  and  plans  were  formulated  for  taking  over  the  commercial  radio 
stations  in  the  district,  and  for  the  dismantUng  of  amateur  stations.  This  followed 
the  appointment  in  December,  1916,  of  Ensign  Jukes  as  Aide  for  Information  and 
District  Communication  Superintendent  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District.  On  April 
11,  1917,  Lieutenant  James  A.  Campbell,  Jr.,  was  assigned  to  duty  as  Communica- 
tion Oflicer  at  the  Navy  Yard  and  on  June  13th  relieved  Ensign  Jukes  as  District 
Communication  Superintendent. 

In  the  early  part  of  1917  the  expedient  of  borrowing  yeomen  from  the  receiving 
ship  to  perform  the  necessary  clerical  duties  in  connection  with  the  district  proved 
unsatisfactory.  Effort  was  made  to  enroll  yeomen  in  the  naval  reserve  force,  but 
with  no  definite  prospect  of  war,  the  reserve  force  did  not  prove  attractive.  Finally 
on  March  2,  1917,  Clarence  G.  Supplee,  the  first  man  enrolled  in  the  reserve  force 
of  the  Fourth  Naval  District,  was  accepted  and  reported  for  active  duty  the  foUow- 
ing  day.  He  was  later  commissioned  as  ensign  in  the  reserve  force,  and  performed 
valuable  duty  at  the  District  Headquarters.  Captain  Harrison  A.  Bispham,  U.  S.  N. 
(Ret.),  reported  for  duty  in  the  Fourth  Naval  District  on  March  15,  1917.  On 
March  28th,  on  the  eve  of  the  declaration  of  war,  Captain  George  F.  Cooper, 
V.  S.  N.,  reported  as  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District,  and  immediately 
undertook  with  zeal  the  organization  of  the  forces,  and  the  further  development 
of  the  plans  for  the  establishment  of  the  naval  district  organization  on  a  war 
footing. 

International  developments  followed  rapidly  at  this  time,  and  with  the  war 
but  a  matter  of  formafity,  a  recruiting  rally  was  held  in  the  reception  room  of  the 
Mayor  of  Philadelphia  in  City  Hall  on  March  20,  1917.  PubUcity  was  given  to 
the  need  for  recruits,  and  citizens  were  requested  to  assist  immediately  in  the 
recruiting  campaign  that  was  opened  in  the  same  room  the  foUowing  day. 

The  plans  previously  formulated  for  the  organization  of  the  naval  reserve 
force  were  outlined  at  the  meeting  by  Captain  Bispham,  representing  the  command- 
ant of  the  Fourth  Naval  District.  The  Mayor  of  Philadelphia,  Thomas  B.  Smith, 
pledged  the  city's  loyalty  and  cooperation  as  did  others  prominent  in  civic  affairs 
and  in  tiie  activities  of  the  German-American  Society. 

The  pubUcity  given  at  this  meeting  gave  great  impetus  to  the  work  of  traveUng 
recruiting  parties  sent  throughout  the  Fourth  Naval  District. 

Wliile  the  actual  enrolments  were  not  commenced  until  late  in  March,  the 

263 


headquarters  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District,  when  war  seemed  probable,  was  flooded 
with  verbal,  written  and  telephonic  offers  from  men  in  every  walk  of  life,  and  of 
every  occupation.  Owners  of  power-boats  and  of  steam  yachts  hastened  to  ascer- 
tain whether  their  particular  craft  could  be  utihzed,  and  whether  they  could  or 
could  not  was  paramount  over  the  conditions  under  which  the  Government  would 
accept  them. 

Palatial  pleasure  craft  were  offered  to  the  Government  outright,  and  in  order 
to  give  the  acceptance  formality,  a  dollar  a  year  contract  was  formulated,  giving 
the  Government  the  use  of  vessels  that  could  not  have  been  chartered  in  peace 
times  for  thousands  of  times  that  amount.  These  offers  were  carefully  catalogued 
and  their  availability  was  determined  in  advance  by  the  Joint  Board  of  Inspection 
of  Merchant  Vessels,  Commander  C.  P.  Nelson,  U.  S.  N.,  senior  member. 

When  the  declaration  of  war  actually  was  made  it  found  the  district  in  posses- 
sion of  much  auxihary  material  which  needed  only  the  formality  of  taking  over. 

Coincident  with  the  perfection  of  organization  of  the  district,  and  while  the 
nation's  activities  were  restricted  to  those  of  purely  a  defensive  nature,  merchant 
ships  were  equipped  with  guns  for  defense  against  German  submarines  if  attacked. 

The  fu-st  of  the  armed  guard  crews  which  manned  and  operated  these  defense 
batteries  was  commanded  by  commissioned  officers  of  the  United  States  Navy.  As 
the  armed  guard  crews  became  thoroughly  drilled  in  their  duties,  command  was 
given  to  warrant  officers  and  to  cliief  petty  officers.  The  mounting  of  these  guns, 
the  preparation  of  suitable  ammunition  rooms,  the  installation  of  fire  control, 
the  fitting  out  of  augmented  crews'  quarters  on  the  ships  that  cleared  from  this  port 
and  the  training  and  assignment  of  gun  crews,  constituted  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant of  the  pre-war  activities. 

During  the  entire  period  of  the  war,  due  to  the  large  number  of  ships  building 
on  the  Delaware,  and  by  the  large  increase  in  shipping  entering  and  clearing  the 
ports  of  Philadelphia,  Chester  and  Wilmington,  this  continued  to  be  a  most  im- 
portant function  of  the  district. 

As  international  complications  might  be  precipitated  at  any  time  by  the  actions 
of  these  crews,  the  men  assigned  were  carefully  selected  with  regard  to  their  train- 
ing and  dependability. 

The  first  ships  so  outfitted  that  cleared  the  Fourth  Naval  District  were  the 
steamships  Polarine  and  Pelrolile  on  March  14,  1917. 

The  training  of  ai-med  guard  crews  was  carried  on  at  the  Navy  Yard,  Phila- 
delphia, under  the  direction  of  Commander  H.  T.  Kays,  U.  S.  N.,  and  later 
Lieutenant  C.  H.  Stoer,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.  In  all  120  such  crews  were  trained.  Of 
this  number  forty-three  guards  were  placed  on  merchant  vessels,  twenty-six  were 
sent  to  vessels  of  the  Naval  Overseas  Transportation  Service  for  manning  the 
batteries  of  those  vessels;  twenty-seven  were  transferred  overseas  and  to  other 
stations,  and  twenty-four  complete  armed  guards,  thoroughly  trained,  and  ready 
for  immediate  assignment  to  merchant  vessels  were  awaiting  orders  at  the  time 
the  armistice  was  signed.  Batteries,  necessary  fke  control  apparatus  and  am- 
munition stowage  facilities  were  installed  on  thirty-three  merchant  vessels  touching 
at  this  po:t. 

After  preying  upon  Allied  commerce  in  the  Western  Atlantic  the  German 
raiders,  Prinz  Eitel  Friedrich  and  Kronprinz  Wilhelm,  made  port  at  Norfolk,  and 
as  they  remained  there  beyond  the  time  prescribed  by  international  law,  they 

264 


were  interned  at  the  Navy  Yard.  Temporary  living  quarters  were  establislied 
ashore,  wooden  huts  being  constructed  for  the  accommodation  of  the  officers  and 
crew.  The  necessity  for  rof)ni  at  the  Norfolk  Navy  Yard  and  the  advantage  of 
having  tiic  hulls,  while  idle,  rest  in  fresh  water,  caused  the  transfer  of  these  two 
ships  from  Norfolk  to  the  Navy  Yard,  Philadelphia.  They  were  moored  in  the 
reserve  basin.  The  huts  were  transferred  and  reerected  within  the  Government 
Reservation  on  the  south  shore,  and  these  quarters  were  afterwards  generally 
referred  to  as  the  "German  Village." 

As  the  relations  with  Germany  became  more  delicate  it  was  felt  that  tlie 
presence  of  the  men  and  officers  of  the  ships  constituted  a  menace  to  the  large 
industrial  and  naval  establishment  at  the  Navy  Yard.  Accordingly  they  were 
interned  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Georgia. 

Until  the  actual  declaration  of  war  made  it  possible  for  the  United  States 
Government  to  take  physical  possession  of  these  ships,  which  had  the  status  of 
men-of-war,  it  was  not  possible  to  prevent  the  crews  from  doing  serious  damage 
to  the  machinery. 

Formal  notice  that  a  state  of  war  existed  between  the  United  States  and 
Germany  was  received  here  at  4  p.m.  on  April  6,  1917.  Three  words  flashed  over 
the  telegraph  wires  from  Washington  simultaneously  to  every  Naval  District 
started  the  war. 

It  had  been  understood  in  advance  that  upon  receipt  of  these  tlu-ee  words 
"Mobihze  war  slate,"  all  prearranged  war  activities  should  be  set  in  motion. 
Following  the  receipt  of  this  message  telegrams  were  sent  immediately  to  all 
officers  on  the  retired  list  ordering  them  to  report  for  duty  at  their  predetermined 
stations. 

All  naval  reservists  who  had  been  enrolled  were  ordered  to  report  at  the 
Receiving  Ship,  Navy  Yard.  The  Navy  Yard  was  closed  to  the  public,  guards 
doubled,  and  everything  placed  upon  a  war  footing. 

It  became  necessary  innnediately  to  establish  a  Communication  Office  at  the 
Navy  Yaid,  and  on  the  night  of  the  day  that  the  President  declared  that  a  state  of 
war  existed  between  Germany  and  the  United  States  of  America,  the  following 
officers  reported  for  communication  duty:  Lieutenant  Joseph  L.  Tinney, 
U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  Ensign  Frank  J.  Gorman,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  Ensign  William  H. 
Morse,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  and  Ensign  William  S.  Baker,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.  These 
officers  were  immediately  placed  upon  a  continuous  communication  watch. 

Lieutenant  H.  R.  Leonard,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  had  reported  some  days  previous  to 
the  outbreak  of  the  war,  and  had  been  given  duty  in  connection  with  the  mobiliza- 
tion of  what  was  then  the  National  Naval  Volunteers  and  Naval  Militia.  Lieu- 
tenant Leonard  formulated  plans  for  the  quartering  of  these  bodies  of  men,  but 
the  number  that  actually  came  to  Philadelphia  subsequently  was  so  far  in  excess 
of  anything  that  had  been  anticipated  that  it  was  found  necessary  to  use  the 
battleships  Iowa,  Indiana  and  Massachusetts  as  tenders  to  the  receiving  ship. 

The  headquarters  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District  were  originally  located  in  the 
old  Board  Room  Building  No.  6,  Navy  Yard,  and  the  small  private  office  belonging 
to  the  inspection  officer  was  occasionally  used. 

The  business  of  the  district  grew  by  leaps  and  bounds.  To  meet  the'increased 
demand  for  accommodations,  the  Commandant  directed  that  the  entire  northern 

26.S 


end  of  Building  No.  7  should  be  outfitted  as  the  headquarters  of  the  Fourth  Naval 
District. 

The  conditions  concerning  administrative  work  there  were  anything  but 
ideal.  Partitions  separated  one  office  from  another,  hastily  constructed  of  un- 
matched boards.  Yard  locomotives  hauling  stores,  traveling  cranes,  liberty 
parties,  companies  lea\ing  sliips  for  drill,  wagons  and  automobiles  contributed 
to  the  medley  of  noise  that  characterized  the  initial  days  of  activity  aiound  the 
district  offices. 

With  but  little  ini])rovement  in  surroundings  the  headquarters  continued  in 
this  building  until  .March  of  1918,  when  they  were  moved  to  the  S.  S.  White  Build- 
ing, 12th  and  Chestnut  streets.  The  constant  growth  and  the  diversity  of  the 
activities  of  the  district  were  recognized  by  the  Department  on  April  27,  1917, 
when  Captain  George  F.  Cooper,  U.  S.  N.,  was  appointed  Commandant  of  the 
Fourth  Naval  District,  relieving  Captain  Bobert  L.  Russell,  U.  S.  N.  Captain 
Russell,  as  Commandant  of  the  Navy  Yard,  was  relieved  shortly  there  after  by 
Rear-Admiral  Benjamin  Tappan,  U.  S.  N.  (Bet.),  leaving  the  activities  of  the  yard 
and  the  district  under  separate  administrative  control,  where  previously  it  had 
been  concentrated  in  the  hands  of  one  command. 

Captain  Cooper  continued  as  Commandant  until  February  9,  1918,  when 
Rear-Admiral  James  M.  Helm,  U.  S.  N.,  reported  as  Commandant.  This  change 
was  the  result  of  the  policy  outlined  by  the  Navy  Department  to  have  flag  officers 
as  Commandants  of  all  the  Naval  Districts. 

The  declaration  that  a  state  of  war  existed  immediately  released  for  action 
all  pre-war  plans,  and  with  a  district  organization  that  was  only  in  process  of  forma- 
tion the  initicJ  steps  to  carry  them  out  were  undertaken.  On  the  day  preceding 
the  actual  declaration,  the  President  of  the  United  States,  in  his  capacity  as  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  the  Army  and  Navy-,  published  an  executive  order  establishing 
defensive  sea  areas.  The  area  defined  in  the  proclamation  had  as  its  outer  Umit 
a  line  drawn  east  and  west  through  the  north  end  of  Reedy  Island,  and  as  its  inner 
limit  a  Une  drawn  east  and  west  through  Finns  Neck  Rear  Range  Light.  At  the 
same  time  regulations  were  promulgated  for  carrying  into  eifect  the  executive  order 
of  the  President.  It  was  ordered  that  any  vessel  desiring  to  cross  the  defensive 
sea  area  should  proceed  to  the  vicinity  of  the  entrance  of  the  proper  channel, 
flying  her  national  colors  and  displaying  identification  signal  letters,  and  "there 
await  communication  with  the  harbor  entrance  patrol. "  The  entrances  to  defen- 
sive sea  areas  referred  to  in  the  Fourth  Naval  District  were  designated  as  follows: 
for  incoming  vessels  the  channel  below  Reedy  Island,  and  for  outgoing  vessels 
the  chaimel  off  Newcastle,  Pa. 

The  promulgation  of  this  order  immediately  imposed  upon  the  district  the 
estabfishment  of  a  harbor  entrance  patrol.  To  carry  out  this  order,  the  U.  S.  S. 
Beale  was  ordered,  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  to  duty  as  senior  patrol  ship  in  the 
defensive  sea  area.  She  took  up  a  mooring  on  the  east  side  of  the  channel  on 
Newcastle  Range  abeam  of  the  wharf  at  Fort  Delaware,  on  Peapatch  Island. 
At  this  time  a  submarine  net  was  placed  across  the  Delaware  River  from  Peapatch 
Island  to  shoal  water  on  the  east  side.  This  net  had  a  movable  gate  600  feet  long, 
which  was  closed  at  sundown  and  opened  at  sumise,  sliip  traffic  being  suspended 
after  nightfall.  The  net  was  placed  by  the  United  States  Army  and  operated  by 
the  Navy.    To  open  the  gate  the  end  was  swung  up  or  down  stream  according  as 

266 


tide  conditions  favored,  by  tlie  tugs  Indian,  Bernard  and  Visitor,  and  moored  to  buoys. 
This  net  was  destroyed  by  ice  in  the  winter  of  1917-18  and  was  not  replaced. 

The  war  liad  been  in  progress  but  one  day  when  two  scout  patrol  vessels 
were  placed  in  commission,  the  U.  S.  S.  Arawan,  S.P.  No.  1,  and  the  U.  S.  S.  Petrel, 
S.  P.  No.  59.  On  April  11th  the  Commandant  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District  ordered 
the  S.  P.  Arawan  to  duty  in  connection  with  the  patrol  of  the  submarine  net. 
After  reporting  to  the  L'.  S.  S.  Beale  she  took  station  below  Finns  Point,  Delaware, 
where  she  was  used  for  boarding  purposes.  The  U.  S.  Coast  Guard  Tender  Guthrie 
about  the  same  time  was  ordered  to  similar  duty. 

The  Delawai'e  River  section  was  organized  April  17,  1917,  under  the  command 
of  Commander  F.  W.  Hoffman,  N.  N.  V.;  his  jurisdiction  was  defined  to  extend 
from  Fourteen  Foot  Light  to  Trenton,  N.  J. 

Cooperative  efl'orts  between  the  army  authorities,  charged  with  the  land 
defenses  of  the  Delaware,  and  the  naval  authorities  were  early  developed.  The 
codes  in  use  in  each  branch  of  the  service  were  interchanged,  so  that  secrecy  of 
communication  might  be  safeguarded.  Reedy  Island  was  subsequently  estabhshed 
as  the  headquarters  of  the  Delaware  River  section  afloat,  and  recognition  signals 
of  all  incoming  vessels  were  demanded  at  Foit  Delaware  and  also  by  the  Harbor 
Defense  Area  Patrol  Squadron,  which  was  constantly  in  touch  with  Reedy  Island, 
located  five  mUes  below  the  fort.  Direct  telephone  communications  between  this 
station  and  Fort  Delaware  were  established  and  from  the  reporting  station's 
outpost  position  it  was  possible  to  notify  the  fort  long  in  advance  of  the  approach 
of  any  hostile  craft.  Actual  tests  proved  that  this  information  could  be  trans- 
mitted, the  batteries  manned  and  fire  drawn  within  three  seconds.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  in  actual  operations  tluring  the  entire  war,  the  Harbor  Defense  Area  Patrol 
intercepted  all  shipping  and  satisfied  itself  of  its  friendly  intent  before  it  was 
allowed  to  proceed  to  within  range  of  the  forts.  Ships  not  equipped  with  the 
recognition  signals  issued  by  the  Navy  were  boarded  and  made  subject  to  the 
process  of  port  examination.  When  German  submarines  commenced  operations 
off  the  coast,  the  Army  authorities  were  immediately  apprised  of  their  proximity, 
and  throughout  the  entire  war  the  closest  cooperation  existed  between  the  Army 
authorities  and  the  Navcd  forces. 

The  immediate  defensive  needs  of  the  great  water  course  having  been  cared 
for,  plans  were  hastened  for  the  extension  of  the  military  control,  both  offensively 
and  defensively,  for  the  entire  district.  It  was  recognized  at  once  that  the  strategi- 
cal points  on  the  north  and  south  ends  of  the  entrance  to  the  Delaware  Ray  should 
be  the  centers  of  activity  for  the  forces  afloat.  Cold  Spring  Inlet,  Cape  May, 
furnished  an  ideal  mooring  for  patrol  vessels  and  larger  craft  drawing  up  to  eighteen 
feet.  The  Delaware  Rreakwater,  with  its  sheltered  harbor  of  refuge,  similarly 
recommended  itself  as  a  base  for  district  vessels.  To  the  north  of  Cape  May  as 
far  as  Rarnegat  and  to  the  south  of  Cape  Henlopen  as  far  as  Assateague  the  coast- 
guard stations  were  immediately  brought  under  naval  control.  Connected  by  an 
intercommunicating  telephone  system  and  furnishing  at  once  a  personnel  trained 
in  observation  and  in  action,  the  two  flanks  of  the  Delaware  Ray  were  thus  at 
once  guarded  by  observation.  The  value  of  Cape  May  was  further  enhanced 
by  established  means  of  rail,  telephone  and  telegraphic  communications,  and  by 
the  presence  and  immediate  avaUabihty  of  the  Marconi  Radio  Station,  which  was 
at  once  taken  over  and  manned  by  Navy  personnel. 

267 


Ten  days  after  the  declaration  of  war.  Lieutenant  Commander  F.  A.  Savage, 
N.  N.  v.,  and  liis  Aide,  Ensign  Julius  Zieget,  N.  N.  V.,  were  ordered  to  proceed  to 
Cape  May  to  organize  the  section.  I  pon  arrival  the  following  day  they  were  met 
by  Assistant  Paymaster  H.  W.  Peacock,  Jr.,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  and  Pay  Clerk  D.  N. 
Miller,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  and  headquarters  were  established  in  room  137,  Columbia 
Hotel.  A  group  of  buildings  bordering  on  Cold  Spring  Inlet  and  known  as  "  Sewell's 
Point  Amusement  Pavilion, "  was  determined  upon  as  the  site  for  the  section  base. 
About  the  middle  of  May,  1917,  the  contractual  formalities  were  concluded  and 
the  Navy  undertook  the  conversion  of  what  had  been  a  fun  factory  into  an  adequate 
headquarters  for  naval  operation.  With  an  adaptability  that  was  most  commend- 
able, the  so-called  "Fun  Factory"  was  demolished  so  that  its  housing  might 
constitute  a  barracks.  The  "Rarrel  of  Fun,"  a  cylindrical  structure  weighing  about 
five  tons,  was  jacked  up  on  skids  and  rolled  out  of  the  building,  where  an  iron 
door  was  fitted,  this  completing  its  conversion  into  a  brig.  The  "Human  Roulette 
Table"  was  converted  into  a  scrub  table,  and  the  "Cave  of  the  Winds"  became 
the  guardhouse.  Most  of  tliis  conversion  was  done  by  ship's  force,  and  it  was 
typical  of  the  "  Win-the-War  "  spirit  that  college  graduates  became  pick  and  shovel 
men,  architects  and  draftsmen  became  carpenters  and  every  kind  of  skilled  force 
turned  to  with  the  will  to  assist  in  the  labor. 

Commander  Savage  continued  as  Commanding  Officer  of  the  Section  Base 
until  April  1,  1918.  On  December  ,5,  1917,  Captain  F.  J.  Haake,  U.  S.  C.  G.,  was 
ordered  to  duty  in  command  of  the  forces  afloat.  In  April,  1918,  Captain  Haake 
was  also  ordered  as  Commander  of  Cape  May  section,  relieving  Commander 
Savage. 

During  the  continuity  of  the  operations  of  enemy  submarines.  Captain  Har- 
rison A.  Bispham,  U.  S.  N.  (Ret.),  was  detailed  as  Commander  of  the  district  patrols, 
with  his  headquarters  at  the  Cape  May  Section  Base.  He  was  succeeded  by 
Commander  J.  B.  Patton,  U.  S.  N.  (Ret.),  when  Captain  Bispham  was  detailed  as 
Commandant  of  the  naval  unit  of  the  student  army  training  corps  at  the  University 
of  Pennsylvania. 

The  expeditious  results  accomplished  in  the  establishment  of  a  section  base  at 
Cape  May  were  dupUcated  at  Lewes,  Delaware,  it  being  intended  that  this  base 
should  guard  the  southern  entrance  to  the  Bay,  while  Cape  May  protected  the 
north  end. 

Shortly  after  noon  on  April  12,  1917,  a  board  consisting  of  Paymaster  R.  T. 
Jellet,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  Lieutenant  F.  F.  Boyd,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  and  Pay  Clerk 
M.  A.  Hunt,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  met  in  Lewes  with  James  Thompson,  the  Mayor 
of  the  city,  and  considered  the  availability  of  properties  located  about  one  mile 
west  of  Cape  Henlopen,  Delaware,  as  a  base  for  mine-sweeping  operations. 
Lieutenant  Commander  Earl  Farwell,  N.  N.  V.,  Lieutenant  (j.g.)  H.  T.  Williams, 
Assistant  Surgeon  J.  T.  White,  Ensign  J.  L.  Murray  and  Ensign  S.  H.  McSherry, 
U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  were  the  first  officers  to  arrive,  and  headquarters  were  immedi- 
ately established  in  the  Federal  Building,  at  Lewes. 

The  outfitting  of  vessels  for  district  service  progressed  rapidly  at  the  Navy  Yard, 
and  as  these  vessels  became  available,  they  were  manned  by  naval  reservists  fresh 
from  civil  life  and  with  little  training  or  experience  in  naval  affairs,  except  what  had 
been  secured  in  amateur  yachting  or  in  previously  orgcmized  auxiliary  training 
schools.      In   this   connection   mention   might   be  made  of  the  training  cruise 

268 


made  by  naval  reservists  during  the  preceding  summer,  when  through  the  efforts 
of  Thomas  Newhall  and  W.  Barklie  Henry,  both  of  whom  subsequently  became 
Lieutenant  Commanders  in  the  reserve  force,  regular  naval  vessels  were  made 
available  for  training  purposes.  The  needs  of  the  service  brought  into  active 
service  many  of  those  who  had  taken  advantage  of  this  short  course.  The  need  for 
commissioned  personnel  was  immediate,  and  it  was  necessary,  therefore,  to  give  a 
commissioned  rank  to  those  whose  knowledge  of  navigation  had  been  obtained  on 
navigational  cruises  conducted  under  the  direction  of  officers  detailed  from  the 
regular  service  to  regular  yachting  organizations,  among  which  were  the  associations 
embraced  in  what  was  known  as  the  Delaware  River  Yacht  Racing  Association. 
Many  of  those  who  entered  the  service  as  enlisted  men  were  subsequently  com- 
missioned, after  the  completion  of  courses  at  training  schools  established  at  the 
various  bases;  they  constituted  a  considerable  contribution  to  the  service  corps  of 
commissioned  officers,  and  saw  duty  far  outside  the  confines  of  the  Fourth  Naval 
District. 

The  department  originally  planned  class  four  of  the  reserve  force  for  duty 
witfiin  naval  districts,  but  the  plan  of  confining  the  activities  of  such  promising 
personnel  within  naval  district  boundaries  was  soon  recognized  to  be  not  feasible 
and  to  be  restrictive  of  the  opportunities  of  these  men.  All  who  had  so  enrolled 
were  given  an  opportunity  to  volunteer  for  general  service  without  restriction  as  to 
territorial  limits,  and  it  is  a  matter  of  pride  that  the  personnel  in  this  class  in  the 
Fourth  District  volunteered  almost  without  exception. 

The  mobiUzation  of  what  were  then  the  National  Naval  Volunteers  and  the 
tremendous  recruiting  that  was  under  way  at  the  outset  of  the  war  soon  exhausted 
the  receiving  ship's  facilities  at  the  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard.  It  was  felt  that  the 
activities  at  the  section  bases,  both  offensively  and  defensively,  would  be  interfered 
with  by  paralleling  their  well-defined  purposes  with  a  training  station  of  sufficient 
size  to  take  care  of  the  incoming  raw  recruits. 

The  activities  of  the  receiving  ship  at  the  Navy  Yard  were  concentrated  largely 
toward  meeting  drafts  for  personnel  for  duty  abroad  and  for  the  replacement  of 
personnel  aboard  vessels  of  the  fleet;  and  it  was  constantly  transferring  trained 
personnel  overseas  and  to  armed  guard  details.  A  distributing  barracks  and 
receiving  ship  for  the  Fourth  Naval  District  were  early  found  to  be  essential  to  the 
district  activities;  the  Municipal  Pier,  No.  19  North  Wharves,  Delaware  River, 
which  was  opened  May  28,  1917,  as  the  District  Supply  Department,  was  later  also 
used  as  a  distributing  barracks  for  district  forces. 

Through  the  District  Supply  Department  the  various  bases  were  outfitted  as 
they  were  established,  and  during  the  war  the  entire  district  organization  and  its 
outlying  activities,  together  with  the  district  vessels,  were  supphed. 

The  Massachusetls,  Indiana  and  Iowa  were  supphed  when  stationed  here  as 
tenders  to  the  receiving  ship,  as  were  the  U.  S.  S.  Savannah,  as  flagship  of  the  Com- 
mander, Division  Eight,  Submarine  Force,  and  the  destroyers  and  subchasers  that 
constituted  the  several  hunt  squadrons. 

A  total  of  165,161  items  was  handled  aggregating  12,257,664  pounds. 

Out  of  the  Naval  Emergency  Fund  '"  for  the  purpose  of  training  members  ol  the 
Naval  Reserve  Force  for  vessels  of  the  coast  patrol"  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  on 
May  22,  1917,  allotted  $780,000  for  the  construction  of  training  stations.  The 
Naval  Training  Association  of  the  United  States,  which  was  the  result  of  the 

269 


battleship  cruise  in  1916,  greatly  aided  in  the  estabUshment  of  these  naval  training 
stations.  That  the  Fourth  Naval  District  received  so  generous  a  share  of  the 
total  amount  available  was  largely  through  the  untiring  efforts  of  Lieutenant- 
Commander  Thomas  Newhall,  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  who,  prior  to  his  enrolment  in  the 
service,  worked  indefatigably  to  secure  a  large  training  station  for  this  district. 

Six  days  after  the  larger  fund  was  set  aside.  §300,000  was  apportioned  for  the 
estabhshment  of  proper  facilities  in  this  district.  Later  an  additional  sum  of 
•130,000  was  added.  It  was  understood  that  none  of  this  money  was  to  be  expended 
for  the  purchase  of  ground  and  it  was  necessary,  therefore,  to  secure  a  contribution 
of  a  site.  Professor  William  Easby,  Jr.,  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
H.  S.  Farquhar,  a  civil  engineer,  volunteered  their  services  as  a  selection  board,  and 
after  considering  the  suitability  of  three  sites  from  the  standpoint  of  health  and 
accessibility  to  naval  centers,  determined  upon  a  farm  near  Cape  May  owned  by 
Messrs.  Henry  Ford  and  James  Cuzens  of  Detroit,  Mich.  This  ground,  which 
became  the  site  of  Wissahickon  Barracks,  was  leased  to  the  Government  for  the  sum 
of  one  dollar  per  annum.  The  original  purpose  of  Wissahickon  Barracks  was 
broadened  by  the  necessities  of  the  service,  and  it  contributed  trained  persoimel  to 
the  Navy  without  regard  to  any  consideration  except  its  needs.  There  were  estab- 
lished at  Wissahickon  Barracks  an  officers'  material  school  and  schools  for  training 
coxswains,  quartermasters,  guimers'  mates,  yeomen,  hospital  corpsmen  and  armed 
guard.  1,529  men  were  received  from  other  stations  and  6,577  recruits  were 
received,  making  a  total  of  8,106.  Of  this  number  897  graduated  from  the  armed 
guard  school  and  saw  duty  in  this  capacity  afloat.  The  remainder  were  transferred 
throughout  the  district  to  meet  the  needs  of  its  activities  and  to  the  listeners'  school 
at  New  London,  Conn.,  signal  school,  Hampton  Roads,  Va.,  and  engineering 
school  for  officers  at  Pelham  Bay,  and  elsewhere. 

The  outfitting  of  district  vessels  kept  pace  with  the  other  rapidly  expanding 
activities  of  the  district,  and  at  the  end  of  April,  but  three  weeks  after  war  was 
declared,  eight  district  patrol  craft  were  in  commission.  The  first  scout  patrol 
vessel  to  pass  out  the  Delaware  Capes  during  war  time  was  the  U.  S.  S.  Nevada, 
S.  P.  64,  which  patrolled  the  waters  of  the  district  north  of  Cape  May  to  Barnegat. 
This  cruise  served  a  double  purpose,  in  encouraging  recruiting  in  coast  towns.  The 
promptness  of  the  response  to  calls  for  pleasure  boats  for  conversion  as  scout  patrol 
vessels  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  during  the  month  of  May  eighteen  additional 
ves'sels  were  placed  in  commission.  The  rapidly  increasing  district  forces  afloat 
made  it  possible  to  establish  harbor  entrance  patrols  to  the  northward  and  to  the 
southward,  so  that  any  hostile  craft  might  be  intercepted. 

Similarly  expeditious  results  were  accompUshed  in  the  commencement  of 
mine-sweeping  operations  in  the  Fourth  Naval  District. 

On  June  14,  1917,  but  two  months  after  commencement  of  hostifities,  the 
channel  from  Brown's  Shoal  buoys  to  Overfalls  Light  Vessel  was  swept  by  the 
U.  S.  S.  McKeever  Brothers,  S.  P.  684,  the  U.  S.  S.  McKeerer,  S.  P.  683  and  the  U.  S.  S. 
Rehnboth,  then  known  as  M.  S.  No.  1,  wliich  was  subsequently  ordered  overseas 
and  foundered  off  the  EngUsh  coast.  Mine-sweeping  operations  were  continued 
with  vigor,  thoroughness  and  without  cessation,  being  interrupted  only  when  the 
severest  weather  conditions  and  floating  ice  made  them  absolutely  impossible.  The 
fact  that  no  vessel  engaged  in  this  arduous  work  sustained  damage  by  contact 
with  an  enemy  mine  merits  comment.    The  U.  S.  S.  Kingfisher,  however,  did  strike 

270 


a  mine  while  sweeping  ofT  Barnegat  in  the  fall  of  1918,  but  it  failed  to  explode  and 
the  mine  was  destroyed. 

The  carefully  thouglif-out  pians  for  the  control  of  the  operation  of  radio  in 
war  time  were  but  a  skeleton  of  the  activities  that  centered  about  the  communica- 
tion service.  Instantaneous  service  was  essential  between  district  headquarters 
by  land  wire  and  by  radio,  so  that  instructions  and  information  might  be  trans- 
mitted with  secrecy  and  despatch. 

The  first  step  was  the  suppression  of  all  amatem'  radio  stations,  and  a  circular 
letter  was  sent  to  all  those  of  record  as  operating  sucli  apparatus.  With  but  a  few 
exceptions,  the  request  of  the  department  for  the  dismantling  of  the  stations  and 
the  taking  down  of  the  antennae  was  complied  with.  Such  as  doubted  the  earnest- 
ness of  the  riovernment  were  rapidly  convinced  by  the  inspectors  who  traveled 
from  one  end  of  the  district  to  the  otiier.  Leased  telephone  lines  and  leased  tele- 
graph wires  emanated  from  the  communication  office  at  the  Navy  Yard,  and  sub- 
sequently from  the  headquarters  of  the  Fourth  Naval  District  to  every  sectional 
point  of  activity. 

A  perfect  system  of  radio  communication  was  established  between  district 
vessels  afloat  and  the  Naval  Radio  Station  at  Philadelphia,  and  the  Marconi 
Station  that  was  taken  over  and  operated  as  Navy  Radio,  Cape  May. 

The  establishment  of  a  district  radio  station  to  communicate  with  patrol 
vessels  was  authorized  at  Lewes,  and  in  advance  of  the  equipmcTit  designated  by 
the  bureau,  a  set  designated  for  a  district  vessel  was  temporarily  placed  in  opera- 
tion until  replaced  by  the  navy  standard  apparatus. 

As  an  effective  check  upon  the  unauthorized  operation  of  radios  two  listening- 
in  stations,  not  used  for  transmission,  were  established,  one  in  the  Parkway  Build- 
ing, Philadelphia,  and  the  other  in  the  West  Philadelphia  High  School. 

A  second  district  radio  station  was  established  on  the  Million  Dollar  Pier  at 
Atlantic  City  which  subsequently  proved  to  be  a  most  reliable  outpost. 

Navy  Radio,  Philadelphia,  continued  as  the  transmitting  station  until  the 
office  of  the  district  communication  superintendent  was  moved  to  the  district  staff 
headquarters  in  October.  1918.  Shortly  after  this  date  a  distant  control  station 
was  estabUshed  in  the  White  Building. 

Distant  control  of  Navy  Radio,  Cape  May,  was  established  about  the  same 
time,  the  control  station  being  operated  from  the  section  base.  To  expedite  the 
transmission  of  routing  instructions  lightships  were  equipped  with  radio.  Five 
Fathom  Bank  Lightship  was  put  in  operation  .July  2.')th.  and  Fenwick  Island 
Light  Vessel  was  equipped  November  1,  1918. 

The  U.  S.  S.  Falcon,  which  was  already  equipped  with  radio,  was  stationed, 
after  the  signing  of  the  armistice,  fifty-two  miles  due  east  of  Five  Fathom  Bank 
Lightship  as  a  route  ship  for  incoming  troop  transports. 

A  strict  censorship  was  imposed  to  prevent  the  movements  of  naval  ships  or 
of  naval  units  becoming  known  to  the  enemy.  The  transaction  of  virtually  all 
Navy  business  was  in  confidential  codes.  As  a  further  safeguard  the  transmission 
of  personal  messages  to  personnel  on  major  ships  as  well  as  on  district  ships  was 
handled  through  the  department,  and  although  this  caused  much  inconvenience, 
it  was  recognized  by  the  Navy  personnel  as  a  necessary  war  measure  and  was 
rigidly  adhered  to. 

The  big  transatlantic  station  at  Tuckerton,  wliich  was  seized  at  the  outbreak 

271 


of  the  war,  was  operated  under  naval  control,  and  a  substantial  force  of  marines 
detailed  to  protect  and  safeguard  this  property  were  at  the  same  time  a  formidable 
outpost  force  on  land  in  the  northern  end  of  the  district. 

This  station,  in  charge  of  Lieutenant  0.  F.  Haslar,  U.  S.  N.,  operated  continu- 
ously as  an  important  factor  in  the  transatlantic  communication  service. 

The  radio  service  contributed  directly  to  the  safety  of  ships  in  many  ways 
during  the  war.  During  the  entire  course  of  the  submarine  activities  off  the  At- 
lantic coast,  war  warnings  were  sent  broadcast  through  the  air  to  all  ships,  in 
Enghsh,  and  for  ships  passing  within  range  of  the  radio  stations  at  Philadelphia 
and  Cape  May,  this  service  enabled  them  to  a\oid  the  immediate  locahty  of 
danger.  In  addition  there  was  sent  out  nightly  by  the  broadcast  method,  hydro- 
graphic  information  concerning  lightships  off  stations,  gas  buoys  that  were  not 
lighted  and  positions  of  derehcts  and  obstructions  that  were  a  menace  to  navigation 
as  well  as  information  in  regard  to  mine  fields. 

For  ships  of  the  Navy  more  detailed  and  more  confidential  information  was 
sent  in  code,  so  that  every  fighting  unit  was  promptly  apprised  of  the  latest  develop- 
ments in  the  submarine  campaign. 

Naval  radio  operators  were  assigned  to  vessels  of  the  Naval  Overseas  Trans- 
portation Service,  United  States  Army  transports,  all  merchant  vessels  operated 
by  the  United  States  Shipping  Board  and  all  other  United  States  merchant  vessels 
of  2,500  tons  or  greater. 

In  connection  with  the  daylight  saving  bill,  which  was  effective,  as  far  as 
clock  changes  were  concerned,  at  2  a.m.  Sunday,  March  31,  1918,  care  was  exer- 
cised to  prevent  confusion  in  convoy  meetings  and  in  clock  times  used  in  con- 
nection with  dispatches  by  radio.  The  daylight  saving  bill  set  the  clocks  at  all 
naval  stations  and  on  all  ships  in  the  territorial  waters  of  the  United  States  ahead 
one  hour  at  the  time  before  mentioned.  Greenwich  mean  time  was  employed,  how- 
ever, in  designating  the  times  of  radio  broadcastings  of  radio  watch  keeping  on 
ships  having  one  or  two  operators.  In  communication  between  AUied  naval  vessels 
and  shore  stations  and  Allied  merchant  vessels,  Greenwich  mean  time  was  con- 
tinued to  be  employed.  Greenwich  meridian  summer  civil  time  was  employed  on 
the  North  Atlantic  Ocean  in  all  communications  between  United  States  naval 
forces  concerning  contact  between  forces  passing  designated  positions  at  sea  and 
rendezvous,  when  such  forces  were  east  of  the  40th  meridian;  when  west  of  the 
40th  meridian,  75th  meridian  summer  civil  time  was  employed  between  the  dates 
prescribed  in  the  dayUght  saving  bill. 

The  seizure  by  the  United  States  of  all  vessels  belonging  to  Holland,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  executive  order  of  the  President  of  the  United  States,  resulted 
in  the  taking  over  of  the  Dutch  ship  Themisto,  then  in  the  port  of  Philadelphia. 
A  guard  was  placed  aboard  the  steamer  at  Pier  28,  South  Wharves,  Delaware 
River,  March  20,  1918.  On  March  27th  the  commandant  was  directed  to  release 
the  ship  to  the  shipping  board,  as  the  vessel  was  to  be  manned  by  a  shipping  board 
crew.  This  was  done.  The  seizure  was  carried  out  without  incident,  and  the 
several  regulations  prescribed  to  be  followed  under  the  circumstances  were  executed. 

During  the  early  months  of  the  war  the  district  forces  had  no  actual  contact 
with  the  enemy.  The  rigid  discipUne  and  training  and  the  actual  ex-perience  afloat 
and  ashore  welded  together  a  formidable  district  force  at  the  same  time  as  the 
district  contributed  its  full  quota  in  every  other  direction. 

272 


U.  S.  S.  "DeKalh."  al  Navy  Yard,  SeplemlxT.  I91H.  showing  Paravane  Skeg. 


Major  ships  were  repaired,  placed  in  commission  and  manned  at  the  Navy 
Yard.  The  big  interned  German  raiders,  the  Kronprinz  Wilhelm  and  the  Prinz 
Eiiel  Friedrich,  afterwards  bearing  the  names  of  two  revolutionary  heroes  of  Ger- 
man birth,  sailed  from  Philadelphia  as  the  U.  S.  S.  DeKalb  and  U.  S.  S.  Von  Steuben 
for  overseas  ports  crowded  with  the  first  complements  to  leave  this  section. 

The  losses  suffered  by  our  Allies  made  the  need  for  mine-sweeping  vessels  in 
European  waters  imperative.  The  District  was  requested  to  furnish  its  quota  of 
such  vessels,  and  the  City  of  Lewes,  S.  P.  No.  383,  and  the  Behobolh  (sunk),  S.  P. 
No.  384.  intended  for  district  use,  were  designated  for  duty  overseas. 

In  addition,  the  U.  S.  S.  Alcedo  was  placed  in  commission  on  April  20th,  and 
was  sent  to  the  war  zone,  where  she  was  later  torpedoed  and  sunk.  The  U.  S.  S. 
Chipper,  S.  P.  1049.  and  two  scout  patrol  vessels,  the  U.  S.  S.  Elf,  S.  P.  81,  and  the 
U.  S.  S.  Little  Aie,  S.  P.  60.  were  fitted  out  and  transferred  to  the  Fifth  and  Seventh 
Naval  Districts,  respectively.  The  U.  S.  S.  Sialia  and  the  U.  S.  S.  Lyndonia  were 
also  fitted  out  and  assigned  to  duty  elsewhere,  the  latter  returning  some  months 
later,  renamed  the  U.  S.  S.  Vega. 

TheU.  S.  S.  Henderson,  a  navy  transport,  built  at  the  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard, 
was  completed  with  despatch,  and  sailed  on  her  maiden  voyage  with  no  trial  trip, 
except  that  between  Philadelphia  and  New  York.  Everything  proved  so  satis- 
factory that  she  was  immediately  employed  in  transport  duty.  About  the  same 
time  that  the  U.  S.  S.  Henderson  sailed,  the  5th  Regiment  of  Marines,  commanded 

273 


by  Colonel  C.  A.  Doyen,  U.  S.  M.  C,  embarked  at  the  Navy  Yard.  This  contingent 
was  distributed  on  the  U.  S.  S.  St.  Louis,  U.  S.  S.  Charleston,  U.  S.  S.  Hancock  and  the 
U.  S.  S.  DeKallj,  w  hich  was  making  her  maiden  voyage  under  American  colors.  At 
New  York,  the  marines  on  the  U.  S.  S.  St.  Louis  and  the  U.  S.  S.  Charleston  were 
transferred  to  the  U.  S.  S.  Henderson,  which  transported  them  to  France. 

Every  available  piece  of  ground  at  the  Navy  Yard  was  utilized,  and  there 
sprung  up  in  record  time  a  seaman's  barracks,  a  well-organized  hospital,  and  a 
naval  aircraft  factory  that  was  destined  to  turn  out  naval  air-fighting  machines 
for  duty  at  home  and  abroad.  Such  open  spaces  as  were  available  were  piled  high 
with  stores  destined  for  overseas,  and  gigantic  storehouses  supplemented  those  at 
the  Navy  Yard,  which  were  soon  found  to  be  totally  inadequate  for  the  demands 
made  upon  them.  Every  available  docking  space  was  crowded  with  ships  under 
repair,  being  outfitted,  or  loading  with  stores. 

The  imperative  necessity  for  the  maximum  number  of  destroyers  to  operate 
in  European  waters  gave  precedence  at  the  Navy  Yard  to  work  done  on  this  class 
of  vessels. 

When  the  U.  S.  S.  Stewart,  II.  S.  S.  MacDonough,  U.  S.  S.  Hull  and  U.  S.  S.  Hopkins 
arrived,  on  the  last  day  of  the  year  of  1917,  at  the  Navy  Yard,  they  were  immediately 
inspected  and  a  conservative  estimate  was  made  of  the  time  necessary  to  place 
these  vessels  in  condition  for  offensive  operations  abroad,  and  for  the  transatlantic 
cruise  necessary  for  them  to  reach  their  base  of  operations.  It  was  found  that  at 
least  two  months  would  be  required  to  complete  the  repairs  thought  necessary 
according  to  pre-war  standards.  The  reception  of  this  report  by  the  chief  of  naval 
operations  brought  from  him  a  characteristic  reply  as  follows: 

"Delay  of  two  months  in  fitting  out  destroyers  of  Divisions  A  and  B  may 
defeat  object  of  present  orders,  as  the  need  of  our  destroyers  in  European  waters 
is  immediate.  (Thirty-six  hours  after  receipt  of  orders,  U.  S.  S.  Alywin  sailed  for 
distant  service,  and  the  department  hopes  to  receive  a  similar  hearty  reply  from 
Divisions  A  and  B.)  It  is  the  desire  of  the  department  that  as  many  of  the  de- 
stroyers of  these  divisions  as  possible  proceed  to  the  Azores  within  one  week  and 
with  the  assistance  of  the  U.  S.  S.  Prometheus,  to  equip  there  for  duty  in  French 
waters.  The  U.  S.  S.  Stewart  shall  inform  the  department  of  the  destroyers  that 
can  sail  from  Philadelphia  as  soon  as  the  ice  clears,  and  also  of  the  dates  that  the 
remaining  destroyers  can  follow." 

This  compelling  appeal  caused  an  immediate  revision  of  the  plans  that  had 
been  made,  with  the  result  that  on  the  following  day  the  chief  of  naval  operations 
was  advised  that  the  U.  S.  S.  Stewart,  the  U.  S.  S.  Hopkins,  the  U.  S.  S.  Paul  Jones, 
the  U.  S.  S.  Worden,  and  the  U.  S.  S.  MacDonough  would  be  ready  to  sail  from  the 
Navy  Yard  on  January  15th,  two  weeks  after  the  majority  of  them  had  arrived  for 
overhaul.  He  was  advised  that  the  U.  S.  S.  Hull  would  follow  on  the  1st  of  Feb- 
ruary and  the  Preble  on  February  15th. 

Considerable  of  the  time  required  for  the  overhaul  was  consumed  by  repairs 
of  damage  sustained  from  ice,  during  the  passage  of  these  vessels  from  Hampton 
Boads  to  Philadelphia. 

The  same  speed  demanded  in  the  outfitting  of  combat  ships  was  also  expected 
in  the  conversion  of  merchant  vessels  to  naval  auxiliaries.  On  the  last  day  of  the 
year  1917,  the  department  outUned  its  poficy  in  this  particular,  as  follows: 

"The  conversion  of  merchant  vessels  to  naval  auxiUaries  and  their  upkeep 

274 


shall  be  considered  of  the  greatest  importance,  and  every  energy  and  resource  shall 
be  used  to  obtain  this  end.  Vessels  must  not  be  unnecessarily  delayed  and  only 
repairs  that  are  demanded  by  sanitation,  safety  and  efficiency  of  vessels  should  be 
undertaken  for  immediate  accomplishment.  Desirable  alterations  should  be  laid 
out  so  that  they  may  be  undertaken  while  vessels  are  in  port  between  cruises." 

This  policy  prevailed  in  the  taking  over  and  the  outfitting  of  ships  subsequently 
operated  by  the  Navy  for  the  several  governmental  accounts,  and  vessels  that  were 
taken  over  and  operated  directly  by  the  Navy.  To  this  end  the  resources  of  the 
Navy  Yard  and  of  the  large  shipyards  were  utilized  to  the  fullest.  At  the  same 
time  this  work  was  so  arranged  as  not  to  interfere  with  the  new  construction  so 
urgently  needed. 

The  urgency  of  repair  and  outfitting  work  at  the  Navy  Yard  and  other  causes 
resulted  in  the  suspension  of  actual  construction  work,  for  a  time,  on  the  program 
of  combat  vessels.  Resumption  of  work  on  the  necessary  ways,  buildings,  etc., 
for  this  purpose  was  as  prompt  as  circumstances  would  permit. 

The  Fourth  Naval  District  assisted  in  and  was  responsible,  to  a  great  extent, 
for  the  assembling,  organization  and  shipment  of  the  material  and  personnel  for 
the  Northern  Bombing  Group,  a  naval  aviation  unit  which  operated  in  the  northern 
part  of  France,  near  Calais,  and  which  bombed  the  German  U-boat  bases  at  Zee- 
brugge,  Bruges  and  Ostend. 

This  group  had  a  personnel  in  the  field  of  about  2,000  men,  marines  and  blue- 
jackets, and  nearly  all  of  the  latter  were  selected  and  assembled  on  the  receiving 
ship  in  the  Navy  Yard.  The  material  for  the  group  was  also  assembled  on  the 
docks  of  the  Yard.  This  included  about  200  planes,  DH-4  type,  equipped  with 
Lib(>rty  motors  whiih  were  constructed  in  the  United  States,  assembled  and  boxed 
for  shipment  from  Philadelphia. 

This  group  operated  under  the  general  direction  of  Mce-Admiral  R.  Keyes, 
R.  N.,  commander  of  British  Naval  Forces  operating  against  the  Belgian  coast; 
headquarters,  Dover. 

The  late  fall  and  early  winter  of  1917  saw  many  ships  actually  engaged  in 
overseas  transportation,  both  of  troops  and  supplies,  and  on  December  27th,  at 
1  P.M.,  the  U.  S.  S.  Stocklon,  the  first  of  the  new  type  of  destroyers  to  be  delivered 
during  the  war,  arrived  at  the  Navy  Yard  from  the  William  Cramp  &  Sons  Ship 
and  Engine  Building  Company,  where  she  was  constructed.  She  was  placed  in 
commission  immediately  and  sailed  three  days  later. 

The  contribution  made  to  depleted  world  shipping  by  the  yards  bordering  on 
the  Delaware  River,  and  the  construction  ot  various  types  of  war  vessels,  constitute 
one  of  the  most  effective  coincident  war  efforts  prosecuted  in  the  District.  The 
early  estabhshment  of  the  Hog  Island  Plant  of  the  Emergency  Fleet  Corporation 
on  the  Delaware  River,  south  of  Philadelphia  Navy  Yard,  and  the  governmental 
control  exercised  over  every  other  yard,  made  necessary  cooperation  easy.  There 
was  at  all  times  a  close  weave  of  interdependency  that  made  the  prompt  and 
efficient  performance  of  the  responsibilities  imposed  upon  the  Commandant  a  matter 
of  prime  importance.  The  taking  over,  outfitting  and  manning  of  the  ships,  the 
inspection  and  testing  of  their  radio  equipment,  the  movement  of  hulls  before 
they  were  able  to  operate  under  their  own  power,  might  be  enumerated  as  among 
the  most  important. 

The  successful  operations  of  enemy  submarines  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Azore 

27.5 


Islands  prompted  the  Government  to  secure  from  the  Portuguese  Government  a 
concession  which  enabled  this  Government  to  establish  naval  bases  on  these  islands. 

The  first  shipment  of  stores  and  personnel  for  the  new  naval  bases,  established 
at  Ponta  Delgada  and  Horta  Fayal,  were  transported  from  the  Navy  Yard,  Phila- 
delphia, aboard  the  U.  S.  S.  Hancock.  When  the  Hancock  sailed,  she  flew  the  flag 
of  Rear-Adniiral  Herbert  0.  Dunn,  who  was  assigned  to  command  the  naval  forces 
operating  in  the  Azores. 

On  December  24,  1917,  the  department  directed  the  loading  of  the  Hancock 
and  instructed  that  she  should  proceed  to  Ponta  Delgada,  where  stores  and  personnel 
for  that  base  were  to  be  unloaded.  Upon  completion  of  the  discharge  the  Hancock 
was  directed  to  proceed  to  Hampton  Roads,  Va. 

The  U.  S.  S.  Beale  and  the  U.  S.  S.  Terry  were  detailed  as  escort  for  the  U.  S.  S. 
Hancock  and  were  further  directed  upon  arrival  to  report  to  Vice-Admiral  Sims 
for  duty. 

At  11  A.M.,  January  9th,  the  Hancock,  escorted  by  the  U.  S.  S.  Beale  and  the 
U.  S.  S.  Terry,  sailed  from  the  Navy  Yard.  Philadelphia,  to  the  Azores,  under  escort. 

The  majority  of  the  ships  attached  to  Detachment  3,  Squadron  5,  Patrol  Force, 
was  outfitted  at  the  Navy  Yard  for  duty  overseas.  The  detachment  was  command- 
ed by  Commander  David  F.  Boyd,  U.  S.  N.,  with  the  U.  S.  S.  Nokomis  as  his  flag- 
ship. The  detachment  was  made  up  in  its  entirety  of  vessels  that  had  been  con- 
verted for  this  duty,  and  at  various  times  between  December  17,  1917,  and 
December  22,  1917,  the  detachment  sailed  from  the  Na^^'  Yard  for  the  Azores. 
The  sliips  included  the  foUowing: 

U.  S.  S.  Nokomis,  U.  S.  S.  Concord,  U.  S.  S.  Gypsum  Queen,  U.  S.  S.  Nahanl. 
U.  S.  S.  Mariner,  U.  S.  S.  Nokomis  U,  U.  S.  S.  Barnegat,  U.  S.  S.  Monlauk,  U.  S.  S. 
Penobscot,  U.  S.  S.  Lyndonia  and  U.  S.  S.  Veneiia. 

Changes  in  the  characteristics  of  certain  battle  cruisers  made  available  for 
other  service  a  number  of  14-inch,  50  cahber  naval  guns. 

The  plan  of  converting  these  into  land  batteries  by  placing  them  upon  railway 
mountings  resulted  in  the  organization  of  this  unit,  under  the  command  of  Rear- 
Admiral  Charles  P.  Plunkett,  U.  S.  N.  And  the  United  States  Railway  Batteries 
in  France  subsequently  did  terrific  execution  at  an  effective  range  of  thirty  miles 
and  contributed  largely  to  the  demorahzation  and  interruption  of  communication 
far  in  the  rear  of  the  German  fines.  In  action  these  guns  threw  a  heavier  projectile 
with  greater  accuracy  and  to  a  greater  distance  than  any  guns  previously  placed 
on  mobile  shore  moimts. 

The  gun  mounts  were  constructed  in  Philadelphia  by  the  Baldwin  Locomotive 
Works,  and  the  material  and  personnel  were  assembled  in  the  Fourth  Naval  Dis- 
trict, and  shipped  from  here  to  St.  Nazaire,  France,  at  which  port  the  material 
was  assembled  and  promptly  put  into  action. 

The  history  of  this  project  from  its  inception  in  America  until  the  first  shots 
were  fired  into  German  defended  territory  is  an  example  of  the  speed  that  won  the 
war. 

The  project  was  first  discussed  in  November,  1917.  On  December  26th  the 
Bureau  of  Ordnance  instructed  the  naval  gun  factory  to  prepare  plans  and  speci- 
fications for  the  gun  mounts,  locomotives,  cars  and  other  necessary  ec[uipment. 
The  work  was  finished  in  thirty  days. 

The  equipment  included  five  14-inch  railway  mounts,  six  locomotives  and 

276 


five  complete  trains  of  cars — seventy-five  in  all.  Bids  were  opened  February  6th, 
but  w«Me  rejected  because  of  the  time  of  delivery  demanded.  On  February  13th 
new  bids  weic  submitted  and  the  awards  made  the  same  day.  The  Baldwin 
Locomotive  Works  undertook  the  dehvery  of  the  gun  ecu's  by  June  15th. 

The  first  mount  was  completed  and  moved  from  the  Baldwin  Shops  on  April 
25th,  seventy-two  days  from  the  day  of  the  award,  and  the  last  of  them  one 
month  later  or  ten  days  ahead  of  the  contract  time.  AH  the  cars  and  special 
equipment  were  delivered  June  1st,  only  155  days  from  the  time  the  project  was 
conceived. 

General  Pershing  directed  the  shipments  of  the  expedition  to  St.  Nazaire. 
The  first  shipment  was  made  June  20th.  Trained  personnel  had  been  assembled 
and  preceded  the  material.  The  first  shipment  arrived  overseas  July  8th,  and  the 
last  of  it  on  July  21st.  Erection  work  began  July  20th,  and  the  first  gun  train 
left  for  the  front  August  17th. 

The  first  gun  fired  was  on  September  5th,  and  continued  in  action  until  the 
signing  of  the  armistice. 

The  gims  weighed  ninety-eight  tons  each  and  fired  a  projectile  weighing  1,470 
pounds  with  a  range  of  twenty-eight  miles. 

The  mobihty  of  the  guns  heightened  the  impression  of  the  Germans  that  the 
AUies  were  equipped  with  hundreds  of  them.  They  were  extremely  effective  in 
interrupting  vital  supply  railroads  and  main  lines  of  communication. 

The  winter  of  1917-18  was  the  most  severe  in  more  than  a  decade,  and  despite 
ice  conditions  in  the  Delaware  River  that  were  almost  unprecedented,  the  steady 
progress  of  navy^  ships  and  of  transports  was  uninterrupted. 

But  few  of  the  district  vessels,  however,  were  able  to  operate,  and  many  of 
those  of  wooden  construction  were  of  necessity  laid  up  out  of  reach  of  the  ice  packs 
that  extended  for  miles  to  seaward.  Such  vessels  as  could  possibly  be  expected 
to  operate  under  these  conditions  were  kept  in  service  and  it  is  worthy  ol  mention 
that  despite  the  rigors  of  the  winter,  patrols  were  maintained  in  the  defensive 
area,  at  the  harbor  entrance  and  well  off  shore,  without  interruption.  This  work 
was  carried  on  by  the  following  scout  patrol  vessels:  U.  S.  S.  Emerald,  S.  P.  177; 
U.  S.  S.  Susanne,  S.  P.  510;  U.  S.  S.  Absegami,  S.  P.  371;  U.  S.  S.  Gaivota,  S.  P.  436; 
U.  S.  S.  Edorea,  S.  P.  5 19  and  U.  S.  S.  Victor.  S.  P.  1995.  The  severest  test  was 
imposed  upon  the  vessels  detailed  to  the  offshore  patrol.  The  U.  S.  S.  Emerald, 
S.  P.  177,  and  the  U.  S.  S.  Susanne,  S.  P.  510,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Maxwell 
Wyeth  (j.g.),  U.  S.  N.  R.  F.,  and  Ensign  Samuel  Wetherill,  U.  S.  N.  F.,  respectively, 
are  deserving  of  high  commendation  for  the  maintenance  ot  this  duty,  which  re- 
quired them  at  times  to  proceed  to  their  stations  through  ice  floes  extending  eight 
miles  to  seaward.  The  mine-sweeping  fleet,  consisting  for  the  main  part  of 
converted  fishing  boats,  swept  the  entrance  to  Delaware  Bay  throughout  the 
winter,  whenever  weather  conditions  made  it  possible. 

The  vessels  depended  upon  for  offensive  and  defensive  action  were  of  great 
variety  both  as  to  size,  construction  and  power  plants.  At  the  outbreak  of  hostili- 
ties any  vessel  that  could  be  utiUzed  was  taken  over.  These  included  steam  yachts, 
steam  tugs,  steam  fishing  boats  and  pleasure  craft,  with  almost  every  make  of 
gasoline  motor  represented.  The  upkeep  of  this  machinery  constituted  one  of  the 
greatest  problems.     It  was  impracticable  to  keep  in  stock  repair  parts  for  every 

277 


make  represented,  and  in  this  connection  a  machine  and  repair  shop  established 
at  Cape  May  did  excellent  work. 

Later,  when  subchasers  were  made  available,  it  was  possible  to  standardize 
repair  work  for  them.  Considering  the  demands  made  upon  all  the  vessels,  the 
consistency  of  performance  is  remarkable,  and  is  a  tribute  to  the  engine  room 
forces  of  this  fleet.  That  some  of  them  weathered  conditions  that  they  were  forced 
to  meet  was  a  surprise  to  even  those  who  manned  them  and  a  tribute  at  the  same 
time  to  the  efficient  manner  in  which  they  were  handled.  But  one  vessel,  the  Annie 
Gallup,  a  mine  sweeper,  was  totally  lost  out  of  the  entire  fleet  that  operated  for 
a  period  of  nearly  twenty  months. 

The  durability  and  cruising  of  the  subchasers  are  also  worthy  of  note.  Nearly 
all  of  those  attached  to  this  district  have  covered  over  12.000  miles  since  they  were 
commissicmed. 

A  coastal  air  station  was  established  at  Cape  May  early  in  the  war  and  manned 
by  the  United  States  Marine  Corps.  On  December  4,  1917,  it  was  taken  over  by 
the  Navy,  and  operated  as  a  patrol  station  for  the  protection  of  the  coast  against 
depredations  by  hostile  submarines.  At  this  time.  Cold  Spring  Inlet  was  com- 
pletely frozen  over  so  that  no  flying  could  be  done,  and  this  condition  prevailed 
until  the  latter  part  of  the  month  of  February,  1918. 

As  soon  as  the  weather  conditions  became  at  all  favorable  for  flying,  ten 
additional  pilots  were  ordered  to  the  station  and  the  complement  was  raised  to 
238  men.  Twelve  R-type  seaplanes  were  at  the  station  and  in  operation.  Syste- 
matic patrols  were  established  when  definite  information  was  received  that  enemy 
submarines  might  be  expected  off  the  coast.  These  machines  were  equipped  with 
Mark-3  bombs  for  offensive  purposes.  The  patrols  normally  consisted  of  two 
machines,  although  at  times  four  traveled  in  company. 

Paralleling  the  District  activities,  but  in  a  sense  separate  from  them,  were 
what  might  be  considered  the  overseas  contributions.  Philadelphia,  the  district 
headquarters,  was  one  of  the  ports  of  embarkation,  and  through  it  during  the  entire 
progress  of  the  war  there  flowed  personnel  and  a  vast  quantity  of  stores  and  supplies 
manufactured  in  Philadelphia  and  its  environs.  The  systematic  and  efficient 
handling  of  these  stores  and  the  outfitting  and  commissioning  of  the  ships  taken 
over,  constructed  or  operated  for  the  army  and  navy  account,  brought  into  being 
the  Naval  Overseas  Transportation  Service.  This  service  was  created  by  chief  of 
naval  operations,  January  9,  1918.  Commander  F.  W.  Hoffman,  N.  N.  V.,  was 
ordered  as  District  Supervisor  on  January  21,  1918,  and  continued  as  such  until 
relieved  by  Commander  M.  H.  Simons,  U.  S.  N.,  on  September  2,  1918. 

The  safe  routing  of  ships  overseas  required  secrecy  and  the  closest  cooperation 
between  this  country  and  the  forces  abroad,  and  it  was  early  recognized  that  this 
was  an  activity  that  required  the  cooperation  between  navcd  district  and  naval 
forces  abroid  so  that  the  locafity  of  every  navigation  menace  might  be  avoided 
and  every  system  of  safeguarding  overseas  convoys  might  be  utilized.  This 
prompted  the  creation  of  routing  offices  in  each  naval  district.  On  June  2,  1917, 
Captain  F.  S.  Van  Boskerck,  U.  S.  C.  G.,  was  appointed  American  Routing  Officer. 

All  vessels  leaving  port  were  required  to  report  to  the  ship  routing  office, 
prior  to  putting  to  sea.  From  the  day  of  its  creation  until  the  submarine  activities 
commenced  along  the  coast,  the  routing  officer's  functions  were  limited  to  the 
dissemination  of  information  to  outbound  shipping,  and  until  the  distribution  of 

278 


confidential  publications  was  taken  over  in  its  entirety  by  the  issuing  officer  acting 
under  the  direction  of  the  district  communication  superintendent,  the  routing 
officer  issued  to  American  vessels,  other  than  commissioned  navy  ship.,  such 
confidential  instructions  as  the  department  desired  them  to  receive.  The  actual 
routing  of  ships  overseas  was  done  by  the  British  routing  officer  of  this  port, 
Lieutenant-Commander  R.  H.  Reade,  R.  N.  R. 

All  vessels  bound  overseas,  however,  were  given  such  information  as  was  in 
the  possession  of  the  district  authorities  relative  to  enemy  raiders,  movements  of 
submai'ines,  locations  of  mines,  and  obstructions  to  navigation.  All  ship  owners, 
masters,  customs  officials  and  shipping  agencies  were  advised  of  the  contents  of 
the  circular  letter  of  instructions  issued  May  4,  1918,  by  the  chief  of  naval  opera- 
tions, relative  to  the  steps  to  be  taken  for  the  protection  of  shipping  in  the  event 
of  enemy  submarine  activity  on  the  Atlantic  coast.  The  British  routing  officer 
was  invited  into  conference,  and  when  it  became  necessary  for  the  district  authori- 
ties to  assume  control  of  coastwise  shipping  to  save  it  from  the  danger  of  enemy 
mines  or  from  contact  with  enemy  submarines  a  perfect  system  of  coastal  routing 
had  been  devised. 

On  June  3,  1918,  the  department  directed  the  Commandant  to  assume  control 
of  coastwise  shipping,  and  handle  traffic  in  accordance  with  the  instructions 
previously  given. 

Coastal  routings  were  made  effective  immediately  and  continued  until  October 
16,  1918,  when  routing  instructions  were  revoked.  Subsequent  to  tliis  date,  how- 
ever, shipping  was  routed  so  as  to  avoid  known  mined  areas. 

Supplementing  the  system  of  coastal  routings  were  the  speaking  stations 
established  on  Five  Fathom  Bank  Lightship  and  Fenwick  Island  Shoal  Lightship. 
These  light  vessels  were  equipped  with  radio,  and  necessary  day  and  night  signaling 
apparatus  gave  routing  directions  to  passing  ships.  These  signals  were  put  in 
effect  September  16,  1918.  In  addition,  a  vessel  was  constantly  stationed  at 
McCries'  Shoals  Buoy  on  the  same  duty.  This  vessel  gave  information  to  ships 
proceeding  inbound  on  courses  that  would  not  take  them  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
lightships  previously  mentioned. 

Winter  Quarter  Shoal  Light  Vessel  was  equipped  with  a  special  large  size 
light  for  distance  signaling,  thus  enabling  ships  to  pass  well  inside  of  the  light  vessel. 

The  policy  carried  out  in  the  main  was  as  follows:  First,  that  shipping  was 
not  to  be  delayed  by  the  activity  of  submarines.  Second,  that  they  should  be 
directed  through  areas  that  had  been  swept,  and  which  were  reasonably  certain 
to  be  free  of  mines.  Third,  that  shipping  should  not  be  unduly  alarmed  by  unau- 
thenticated  reports  of  enemy  activity,  and  fourth,  that  they  should  be  given  the 
maximum  protection  possible  by  convoys. 

The  sinking  of  the  Diamond  Shoal  Light  Vessel  by  a  submarine  led  to  the 
belief  that  light  vessels  in  this  district  would  share  the  same  fate,  and  during  the 
entire  submarine  activity  these  ships  were  afforded  as  much  protection  as  was 
consistent  with  the  other  mihtary  necessities  of  the  district,  and  with  the  com- 
plement of  vessels  that  was  available.  Submarine  patrols  were  established  for  a 
time  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  lightsliips,  upon  the  assumption  that  such 
location  would  be  the  likely  one  to  make  contact. 

It  is  worthy  of  mention  that  no  ship  routed  out  of  the  district  suffered  any 
mishap,  and  the  only  sizable  ship  that  was  lost  inbound  after  routing  instructions 

279 


were  effective  was  the  U.  S.  S.  Saetia,  which  at  the  time  was  out  of  the  routed 
channels. 

As  soon  as  it  was  definitely  determined  that  enemy  submarines  were  operating 
in  this  district  shipping  was  afforded  the  protection  of  convoys. 

Convoys  proceeding  south  were  escorted  by  the  vessels  of  the  Third  Naval 
District  to  the  vicinity  of  Barnegat  Light,  where  these  craft  were  reUeved  by  vessels 
of  the  Fomth  District,  and  in  tarn  escorted  to  the  vicinity  of  Winter  Quarter 
Lightship,  where  the  escort  was  in  turn  assumed  by  ships  attached  to  the  Fifth 
Naval  District. 

The  same  practice  prevailed  for  northbound  convoys.  The  commandant 
of  the  district  in  which  the  convoy  was  made  up  arranged  with  the  next  adjacent 
district  for  the  reUef  of  his  escort,  and  each  succeeding  district  arranging  ia  turn 
for  its  reUef.  These  arrangements  were  made  through  the  communication  service, 
details  of  the  convoy,  the  meeting  places,  and  other  matters  of  a  confidential 
nature  being  transmitted  in  code. 

The  successful  consummation  of  this  work  meant  that  a  considerable  fleet 
of  escorting  vessels,  usually  subchasers  of  fair  speed  and  fair  armament,  should  be 
available  at  all  times,  and  in  many  cases  it  meant  that  they  had  no  sooner  returned 
to  the  base  for  fuel  and  supplies  than  they  were  ordered  out  on  new  duty.  The 
escorts  were  furnished  under  all  circumstances,  except  in  the  most  violent  weather, 
when  the  navigation  of  these  small  ships  was  impossible. 

The  successful  meeting  of  convoys,  one  relieving  the  other,  was  a  good  test 
of  the  seamanship  of  the  men. 

The  use  of  radio  to  make  contact  was  seldom  resorted  to,  and  the  fact  that 
both  the  escorted  vessels  and  the  convoking  chasers  ran  without  running  lights 
made  these  meetings  in  absolute  darkness  doubly  difficult. 

It  is  a  matter  of  congratulation  that  no  ship  escorted  through  the  waters  of 
the  Fourth  Naval  District  suffered  any  mishap,  and  while  no  convoy  was  attacked, 
it  can  be  safely  said  that  the  presence  of  these  miniature  men-of-war  meant  security 
to  the  very  essential  cargoes,  both  in  men  and  material,  that  were  frequently  being 
transported  up  and  down  the  coast. 

From  the  day  that  the  escort  system  was  inaugurated  until  the  day  it  was  no 
longer  felt  to  be  needed,  convoys  were  escorted  through  the  waters  of  the  Fourth 
Naval  District  northward  and  southward. 

The  spring  of  1918  found  the  Fourth  Naval  District  thoroughly  organized  for 
offensive  and  defensive  purposes.  In  November,  1917,  two  subchasers,  the 
No.  209  and  the  No.  211,  were  added  to  the  District  forces,  and  these  were  the  first 
vessels  especially  built  for  submarine  work  available  in  the  District  to  date.  In  the 
months  that  had  elapsed  the  section  base  at  Cape  May  and  at  Lewes,  Delaware, 
had  been  thoroughly  organized  and  equipped.  The  training  camp  at  Wissahickon 
Barracks  was  finished  and  a  steady  flow  of  trained  personnel  was  furnished  to 
ships  both  in  and  out  of  the  district.  There  were  attached  to  the  District  forty-two 
scout  patrol  vessels,  a  great  variety  of  craft  of  var^■ing  sizes,  most  of  which  were 
equipped  with  gasoline  motors.  In  addition,  there  were  ten  vessels  used  as  mine- 
sweepers. On  March  19,  1918,  the  coast  guard  cutter  Itasca  was  assigned  to  the 
District  and  she  was  foUowed  on  April  25th  by  the  coast  guard  cutter  Morrill.  In 
addition  there  was  the  lighthouse  tender  Iris  and  the  lighthouse  tender  Woodbine. 
In  March  the  subchasers  71,  72,  73,  74  and  144  reported  for  duty,  and  in  June 

280 


the  subchasers  180,  210  and  212  were  added  to  the  District  complement.  As  soon 
as  weather  permitted,  all  the  wooden  section  patrol  vessels  were  restored  to  duty, 
having  been  overhauled  during  the  winter.  A  strong  harbor  entrance  patrol 
was  maintained  off  the  mouth  of  the  Delaware  Bay.  A  listening  patrol  estabUshed 
July  19,  1918,  was  maintained  daily  by  two  vessels  until  the  signing  of  the  armistice. 
The  normal  war  activities,  including  investigations  of  mines  sighted,  of  submeuines 
reported  and  assistance  to  vessels  in  distress